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In accordance with its annual custom, 
The Pandex of The Press publishes in this 
number the full text of the President's 
Message to Congress, it being the only one 
of the standard periodicals to afford its 
readers this privilege. 

Much demand for the issue containing 
the Message having arisen heretofore after 
the issue has been exhausted it has been 
arranged to reprint the text under a 
separate cover for so many as may wish 
to preserve it in that form. 

Separate pamphlets containing the 
Message, therefore, may be had by sending 
TEN cents in stamps to the office of The 
Pandex of The Press, 24 Clay Street, San 
Francisco. The pamphlet will also contain 
the best cartoons on the Message. 



Edited by Arthur I. Street 


Series II. 

JANUARY, 1907 

Vol. V, No. 1 

<30VER — Standard Oil Inquiry — Adapted from 
\he Cleveland Plain-Dealer. 

FRONTISPIECE — The Handwriting on the 
Wall — Chicago Tribune. 

EDITORIAL — Rising above the State 1 


Roosevelt Wouldn't Hear 11 

Suits Against the Standard 12 

Old Check on Harriman 14 

Strikes Three Big Systems 14 

Light on Coal Frauds 16 

Caused the Fuel Famine 18 

Light on Railway Dividends IS 

Car Famine up for Inquiry 19 

Indictments Hit Four Railroads 20 

Grip of Lumber Trust ; 22 

Trust in Gunpowder Next 22 

Move on Smelter Company 23 

After Turpentine Trust 23 

Burn Tobacco Factories 23 




Corporations Raise Wages 28 

Pays Uncalled-for Taxes 28 

Chicago Roads to Make Raise 28 

Ryan Leaves Companies 29 

Attacks Money Practices 30 

Points to a Trust Curb 32 

Wants Justice for Railways 32 

Defense of Standard Oil 34 

Wings Sprouting on John D 34 

350,000 Workmen Needed 35 

Labor Adopts Policy 35 

From Napkins to Oatmeal 35 


SONG OF THE PLOW — Verse 38 


Foreign Complexities Confronted 40 

National Trade Hits Snags 40 

Canada Balks at Mall 40 

Offers a Tariff Sop 42 

German Meat Duty Hurts 42 

To Send Poor to United States 42 

In a Diplomatic Duel 44 

Coast Has a Solution 45 

Asiatic Hordes Elsewhere 45 

Hindoos Invade Canada 45 

Trying to Make 111 Feeling 46 

Japan Not after Java 47 

Knows Japan's Defenses 4S 

Complications with Mexico 4S 

Problem Is World Vexatious 49 

America Gets into the Congo 50 

May Lose Big Colony 51 

Move to Overthrow Sultan 51 

Bet'ween Germany and Turkey 51 

Russia in Shah's Kingdom 52 

Austrian Succession a Problem 52 

First School for Diplomats 54 

A New Idea in Warfare 54 


Plan for the Currency 55 

Asks Power Against Trusts 56 

Propose Federal Licenses 56 

More Battleships Needed 57 

Condition of the Finances 57 

Anent the Money Stringency 5S 

Tussles in Congress. The 60 

Fight Against Child Labor 62 

Tariff Revision after 1908 62 

Revision of the Laws 63 

THE HUMOR OF IT — Verse 64 


Plan for Great Sea Canal 65 

Fifty Millions for Waterways 66 

President Promises Aid 66 

Hill Favors Gulf Canal 66 

To Deepen Ohio River 67 

Dream of Maritime Empire • • ■ ■ 68 

President and Panama Canal 73 

Shifts the Canal Heads 73 


Airships in Eery Home 75 

Maxim Confirms the Hope 76 

Professor Bell Also Optimistic 70 

Santos-Dumont Resentful 78 

France Builds War Fleet 79 

British Are Alarmed 79 

Woman Invents a Ship 80 


Old Sheep Wagon, The 
Heartless Sheila Shea. 


Farmers' Loan Bill Passed 81 

Epic of Farming-. An 82 

They Make Railroads Rich 83 

Weapon for War Time. A 83 

New Variety of Alfalfa 83 

Artificial Vegetables 84 

Canning Industry. The 84 

Wealth In the Prickly Pear 84 

New Land of Corn Found 85 

Cotton Clogs Its Road 86 

Raise Chickens or Go 85 

To Saw the Prairie Sod 86 

Breeding a Setless Hen 88 




Love. Labor, and Capital 114 

Drama of Love and Politics 115 

Gossip Costs Four Lives 116 

Forgets Castellane Case 116 

Rabbi Upholds a Play 117 

Mud-rakes Medical Profession 118 

Japanese Dream Play 118 

Realism at Worst in Berlin 119 

Courted by Mail Bight Years 120 

Woman Lashed to Wheel 120 

Chance Freed Him from Prison 122 

Calls Love a Dream 122 

New Marriage Solution 123 

Still a Queen — of Dreams 124 





Religion Needed for Reform 129 

Dawn of a New Religion 131 

Storm about Mr.s. Eddy 131 

Whistling Girl In Church 133 

To Care for the Babies 134 

Religion of the Occult 134 

Objects to Thanksgiving 135 

On the Trail of the Missionary 136 

I.OVE IN THE CAR — Verse 140 




ERRATUMi — Thru an error In the making-up of 
the December Pandex, the frontispieces failed to 
receive credit from the New York Herald. 




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Our Attendance at the Present Time is Fifty -Seven 

Per Cent. Greater than that of the 

Same Date Last Year 


The proprietors are teachers and business men, having worked in 
various capacities, thereby combining theory with practice. In this 
manner you receive the most thorough training possible. 


Placed 330 pupils in lucrative positions during past 
year. Had calls from business men for 707. 

Give us an opportunity to train you thoroughly, and We 
will place you in a good position when competent 



PleaMe mention Tlie I*andex ivhen ivritlnu; to Adi'ertlNcrK. 

Have You Entered 


Conducted by ARTHUR I. STREET, Editor 
"The Pandex of The Press" 

The reception accorded the aii- 
A iiouiicement of the founding of 

JOURNALISM has surpassed 
the most hopeful expectations of all persons as- 
sociated with its organization. 

Apparently it has met a popular need and 
is to become even a broader and more useful in- 
stitution tiian its originatoi's had dared to hope 
that it would be. 

Applications for matriculation have been re- 
ceived from all parts of the country and from 
all classes of people — a fact which the directors 
take to indicate the extent of the public interest 
in the modern press and its high social function 
quite as much as it does the interest of the ap- 
|)licants in their individual opportunities in con- 
nection with the pi'ess. 

Such a JOURNALISM is founded for 

School. the pui-pose of developing, as 

far as possible, the same scien- 
lilic basis and inijiarting the same scientific per- 
sonal training for the profession which it repre- 
sents that have long since obtained in other pro- 
fessions; and it is, thei'efore, peculiarly gratify- 
ing to its originators to discover so widespread 
an interest in the School's undertaking. 

Journalism, undoubtedly, is the most powerfid 
single factor in modern public life, and the sys- 
tematic study of its far-reaching elements, be- 
comes, for this reason, one of the most important 
phases of popular education, albeit thus far one 
of the most neglected phases. As the number, 
scope, and variety of publications thruout the 
world are more likely to increase than diminish 
in the future, the demand for intelligent work- 
ers and leaders must increase proportionately; 

and, unless there is some adequate pi(i\ision 
made to furnish the material, the standard of 
.journalism will not advance in accordance with 
the advance in the other standai'ds of current 

Hitherto the e<iuipment lor the 
Filling .journalistic career in America 

an has consisted chiefly of ex- 

Empty Gap. perience, taken how and where 
it could be found — an excellent 
school, and indispensable. But there has been 
comparatively little, if any, effort to. formulate 
the experience, or to establish pi'inciples and 
teachings by which the acquirements of the pres- 
ent (lay could be preserved and utilized for 
pedagogic purposes. 

Unless THE PANDEX SCHOOL misunder- 
stands it.self, its function will be the bridging 
of this gap. Its founders, thru many years of 
training and a method of study conducted and 
tested in all parts of the world, have elaborated 
a comprehensive and exhaustive system, which 
can be applied to all stages of the profession, 
from the rudiments to the most advanced levels. 
And all the benefits of this system are offered 
free to those who enroll • them.selves in the 
School in the manner already announced. 

The courses open January 1st, simultaneously 
with the issuing of this edition of THE PAN- 
DEX. All that is necessary to secure enrollment 
is that the applicant should be a sub.scriber to 

The applicant should sign his name to the 
following blank, and forward the same to THE 
AND JOURNALISM, 24 Clay Street, San Fran- 

If not already a subscriber, the applicant 
should enclose One Dollar and Fifty Cents with 
the blank, to cover one year's subscription. 


Upon receipt of the blank, matriculation card 
will be forwarded and the applicant duly en- 
tered for the regular course of instruction. 

Copy of the first announcement of the School, 
as made in the December PANDEX, will be sent 
to all who so request. 

Note: — Thru a most regrettable circumstance, it has been found neces- 
sary to substitute another name for that of Mr. W. C. Morrow on the 
staff of the School. Negotiations are now pending whereby it is expected 
to associate with the School in Mr. Morrow's stead, a man of much dis- 
tinction in the Eastern journalistic field, who has affiliated with Mr. Street 
in several of the most important phases of his PANDEX work and who 
has a national reputation for successful encouragement and culture of 
journalistic talent. 



Pandex School of Current History and Journalism 





STATEMENT: I am already a subscriber for the PANDEX 
ORDER: Herewith find my subscription for the PANDEX 

for the period of_ 

^months, during which I wish to become a student of the 




The Moving Finger writes: and having writ, 
Moves on; nor all your Piety nor Wit 
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line, 
Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it. 

— Omar Khayyam. 
—Adapted from Spokane Spokesman-Review. 



-Chicago Tribune. 


JANUARY, 1907 

Series II 

Vol. V No. 1 

Rising Above the State? 

A Rebuke 

from a 


How important it is that the 
T^nited States should be at 
a point where some fixed 
policy and some fixed social 
trend may be considered as "Accepted" 
(see editorial in December Pandex)- becomes 
iipparent when such a crisis develops as has 
been created by President Roosevelt's mes- 
sage on the Japanese question. Not the 
crisis in the relations with Japan, for o!^ 
that there may be none; but the crisis in 
the relations of the nation with itself. 

When a President so popular as Mr. Roose- 
velt and so completely in the common con- 
fidence finds that local conditions in any one 
section of the country Bierit the threat of 
Federal intervention, it is time, indeed, that 
there should be some unity not subject to 
electoral change, ;^ome overwhelming na- 
tional sentimeiit that will survive the con- 
troversial turmoil of State Rights. 

For, after all, State Rights constitute but 
an enlarged phage; of individual rights; and, 
in these .days when the American possessions 
reach out into the far seas and American 
influence dominates in the councils of most 
of the leading powers of the world, it is vital 
that the State, as well as the man, should 

be of as large, altruistic, and unrestricted 
grasp as possible. 


Alreadj-, whether it be in 
contravention of the under- 
lying principles of a demo- 
cratic form of government 
or not, we have grown to the stage wherein 
the purely selfish administration of one's 
personal life and labors is no longer possible. 

'Just Wait Till I Get You Outside!" 

— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 


If somebody is asked to be President of the 
world in the next few years, the Japanese, after 
failing to elect the Mikado, ought to vote for 
Roosevelt. — Chicago New.s 

The very mass and intricacy of the social 
organization forbids it. And, altho it be 
true that the founders of the nation came to 
its soil to escape the severities and exactions 
of a too centralized state and ehareh. cen- 
tralization has again been attained, and the 
shadow of government control stands over 
the w^ork and deeds of every citizen. To say 
to men of trade and finance that they can 
no longer hide their aims and ways behind 
the traditional privileges of what is an in- 
dividual's "own business" may grate 
harshly upon the spirit which has thus far 
been the principal impulse and component 
of American prosperity; but the possibility 
of further national progress under any other 
rule is probably removed forever. 

Business success under the moral of sauve 
qui pent has led too frequently to the son, 
of crafty and astute iniquity which is being 
exhibited to public gaze by the Grand Jury 
inquiries in San Francisco or by the recent 
gambling exposures in New York. It has 
erected too stoutly the domineering com- 
mercialism of trusts and monopolies. It has 
written too long a tale of the subordination 
of labor, of constantly increasing costs of 
living, of ruthless fuel shortages at the open- 
ing of winter, of- such inhuman grinding and 
ruin as followed in the wake of the coal land 
thefts in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. 


And these things public con- 
science no longer approves, 
because public convenience 
can no longer survive under 
Their restraint and regulation have 



become both imperative and unavoidable. 
Were this not true, the corporations would 
never have permitted either the nomination 
or the election of Mr. Hughes, who so merci- 
lessly exposed them in the insurance investi- 
gation ; the agricultural vote would not have 
defeated Congressman Wadsworth who an- 
tagonized the meat inspection bills; Stand- 
ard Oil would have succeeded in overthrow- 
ing Governor Hoch in Kansas ; and Missouri 
would have remained 'pat' in the Republican 
column as a rebuke to the courage and honor 
of Governor Folk. 

With such colossal interests at stake as 
are now represented in the Union-Pacific and 
its limitless chain of affiliations (including 
lately the Illinois Central and, presumably, 
the Baltimore and Ohio), nothing but the 
most unescapable of conditions and circum- 
stances would lead- Mr. Harriman and his 
associates to accept or approve in the 
smallest particle an Administration which 
purposes to take away from private control 
the remaining coal lands, or which threatens 
with further relentless prosecution the men 
who have gained possession of coal and tim- 
ber lands by methods which once were not 
regarded with disapprobation. 

With the ceaseless new interlacing of the 

Design for new police uniform (suggested by 
the recent anti-vice crusade in St. Louis and else- 

— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 



various lines of trade under the control of toward the three-cent fare ; or in the scotch- 

a limited few, so that the trail of the Stand- ing of Mr. Bailey in Texas because he "bor- 

ard Oil appears in everything from petro- rowed money" from the Waters-Pierce Oil 

leum to wheat and from the manufacture of Company in ostensible return for political 

alcohol to the operation of trolley lines in favors. 


Always Forgotten. 

— Chicago News. 

so small a town as Martinez in California, 
il is not likely that anything but helpless 
submission to the trend of the times would 
be driving the sponsors of this interlacing to 
the acceptance of such Berious commercial 
consequences as are involved in the persist- 
ent policies of Dr. Wiley and his cleansing 
of food and standardizing of labels ; or in 
the steady progress of the city of Cleveland 

Influential Men 
Change Their 

Probably few remaining men 
of consequence, either com- 
mercially or politically, fail 
to realize that the order of 
things is irrevocably changed; and that, 
where formerly both ingenuity and defiance 
were employed to evade or overpower the 
wish of the community, the stress of persua- 
sion and the force of prestige can better be 


exerted for the euds that favor the many 
^s well as the few, for the achievements 
.^•hich will bring honor as well as wealth. 

Men like Mr! Hill, the father of the North- ' 
em Securities Company, turn from the mak- 
ing of unlawful mergers to the advocacy of 
iiavi*gable waterways from Chicago to New 
Orleans. Men like Mr. Ilarriman attend a 
Transmississippi Congress and endeavor to 
prove themselves at one in opinion and i)ur- 
ipose with Secretary Root of the President's 
ijeebinet. Even Mr. Rockefeller alters tactics 
.'and receives the subpena of a deputy 
-jUnited States marshal with the grace of a 
'iiost in his drawing room; while Corporation 
;*Counsel Lewis, of Chicago, implacable enemy 
j)of corporations tho he is supposed to be, 
ieiieQunteri*'no obstacles'- in proving, for the 
purposes of taxation, that a single factor 
lies behind the proposed consolidation of a}l 
the light, power, transit, and terminal facili- 
ties in the ^indy City. 

New Line of 


To be sure, the mental 
process involved in such a 
transformation can hai'dly 
be said to have been worked 
out in full, but nevertheless it is indubitably 
true that the wealthy man, as well as the 
average man, has begun to realize -that all 
forms of business occupation, trade, 'or pro- 
fession must hereafter be administered quite 
a>: much in the interest of the community 
as in the interest of the individual. And the 
public controversy henceforth is likely to be 
much more as to the manner and degree of 
adjustment than as to the question of 
whether there .should be any adjustment- at 

Railroads, for instance, not only accept, 
but find themselves unexpectedly pleased 
with the interstate commerce laws passed at 
the last Congress. Beef-packers already 
clamor for more of the inspection which so 
recently they spurned, because they have 
found that, without the Federal seal upon 
their goods, they are again the victims of 
European exclusion. A shortage of cars, 
which but a brief while ago the railroads 
would have deemed it an impertinence upon 
the part of the Government to look into, 

officials of all lines seem now glad enough to 
pass up to the consideration of the public's 
board of railroad directors, the Interstate 
Commerce Commissioners, apparently con- 
■ vinced that the diffiduftres and problems 
concerned are so conyilex'and so extensive 
that, without popular -aids the solution of 
them nuist bo iiidelinitely despaired of. 

„ ,, 'Again, the big shipper, de- 

No More . ,' , n ., ■ , . 4. 

_ ,.„ prived by law or the right to 

Indifference to ^ . , ■ „ 

Law Evasion special; transportation favor 
upon which, in many in- 
sianees^ he has risen to a thrift altogether 
inordinate and-unrighteous, finds, with satis- 
faction, that his own j^leas' may be taken to 
the same court of popular appeal as are the 
pleas of the corporation or of the small 
shipper. And, mollifietl by the assurance of 
a better justice than he has Jjefore been' able 
to expect, he withdraws. ' in proportionate 
<'.egree from the mercantile world the com- 
plaisant indift'erence to law evasion, upon 
which have rested numy of the inequities 
oT the past and out ol which have grown, 
ultimately, the spirit of^graft and the count- 
less phases of petty thievery and extortion 
which are familiar to e^ery community. 

The idea of attaining special 
Disappearance „ ... , 

ravor in business, as has 

„ • , -n been necessary heretofore. 

Special Favor < . •' ' 

thus begins to go into re- 
jected history along with the idea of special 
iavor in Federal polities which President 
Roosevelt long since drc^e out of Washing- 
ton. Men begin to realize that it is as un- 
just to seek to buy in trade by the coercion 
of money what in the fairness of open bar- 
gain would be denied them as it is to gain 
in legislation by the trickery of the lobby or 
the play of the "long green." 

So, too, the labor unions, moved by the 
Icnowledge that the Federal Government is 
aiding them in their contention for an eight- 
hour day, and feeling secure in the con- 
sciousness that when an anthracite or a 
bituminous coal strike seems unavoidable, 
there is a disinterested chief executive or a 
fair-minded national committee (now about 
to be re-enforced by the President's applica- 



Design for Special Cell to Be Occupied by L ocal Traction Magnates Responsible for Fatal 


— Chicaao News. 


tion of the funds of the Nobel peace prize) 
to whom arbitration may safely be referred, 
come to have little hesitation in clearing 
their own consciences of the blunders and 
crimes of a teamsters' strike in Chicago; 
and they look forward hopefully to the pos- 
sibilities that lie before them of electing 
their own men to Congress or of constituting 
their own factions within the legislatures of 
the various states. 

Thus, in all classes, the conception of in- 
dividual occupation is widely and liberally 
expanding. The laboring man moves steadily 
forward to the point where his progress will 
seem better even to him if bereft of the 
malice and envy by which he has justified 
the regime of a Ruef; and to where there 
need be no reddened passions attempting to 
elect a governor in the Empire or any other 
state. The corporations, released from the 
pressure of a perjured system of special 
privilege and robbery, which extends from 
the poor devil who is used by coal and tim- 
ber embezzlers to file fraudulent claims on 
government lands to the influential merchant 
who asks reduced rates because of the mag- 
nitude of his patronage, begin to be able to 
heed the equities of wages, to remember that 
the yearning for better homes, better dress, 
more travel and more pleasure is as apt to 
grow among the workmen and their families 
as it is among the employers and managers, 
and to exercise their philanthropic instincts 
to prevent the need of philanthropy as well 
as to rectify ills which once have come into 


a New 


Instead of giving their ab- 
sorbing heed to the making 
of money, the successful men 
are learning to shift to the 
making of society. They realize that exactly 
in proportion to the ability they or their 
forbears have exhibited in amassing indus- 
trial and financial thrift is the responsibility 
for further directing, administering, and 
improving social conditions. Henceforth, 
probably, more and more will men like Mr. 
Low, of New York, discover the civic value 
of remitting unpaid taxes, even tho no de- 
mand is made for the same by public ofificials. 

More and more will men like Mr. Rudolph 
Spreckles, of San Francisco, even tho said 
to be piqued into it in the first instance by 
financial animosity, find the gratification and 
perhaps the thrill that comes of standing 
sponsor for the clearing out of a city's rot- 
tenness and the preparation of a community 
for adequate building up to its naturally 
distinguished and noble destiny. 

And, if this evolution transpires, we shall 
be gravitating rapidly toward that desirable 
era wherein, as in the older countries of 
Europe, it is as usual to see the conscientious 
man of wealth in the national parliament as 
it is to see the poorer patriot whose very 
poverty tempts both him and his betrayer to 
the treason of bad legislation. We shall in 
reality be going back to where the Republic 
was at its beginning, when Washington, as 
the nation's chief, was one of its richest 
landed proprietors and at the same time its 
most trusted patriot; or to the days of the 
Civil War when Jay Cooke, as the nation's 
financial agent, was at the same time one of 
the nation's most unselfish upholders. Or, 
we are moving forward to where, as in En- 
gland, we shall have a Burns for a member 
in the Federal Cabinet, as we already have 
an E. E. Clark in the Interstate Commerce 
Commission; or to where, as in Germany, a 
Bebel will be a leader on the floor of the 
Parliament; or to where, as in France, the 
Socialistic and Labor influence has been 
making and unmaking ministries for more 
than a decade. 


Rid of 


In other words, we shall 
reach the stage where we 
shall be divested of this 
"commercialism," which has 
been mocked at and derided by the observers 
in Europe ever since the days of Charles 
Dickens, and which but lately caused the 
great Russian novelist to write of New York 
as a mere show place of gold and golden 
vanity. Leader and common people alike, 
we shall be able to lift our eyes above the 
vision of the counting table ; we shall be able 
once more to shape up the larger ideals of 
statecraft, the forecasts of which are already 
being felt in the return of the country at 



now, of course, he's 'the man behind the shovel!' 

large to an era of public speech and oratory. 
Our cities, our commonwealths, our Federal 
Union we shall be able to imbue with prin- 
ciples that reach far out beyond local 
bounds, preparing each for more intimate 
participation in the other and the Union for 
wiser and stronger sharing in the union of 

In the Event 

of Public 


If, therefore, in the shaping 
of our destinies, it be muni- 
cipal ownership that we are 
to go into, we shall not find 
before us the crossings and obstacles and 
disheartenments that have stood in the way 
of Chicago's efforts to acquire her street 

've been digging up this stuff for years, and 

- — Chicago News. 

railways, or the corruption and selfishness 
that have threatened to render abortive the 
desire of San Francisco to provide herself 
with her own water supply. If it is to be 
state ownership that we are to go into, we 
shall be qualified to escape the pitfalls that 
buried the proposal of Kansas to have her 
own oil refinery, or the barbed fences that have 
rendered difficult the functions of many state 
railroad commissions. Or, if it is to be gov- 
ernment ownership, sheer and outright, with 
all its enormous magnitude !»nd all its de- 
fiance of the impracticable, we shall have 
men who will have the same pride in success- 
ful management that the Harrimans or the 
Rogerses or the Armours or the Camcies 



now have in what has been done under the 
opposite law of individual supremacy. 

Or if, on the far contrary, we are to have 
none- of these radical advances, but are to 
abide within the custom and form by which 
we have lived thru one hundred , and thirty 
years of republican entity, nevertheless we 

will have been trained to that edge where, 
tho every shop might have to be "open" 
and every port free to the entrance of every 
race, such a condition of indulgence and 
laisscz faire might cheerfully and welcomely 
be indulged for the sake of the greater gain 
io be thus acquired and the greater contribu- 


-Detroit News Tiibuno. 

shall have the men who will have been edu- 
cated up to the same enlarged and highly 
visualized standards, the same spreading 
and loftier conceptions of social life and 
function that lift the cities out of their city- 
hood, the states out of their statehood, and 
the nation into the great plane of inter- 
national courtesy and federation. 

Where a city, such as San Francisco, is 
not only in great strife but also in the heart- 
breaking throes of a catastrophe's after- 
math, both moneyed man and workingman 

t\on thus to be rendered to the future good 
of all cities and peoples. 

Value of 

Where a state, such as 
Georgia, in common with 
many of its sisters of the 
south, falls under the agony 
of a negro problem, both white men and 
black will have been led to the conviction 
that there is probably a larger efficacy, in 
calling the councils of the nation into con- 
ference than in driying at solution with the 













impetuosity of a Tillman or the bigotry of 
a Vardaman. 

Where an entire continental slope, such as 
that which trims the Pacific from Nome to 
San Diego, is in urgent quest of the trade of 
an awakening and enlivening Orient, the 
merchant and the editor will have discovered 
that there is a commerce of race as well as 
of coin, and that where goods eased in pine 
and goods cased in bamboo mingle in one 
invoice, it may be better to give common 
education to the children who dress in 
trousers and those who wear the sam, and 
to lend, in this as in other respects, the same 
dignity of consideration from nation to 
nation that each by itself thinks it deserves. 

Where a nation such as the United States, 
from shore to shore and boundary to bound- 
ary, finds the impact of both social and mer- 
cantile exchange hardened and irritated by 
the aspersities of a high and prohibitive 
tariif, the statesmen and the common voters 
alike will be ready to give ever greater en- 
couragement to the "intermediate tariffs" 

offered by a friendly neighl»or on the north 
or to the meat concessions of an admiring 
monarchy across the Atlantic, or the petro- 
leum relief proffered by a land of dreams 
and art which already has led the way into 
an international institute of agriculture. 

Thus, from the lowest rung 

„ , to the highest, will there 
Toward „ 

Internationalism <^*^^«1°P ^"PP°^t *°^ ^hat 
phase of an able, daring, 

and earnest Chief Executive's policy which 
surmounts current conditions and looks 
away into a progressive and pioneering 
future. Thus will there be internally and 
externally, within nation, state and city, the 
unity of leavening principle which, in the 
final analysis, is the probable end toward 
which President Roosevelt's messages 
"preach," and which rises superior to all 
Japanese school questions, as it does to those 
of railroad regulation, of corporation pub- 
licity, of Panama Canal construction, and of 
labor adjudication. 

THE OCTOPUS— "This Begins to Look Serious." 

— Deti-oit .Toiirnal. 



UKCLE SAM— "It's your move, Mr. Rockef eUer. ' ' 

— Spokane Spokesman-Revi«w. 

AH Along the Line 





WHETHER or not the controversy over 
the schools in San Francisco eventu 
ally forces the United States into unpleasant 
relations with Japan, the movement within 
the American nation which makes for the " 
purification of its trade and the re-standardiz- 
ation of its morals continues with promising 
persistence. The President, who was re- 
sponsible in the main for its initiation, re- 
mains the guiding and impelling impulse, 
and one by one the factors which have been 
most strenuously opposed to him acknow- 
ledge the virtue of his program. His war- 
fare at length has touched the most strongly 
intrenched of the corrupt business elements, 

and there is scarcely an institution amen- 
able to prosecution that is not subject to 
some manner of official attack. If there is 
to be an ultimate recasting of commercial 
principles, it is evident that the time of its 
final acknowledgment is not far removed. 


Standard Oil Men Tried to Prevent the Govern- 
ment's Prosecution. 

That the new movement has indeed pene- 
tiated into the most powerful of modern 
organizations is evident from the following 
from the Kansas City Times: 

Washington. — The suit filed by the attorney 
general against the Standard Oil Company in the 



federal court at St. Louis is the beginning of a 
'legal contest that is to be one of the great eiforts 
of President Roosevelt's administration. The 
trust has exerted its utmost influence to forestall 

'the government's action. Those most active and 
prominent in its councils })ersoually have argued 
the matter with President Roosevelt. Henry H. 
Rogers and John 1). Archbold came to Washing- 
ton and spent hours at the White House, but 
every move they have made has only served to 
strengthen the determination of the president to 
take action. 

The suit filed in no way involves a criminal 
prosecution. Such action is reserved for further 
consideration by the Department of Justice. In 

•the statement issued by Attorney General Moody 
regarding the suit he does not refer to the possi- 
bility of a criminal action. . It is known, ho\y- 
ever, that the administration will stop at nothing 
it can hope to achieve in its plans to put the 
Standard out of business as a monopoly. 


Federal Government Fines Would Wipe Out 
Company's Capital Stock. 

The comprehensiveness and the relentless- 
ness of the Federal prosecution is manifest 
in the following from the correspondence of 
"Raymond" in the Chicago Tribune: 

Washington, D. C— If the United States should 
win all of its cases of alleged rebating now pend- 
ing in the court, and the maximum fine should be 
imposed on each count of each indictment it 
would wijje out the entire capital stock of the 
Standard Oil Company. 

It is too much to expect that courts and juries 
would sustain every count of every indictment, 
but it is not too much to expect that enough of 
these counts shall be established according to 
law, and that enough fines shall be imposed to 
make the Standard Oil Company, great though it 
is, howl for mercy. 

These rebate suits are entirely independent of 
the proceedings instituted at St. Louis which 
seek to dissolve the great Standard Oil system 
itself. The rebate suits proceed upon indict- 
ments, and the corporation is charged with being 
guilty of a misdemeanor in accepting secret fa- 
vors from railroads. If found guilty each misde- 
meanor is punishable by a fine of from $1000 to 

Taking advantage of this fact, the government, 
through the Department of Justice, has endeav- 
ored to collect evidence to establish thousands of 
different cases, eaeh a separate misdemeanor and 
each punishable on its own account. 

The plan of campaign has been carefully 
studied out, evidence has been piled up in the 
offices of the different district attorneys, and 
there is ground for the belief that enough heavy 
fines can be imposed to cripple the financial end 
of the Standard Oil Company for a little while, at ■ 

Everybody can see that a great system like the 
Standard, which is not only capitalized for $110,- 
000,000 but which has properties of its own 
amounting to many times that sum, would not 
care much for an odd fine of $20,000 now and 
then. It would be a mere pin prick. It could be 
made, up by a fraction of a cent added to the 
price of oil in some territory, and in many cases 
the maximum fine for an individual offense would 
not begin to equal the actual profit to the Stand- 
ard from that particular secret rate of which 
that misdemeanor was but a type.- 

No Danger of Prison. 

When Senator Elkins secured the passage of 
his rebate act he slipped through a provision 
which eliminated the imnishnient of imprison- 
ment, so that neither tlie heads of the Standard 
Oil Company nor their agents nor clerks stood in 
the slightest danger, of getting behind the bai's 
in spite of repeated violations of the law. 

The heavy fine was substituted for imprison- 
ment and the Standard Oil Company, the steel, 
coal, and other trusts went on receiving and de- 
manding rebates in the belief that they could not 
be reached except for individual instances where 
the fine would not be more than a mere fraction 
of the total financial benefit to be gained by the 
violation of the law. 

A slight experience convinced everybody that 
the elimination of imprisonment was a great mis- 
take in the enactment of the Elkins law, and that 
it was probably done at the instance of the 
Standard Oil and other great combinations. Im- 
piisomnent as a punisliment for rebate was re- 
enacted by the new railroad rate law, but of 
course it does not cover any offenses before that 
law went into effect. 

Rogers Laughs No More. 

For a time H. H. Rogers and his associates in 
the great system had the laugh on the govern- 
ment. They knew they could be convicted of 
some rebates here and there, but fines had no ter- 
rors for them. They did not realize, however, 
that every time a separate shipment of oil left 
Whiting for Evansville or East St. Louis under 
a secret rate in defiance of law a separate offense 
against the people of the United States was com- 

Shrewd as these men were they had forgotten 
this, or else they did not think the government 
would be honest enough to take advantage of the 
situation. But President Roosevelt, Attorney 
General Moody, and their subordinates have in- 
stituted a series of prosecutions under the crimi- 
nal section of the Elkins law,- the like of which 
probably has never been seen in this or any other 
country. Indictment has been piled on indict- 
ment, and each has been fortified by instance 
after instance of the illegal practice, each form- 
ing a separate count of the indictment, and each 
creating a separate liability to the maximum fine. 

This has been a distinct plan of campaign on 
the part of the government, and so it comes, as I 
stated in the beginning, that if the suits insti- 
tuted this fall are successfully carried to the end, 
and the maximum penalty on each count is in- 





flicted, the capital stock of the Standard Oil 
Company and its reserve will be wiped out of 
existence, and there will be an additional liability 
of $50,000,000 or so, for the stockholders — Rocke- 
feller, Rogers, and the rest of them— to make 

These suits have been filed in the northern dis- 
trict of Illinois at Chicago, in the western dis- 
trict of Tennessee, and in the western district of 
New York, in which places it has been found a 
simple matter to secure the strongest kind of evi- 
dence. Taking the total number of counts al- 
leged in each indictment, it is possible to make 
up a striking table of the maximum and minimum 
fines, as follows: 

Minimum Maximum 
fine. fine. 

Illinois $6,428,000 $128,560,000 

Tennessee 1,524,000 30,480,000 

New York 146,000 2,920,000 

$8,098,000 $181,960,000 


U. S. Finds a Provision for Attacking His Bail- 
way Mergers. 

Intimately affiliated with the Standard Oil 
is the extensive railroad system controlled, 
or said to be controlled, by Edward H. Har- 
riman. That something is vulnerable here, 
too, from the national point of view, is shown 
in the following from the Chicago Inter- 
Oeean : 

Washington D. C. — In the sweeping investiga- 
tion that the Interstate Commerce Commission is 
making into the affairs of the Union Pacific 
merger with the Illinois Central, B. & 0., and 
other Harriman properties, the original federal 
charter of the Union Pacific has been carefully 
studied and it has been discovered that the gov- 
ernment has a grip on the situation entirely dis- 
tinct from the powers conferred on the Commis- 
sion by the new rate law. 

The act of Congress chartering the Union Pa- 
cific provides: "That whenever it appears that 
the net earnings of the entire railroad and tele- 
graph, including the amount allowed for services 
rendered for the United States after deducting 
all expenses, including repairs and the furnish- 
ing, running, and managing of said road, shall 
exceed ten per centum upon its cost, exclusive of 
the five per centum to be paid to the United 
States, Congress may reduce the fare thereon if 
unreasonable in amount, and may fix and estab- 
lish the same rate by law. ' ' 

Provisions Still in Effect. 

When a reorganization of the system was ef- 
fected some years ago the government waived 
its five per centum share in the earnings of the 
road, but, it is claimed by the experts who have 
studied the charter, that the remaining provisions 

of the law still stand and are in full effect. As the 
cost of the property and not the capitalization 
made the basis of the computation of the earning 
capacity, it is claimed that the road has long 
passed the point where the government's regu- 
lating powers become effective. 

Under the new rate law a complaint is needed 
before an action for the change of rates becomes 
a matter for the Commission to investigate. In 
the light of the charter provision this will not be 
necessary in the case of the Union Pacific, though 
as a matter of fact the Interstate Commission can 
conduct any investigation it sees fit, involving 
the operation and manipulation of railroad prop- 
erties. As generally understood, the investigation 
now going on in regard to the Harriman lines is 
for the use of the attorney general in basing a 
suit on the same lines as the Northern Securities 


Hill Beads Fall Under the Ban of the Anti-Trust 

An interest to which Mr. Harriman and 
his associates were at one time attached, but 
which is said to have reverted to its original 
sponsors, is assailed in the same manner that 
Mr. Harriman 's mergers are assailed. Said 
John Callan O'Laughlin in the Chicago 
Tribune : 

Washington, D. C. — An investigation of the 
three great railroad systems of the country — the 
Union Pacific, the Great Northern, and the 
Northern Pacific — has been begun by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 

The Union Pacific inquiry, or to give it the 
title used by the Commission, the "Harriman 
situation," arises through an alleged combina- 
tion in restraint of trade and commerce of the 
Union Pacific, the Oregon Short Line, the Oregon 
Railway and Navigation Company, the Southern 
Pacific and affiliated lines, and the Illinois Cen- 

The Great Northern and Northern Pacific in- 
quiry is for the purpose of ascertaining if these 
roads are observing the decree of the Supreme 
Court, which dissolved the Northern Securities 
Company, a holding corporation which had com- 
bined them, and if, as alleged, they are suppress- 
ing competition by an agreed-on rate, and are 
under common operation. 

Although the Commission has been considering 
the advisability of instituting these investigations 
for some time, and the Great Northern and 
Northern Pacific investigation actually has been 
in progress for nearly two weeks, it was Presi- 
dent Roosevelt who directed that they be begun 
with as little delay as the other business before 
the Commission permitted. Indeed, the presi- 
dent has stated he had more complaints against 
the Union Pacific than against any railroad sys- 
tem in the country, not only in the form of writ- 




— St. Louis Republic. 



ten communieatioii, but by way of personal rep- 

These complaints have extended over months 
and have charged that the Union Pacific and the 
Oregon Short liine had absolutely killed compe- 
tition so far as the Southern Pacific was con- 
cerned, and that the Oregon Short Line controls 
the Oregon Eailway and Navigation Company 
and has a majority of the stock of the Southern 
Pacific, electing the governing board of the latter 
line. It has been claimed that the two roads have 
a common operating agent and a common traffic 
manager. The effect has been to keep up rates 
and to enforce harmful measures, from which 
shippers on and between the two lines have no 

A statement issued by the Interstate Commei-ce 
Commission this afternoon ainiounces that an in- 
vestigation is to be made "into the relations be- 
tween the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific 
railroad systems growing out of their common 
management and control." 

The Commission has selected Frank B. Kel- 
logg, who was one of the government's counsel 
in the Standard Oil prosecution, and his partner, 
C. A. Severance. Their investigation, according 
to a decision just reached, will extend from 
New York to San Francisco. 


Existence of Ring to Steal Fuel Tracts in Utah, 
Colorado, and Wyoming is Proved. 

One of the most potential factors in the 
building up of the great railroad systems 
out of which Harriman and Hill have been 
evolved has been, of course, the western coal 
supply. How this has been handled, and 
how the handling of it is being haled into 
court, are told in part in the following by 
"Raymond" in the Chicago Tribune: 

Washington, D. C. — There will be plenty of 
time between now and March 4, when he retires 
from the Interior Department, for Secretary 
Hitchcock to throw a flood of light upon the 
operation.s of the corrupt ring which has been 
stealing coal lands in Wyoming and other western 
states from the government in the interest of the 
various railroad corporations. 

The facts developed by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and by the investigation 
which has been going on here under the personal 
supervision of Secretary Hitchcock have estab- 
lished the existence of the frauds beyond the 
shadow of a doubt. The railroads employed 
"dummies" to enter these lands, and one ques- 
tion before the Department now is to fix the re- 
sponsibility, because it is manifest that these 
frauds could not have been committed in this 
particular way without collusion on the part of 
a whole string of government officials. 

The present indications are that the clews 

originally developed in Wyoming, Colorado, and 
Utah lead more or less directly into the general 
land office in Washington. Mr. Binger Hermann, 
of Oregon, now a member of Congress from that 
state, is to be tried next month for acts he is 
alleged to have committed as a commissioner- 
general of the Land Office. He resigned from 
that office, and his alleged malfeasances were 
developed afterwards, and, in fact, after he was 
elected congressman. 

Richards Asked to Explain. 

Commissioner Hermann was succeeded in 
charge of the General Land Office by W. A. Rich- 
ards. He received his appointment through the 
influence of Senator Warren, to whose state Mr. 
Richards was credited. The present commis- 
sioner sent in his resignation some time ago, but 
since then he has been called upon for a report 
in regard to certain gross irregularities in the 
West. Until that report is approved it may be 
a matter of uncertainty whether the acceptance 
of his resignation may not be recalled, and Mr. 
Richards forced to appear before the secretary 
of the interior to answer to the charge of inter- 
fering with the orderly conduct of ])ublic 

The secretary of the interior is anxious that 
the entire matter should be cleared up before 
Mr. Richards retires from the Land Department, 
and this seems to be more necessary because 
there are no criminal charges against him what- 
soever, but there are serious allegations that he 
has allowed personal influences to interfere with 
the proper conduct of his bureau, and that he 
has paid more attention to the personal influence 
of Senator Warren than to the positive ordera 
of the secretary of the interior himself. 

Frauds Beyond Question. 

There is, of course, no question as to the ex- 
tent of the frauds and the criminality of the men 
who perpetrated them upon the government. In 
the affidavit made by Special Agent Myendorff 
and the testimony submitted by him to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission at Salt Lake recently 
it was alleged specifically that Senator Warren 
tried to induce him to drop the investigation 
of the Union Pacific and its connection with the 
coal-land frauds. It also was asserted that the 
General Land Office in Washington had for years 
refused to listen to his report, hampered him in 
every way possible, and finally had transferred 

The witness went on to say that Senator War- 
ren had copies of his confidential reports to the 
secretary of the interior and had used these in 
an effort to compel him to stop his investigations 
so as not to interfere with the re-election of Sen- 
ator Clark. 

It was also alleged that George F. Pollock, 
chief of one of the bureaus of the Interior De- 
partment, advised him to destroy four affidavits 
which he had obtained against the Union Pacific 
Railway Company. 

Pollock Denies Charges. 
Senators Warren and Clark are both away 




St. Louis Republic. 



from Washington. The commissioner-general of 
the Land Office declined to see anybody at all in 
regard to these charges. He is still at work on 
the report which Secretary Hitchcock demanded 
of him some time ago. Chief Clerk Pollock said 
emphatically that he never saw and never was 
informed of any affidavits from Mr. Meyendorff 
or anybody else which did not in regular course 
become and remain a part of the records of his 
office. He says emphatically that he has never in 
any way aided or countenanced the failure to 
prosecute the land frauds in Wyoming or any 
other state. 

The inclusion of Mr. Pollock in the charges 
made at Salt Lake City is particularly important 
because he was being pressed as successor to 
Commissioner Richards. The publication of 
these charges, of course, will prevent his consid- 
eration for that place by the president. He was 
urged by Mr. Richards himself and by Senator 
Warren, it is understood. 


Shortage in Coal Results From the Thefts by 
the Railroad Monopolists. 

A consequence of the coal crimes, and 
something which in itself is likely to call 
for the same examination and correction 
tliat other questionable institutions are re- 
ceiving, is reflected in the following from 
the Chicago Record-Herald: 

Salt Lake City, Utah. — Owing largely to the 
monopoly which has been built up by fraud, per- 
jury, and wholesale stealings in the vast coal 
fields of the West, the entire country this side of 
the Missouri River is in the grip of the greatest 
fuel famine ever experienced. 

So extensive and general has become the short- 
age in the coal supply that industries are being 
crippled, manufacturing paralyzed, mines and 
smelters closed, the business of the farm and of 
the cities seriously retarded, and even life in the 
homes of the people is being threatened. The 
coal producers and the transportation companies 
are totally unable to cope with the situation, 
although they are bending every energy to re- 
lieve the urgent necessity of the people. 

The shortage in coal — due partially to the 
fruits of the greed and monopoly — grows daily 
and has become alarming. So inadequate is the 
present supply of coal to meet the demand that 
in this city there is not a single coal firm which 
will guarantee the delivery of a single ton of 
coal to the home of a consumer under fourteen 

Storm to Mean Disaster. 

The business of this city and of every large 
center almost from the Canadian border to the 
Rio Grande and from the Missouri River to the 
Pacific Coast is running on one or two days' coal 
supply. Should there come a bad storm in the 
mountains sufBcient to hinder still further trans- 

portation of coal, the situation in almost the en- 
tire West would become dangerous. Both the 
transportation and the coal companies are bend- 
ing every effort to relieve the situation. Their 
managers in.sist that it is the wonderful and un- 
precedented growth of the country which is caus- 
ing the shortage. 

The people who are suffering and who are 
clamoring for coal insist that their sufferings are 
due from the monopolistic grip which the Gould 
and the Harriman systems have succeeded in 
placing on the coal industry of Wyoming, Utah, 
Colorado, and other western states. In proof of 
this contention they point to the disclosures re- 
cently made by the investigation by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 


Interstate Commerce Commission About to Inves- 
tigate Complaints of Undue Rates. 
How much is at stake in the fight of the 
corporate interests against the new conditions 
is reflected in the following from the New 
"i ork Herald: 

Washington, D. C. — So many complaints have 
been received that railroads are increasing divi- 
dends while failing to give adequate car service 
that the Interstate Commerce Commission is 
about to start upon one of the most important 
investigations in its history. 

It will take up the question of increased divi- 
dends in connection with assertions that they are 
the result of unduly high rates. In connection 
with the shortage of cars there are intimations 
that some shippers are favored at the expense of 

Generally railroad rates have not been reduced. 
The tendency has been to higher figures, but the 
principal grievance of shippers is that they can 
not get the cars to transport their goods, and 
these complaints have become general. They 
have been pouring in on the Commission at the 
rate of hundreds a day. 

All this time the railroad stockholders have 
been receiving melons and increased dividends. 
One example was the ten-per-cent dividend of 
Union Pacific. Another was the ten-per-cent 
extra dividend of the Lackawanna. Still another 
was the division of valuable rights bv the Pull- 
man Company. 

The investigation of the increased dividends 
in connection with the shortage of rolling stock 
will be undertaken by the Commission imme- 
diately, and be followed up by an investigation 
of the relation between increased dividends and 
the increased cost of articles of necessity. 

Saving on Rolling Stock. 

One point that is made by many complainants 
is that where railroads are practically in com- 
bination, as is the case with the anthracite lines, 
instead of taking all the traffic they can get and 



providing facilities for it, they are saving money 
on rolling stock and favoring certain shippers in 
certain localities. 

If this can be established it will prove the ex- 
istence of a widespread evil that the rate bill 
was designed to cheek, and make necessary rec- 

eompanies to do business at lower rates. Many 
of the petitioners assert that if the traffic com- 
panies, by reducing grades, removing curves, and 
improving terminals and switching facilities, are 
able to haul freight at less cost there should be 
a reduction of freisrht rates. 


— Chicago Tribune. 

ommendations to Congress for the passage of a 
law empowering the commission to compel rail- 
roads to supply cars and rolling stock for all 
traffic offered. 

Petitions received by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission also recite exorbitant dividends paid 
by all the express companies, and these are put 
forth as conclusive evidence of the ability of the 


Commission Will Investigate Excuses Roads 

Have Been Making Shippers. 

Year after year, the public has found the 

railroads less able to handle with success 

and satisfaction the great business given into 



their hands ; and latterly the inabilities have 
concentrated in a national complaint against 
a so-called "car famine." What this means 
and the extent to which it demands public 
correction are to be inferred from the fol- 
l(>winf; in the Chicago Record-Herald: 

Washington. — The Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission is to take cognizance of inci'cased rail- 
road dividends in connection with railroad rates. 
Prior to that it will investigate the car shortage 
that has aroused the conntry-wide wave of com- 
plaint from shippers. 

Within a short time the Commission ninst de- 
cide whether increased dividends arc ))rima facie 
evideuce of excessive rates and whether the al- 
leg:ed inability of the railroads to handle all 
traffic offered is merely a cloak for discrimina- 
tion against particular shippers and localities. 
Complaints of shortage of cars have been ponring 
in upon the Commission for months, and they 
have been looking for some authority under the 
law for taking the matter up. Coming from all 
.sections of the country and from different sta- 
tions along the same line of railroa<l, it was evi- 
dent that the conditions complained of are gen- 
eral, and, whatever the cause, they presented a 
condition of aifairs affecting shipjiers evei'vwhere. 

Most Important Question. 

There is notiiing in the law requiring railroads 
to furnish sutficient accommodations to accept 
all traffic offered. It is to be supposed that the 
railroads are out after business, and the law- 
makers never contemplated a deluge of com- 
plaints from shippers who are unable to get their 
goods to market. No question pending before 
the Commission at this time is as important as 
that raised by the shortage of cars. 

Shippers everywhere are protesting that be- 
cause of the refusal of railroads to accept and 
transport freight offered they are suffering .great 
loss. This is caused in some instances by the 
deterioi'ation of freight denied transportation, 
and in all instances by the loss of a ])rofitable 
market. The Commission, recognizing the im- 
perative necessity of relief for the shippers, has 
been seeking an excuse for delving into the prob- 
lem. It has been found, and an inquiry will soon 
be set afoot which will develop whether there is 
an actual inability on the part of railroads to 
handle all trallic, and if so, the cause. 

Various Excuses Oflfered. 

Different railroad officials offer different ex- 
cuses for a condition which all admit with re- 
gret prevails. In some instances inability to fur- 
nish cars is given. In others the motive power 
of the railroads is taxed to the utmost and no 
more freight can be hauled, while in other cases 
inadequate terminal and switching facilities are 

The Commission has been informed that what- 
ever the cause, the railroads are taking advantage 
of the congestion to discriminate between ship- 
pers and localities. Some preferred shippers 

manage to get practically all the cars they want, 
while others in the same locality are unable to 
get any. Some localities are denied cars, the . 
(Commission has been advised, while near-by com- 
petitors are given preference. 

This question of discrimination gives the Com- 
mission sufficient authority to go into the whole 
question. It will be learned whether the railroads 
have been derelict in not providing a(le(|uatc fa- 
cilities to handle all the traffic reasonably to be 
expected. There is adequate power in the pres- 
ent law to all cases of discrimination be- 
tween individuals and localities, under whatever 
cloak it may be practiced. 

Congress Might Act. 

Should it be found that the railroads are fol- 
lowing the common practice of large combinations 
to reap large and unnatural profits by restricting 
the supply, arid liot permitting it to equal the 
demand, a question will be jiresented to Con- 
gress calling for additional legislation. If it is 
true, as asserted by shippers, that the railroads 
are maintaining high rates by failing to provide 
sufficient accommodations, it is believed Congress 
will not be slow in enacting a law if one can be 
const itutionallv framed. 


Minneapolis Grand Jury Returns Ten True Bills 
in Grain Rate Investigation. 

One of the niost successful litics of attack 
taken by the Federal authorities is disclosed 
in the follo\vin<j from the Chicago Tribune: 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Railroad and grain com- 
panies were astounded and the rebate evil dealt 
a staggering blow in this state when the grand 
jury investigating grain rates returned indict- 
ments against the Wisconsin Central, the Minne- 
apolis and St. Louis, the Chicago, St. Paul, Min- 
neapolis and Omaha, and the Great Northern rail- 
roads and the McCaull-Densmore Grain C<im- 

Six indictments containing one hundred counts 
and naming five ollicials were returned against 
(he Great Northern Railroad, the officials named 
being Freight Agents David G. Black, Minneajm- 
lis; W. W. Broughton, A. G. McGuire, (1. I. Swe- 
ney, and H. A. Kindjall, St. Paul. 

One indictment, containing .seventeen counts, 
was returned against the Wisconsin Central, the 
officials named being Freight Agents Burton 
Johnson, Milwaukee, and G. T. Huey, Minne- 

One indictment, containing five counts, was re- 
turned against the Minneapolis and St. Louis, the 
officials named being Freight Agent J. T. Kenney, 

One indictment, containing fifty counts, was 
returned against the Omaha road, the officials 
named being Freight Agents F. C. Gifford, Min- 
neapolis; E. B. Ober and H. M. Pearce, St. Paul. 

The indictment against the McCaull-Densmore 




Apropos of the fact that District Attorney Jerome, of New York, after months of investi- 
gation, reported against the prosecution of the insurance men. 

—New York Wmld. 



Company contains five counts, charging the ac- 
ceptance of rebates. The railroads and their 
officials are indicted for giving rebates. The 
minimum penalty for conviction on each count 
is $1000 and maximum $20,000. 

The general offense alleged in the railroad in- 
dictments is the absorption of grain elevation 

The indictments came as a complete surprise to 
the railroads. Each company had disclaimed any 
criminal intent in its relations with the grain 
companies concerning which its employees had 
given testimony before the jury. The companies 
received no inkling of the fact that they were 
threatened with indictment. No member of the 
grain company was called to the stand, no rail- 
road men indicted who had testified before the 
grand jury. 


Inquiry Proposed by Senator Kittredge "Will Dis- 
close Most Grinding of Monopolies. 

In the course of time, probably, the Fed- 
eral probe will touch every line of trade 
vhieh affects modern life, as may be judged 
from the following from the New York 
World in regard to one of the most im- 
portant of commodities: 

Washington. — The investigation of the lumber 
trust, as proposed in a resolution offered by Sen- 
ator Kittredge, is regarded by members of Con- 
gress as of more general interest to all the people 
than any previous inquiry of the kind. Every 
household in the country where furniture is used 
is interested. 

Farmers in such states as do not produce tim- 
ber have reached a point where they are help- 
less. They can not afford to pay the high prices 
demanded for lumber, and improvements have 
been checked. This is especially true in the Da- 
kotas and other prairie states. The special agents 
sent out by the Interstate Commerce Commission 
under the La Follette resolution for a general 
investigation of the relations existing between 
railroads and elevators met with countless ap- 
peals for an inquiry into the lumber trust. 

At present the lumber trust is the most com- 
plete of all the great combinations. It is oper- 
ated without a holding company or any outward 
evidence of being a monopoly. It fixes the prices 
for all lumber. These prices have steadily ad- 
vanced for fifteen years and are now approach- 
ing the prohibitive point, although there is more 
lumber on hand in yards and storehouses than at 
any previous period. 

The lumber trust operates through several or- 
ganizations. These are the Hemlock, Pine, and 
Hardwood Associations. Every branch of the 
business is covered by an association. Repre- 
sentatives of the concern meet every month and 
fix prices. Lists are sent out to all customers. If 
any retail dealer disregards the fixed price a boy- 

cott is established and he is forced out of busi- 

Through this system operated under a "gentle- 
men's agreement," all competition has been en- 
tirely eliminated. No portion of the country has 
been overlooked and all the lumber product of 
the United States is controlled by the lumber 
trust. The capital of the trust, according to the 
last census, is $611,000,000. Lumber is the fourth 
largest industry in the country, being surpassed 
only by the steel and iron, the textile, and the 
meat-packing industries. 

By continually increasing the price of lumber 
sold to furniture dealers for the last fifteen years 
the price of all household goods made of wood 
has gradually advanced. There is no relief for 
the manufacturers of furniture, as they must pay 
the prices demanded by those selling the neces- 
sary lumber. 


Government is Preparing for Attack in Court on 
Monopoly in Explosives. 
In the following item from the Chicago 
Kecord-Herald is an exhibit of the manner 
\a which the unlawful businesses have in- 
jured the Federal Government itself: 

Washington. — The gunpowder trust is next on 
the list for decapitation. An investigation of its 
operations and methods has been under way for 
several months, and while officials of the Depart- 
ment of Justice refuse at this time to say any- 
thing as to their plans, enough is known to war- 
rant the statement that action looking to dissolu- 
tion of this particular octopus will be taken soon 
after the change in the head of the denartment 
occurs, which will be immediately after the ap- 
pointment of- Attorney General Moody to the 
supreme bench is confirmed by the Senate. 

Attack on the gunpowder trust is not to be 
made in the courts alone, either. Following the 
move made last winter to start the government 
in the manufacture of smokeless powder, and 
thereby break up the monopoly now enjoyed by 
the Dupont international combination. Congress 
is to be asked at the coming session to appro- 
priate a sufficient amount of money to establish 
plants to manufacture all the smokeless powder 
required for the use of the navy and our coast 

Robert S. Waddell, president of the Buckeye 
Powder Company of Peoria, 111., who largely was 
instrumental in forcing the appropriation of 
$165,000 to establish the first unit in the scheme 
of government control and operation of its 
powder-making, has been in Washington the last 
few days arranging for his winter's campaign to 
complete the project. 

Measures probably will be introduced in Con- 
gress looking to the appropriation of $3,000,000 
for three smokeless powder plants, two to be 
located on the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards, 
respectively, where they will be easy of access 
for the navy, and the third, under the direction 



of the War Department, to be located somewhere 
in the interior, where it will be safe in case of 
invasion by a foreign enemy. 

Mr. Waddell, aside from conducting his cam- 
paign for government manufacture of gunpowder, 
has been engaged recently in gathering material 
for local grand-jury action against agents of the 
trust in Chicago, Peoria, and other points, and 
these prospective proceedings promise some start- 
ling sensations. It is understood also that Mr. 
Waddell during his visit here has been spending 
considerable time in conference with Department 
of Justice officials, and it is probable such con- 
ference has an important bearing on plans now 
forming to dissolve the combination. 

Oil Company, because the government agents 
were concentrated on this work, where the first 
blow has fallen. 


Department of Justice Will Follow Standard Oil 
Case With Proceedings Against Many Others. 
Tho less talked of than many of the other 
monopolies, none is likely to prove more 
amenable to reproof and reorganization 
along the new lines than the one described in 
the following from the New York Herald : 

Washington, D. C. — Actual proceedings against 
the Standard Oil Company, now under way in St. 
Louis, are not to be permitted to stop the investi- 
gation of the government into the business meth- 
ods of other trusts that are believed to be amen- 
able to the provisions of the Sherman anti-trust 
law. Suits against these other law-breaking cor- 
porations will not be withheld until the conclu- 
sion of the case against the Standard Oil, as 
under the most favorable circumstances with 
cases advanced to an early hearing before the 
higher courts, it is recognized that many months 
may elapse before a final determination can be 
reached in the Supreme Coijrt. For this reason, 
the fight on the trusts all along the line will be 
commenced as soon as the government is ready to 
bring the actions. 

One of the trusts to feel the weight of the gov- 
ernment 's displeasure will be the American 
Smelting and Refining Company, which within 
the last few days has endeavored to compel the 
treasury to pay tribute to its control of the bul- 
lion market of the country, in the purchase of 
silver bullion for the coinage of subsidiary silver. 
Instead of complying with the demands of this 
Company, Secretary Shaw refused to buy at all, 
and intimated that the methods of the Smelter 
Company would be made the subject of an imme- 
diate investigation. 

Meanwhile the agents of the Department of 
Justice and of the Bureau of Corporations are 
busily engaged investigating the business meth- 
ods of the sugar trust, the tobacco trust, and one 
or two other combinations that are charged with 
violating the law. The evidence secured against 
them has not been gathered on the elaborate 
scale carried out in connection with the Standard 


Federal Attorneys Collecting Evidence Against 

Still Another Concern. 

New York. — ^Energetie efforts are being made 
by the Federal Government to clip the tentacles 
of what has come to be known as the turpentine 
trust, and the United States district attorney 
here is co-operating with the United States attor- 
ney for the southern district of Georgia. The 
turpentine 'combine' has its headquarters in the 
South, and many complaints have been received 
by the government authorities concerning its op- 
erations. It is alleged that a hard-and-fast agree- 
ment exists between the various constituent com- 
panies belonging to the so-called trust, and that 
the business and territory have been divided up 
in regular octopus fashion. A representative of 
the district attorney at Macon, Ga., it is learned, 
has been in conference with the district attorney 
here, and it is understood the government is hot 
on the trail of the concern. 

It is intimated that the turpentine trust, so 
called, is influenced and controlled to a greater 
or less degree by the Standard Oil Company, al- 
though government officials are disposed to be 
reticent on this phase of the question. It is 
known, at any rate, that Standard Oil interests 
in the past have endeavored to absorb the turpen- 
tine and rosin industries, but how far they have 
succeeded, if at all, remains to be disclosed. The 
determination of the government to dissolve the 
Standard Oil trust, if possible, by means of the 
suit in equity that is to be filed in the United 
States Circuit Court at St. Louis, and its an- 
nounced intention to make it hot for the Standard 
all along the line, appears to justify the opinion 
that the Federal authorities strongly suspect that 
intimate relations exist between the two enter- 


Rioters Disarm Kentucky Town Marshal and 
Seize Water Works and Telephone Office. 

The risk which trusts and unlawful busi- 
ness institutions run, when they disregard 
and challenge too far the popular sentiment, 
is illustrated in the following from the 

Louisville, Ky. — Fire kindled by a mob of 
masked men, at an early hour recently, destroyed 
the tobacco stemmeries of John Steger and John 
G. Orr, at Princeton, Ky., the latter controlled 
by the Imperial Tobacco Company, of New York. 
The loss is estimated at about $170,000. Several 



small dwelling houses in the vicinity were also 
partially destroyed, but no person was injured. 

Tlie work of the mob is believed to be only a 
furtherance of the agitation by the tobacco rais- 
ers against the tobacco trust. The organization 
of farmers is known as the Dark Tobacco Grow- 
ers' Protective Association, but it is not known 

that any member of that organization was in tlie 

The ill feeling began about six years ago, when 
the Italian Government sent agents into the dark 
tobacco field. These agents paid such higli prices 
for the tobacco that others were driven out of 
the tield. 



WHEN the business world is being so 
severely overhauled and regauged, it 
is to be expected that the political world 
HLUst follow in the same course, especially 
in so important a state as New York, wherein 
all political precedents have recently been 
broken and all political organizations 
severely shaken. The following from the 
New York Herald, therefore, is a story of 

Out of the chaos of the campaign just ended 
has emerged a realignment of political parties in 
the state of New York. The political transforma- 
tion which has taken place is engaging the care- 
ful study of the political leaders of all shades of 
opinion. It has not yet been mapped and charted. 
Its shoals and quicksands remain to be discov- 
ered. To what it will lead and where it will end 
nobody as yet can tell. 

By grace of Charles F. Murphy and W. R. 
Hearst, a Republican governor will once more 
take the oath of office in Albany with the begin- 
ning of the new year, though all the other elective 
offices in the new administration will be filled by 
Democrats. This mixed condition of affairs in 
the state capitol is typical of the tangled situa- 
tion which pervades the politics of the state. 
While political lines have been merged at many 
points, the party machines on both sides have 
suffered so severely that they will require prac- 
tical reconstruction before they will be in running 
order again. 

From one end of the state to the other the 
shadow of the new political twins. Murphy and 
Hearst, has fallen on the Democracy. With 
ruthless determination to control the party ma- 

chinery at all hazards, they have entered upon 
a policy of boldly driving out of the party ranks 
all Democrats who refuse to accept Hearst and 
his doctrines as Democratic, or wlio hesitate to 
hail the leader of Tammany Hall as the master 
of the party in the state. They are widening by 
every means at their command the Democratic 
split caused by the sandbagging of the Buffalo 
convention by Mr. Murphy in the interest of Mr. 

Republican Discipline Relaxed. 

That Republican atfairs are in slightly better 
condition is due to the popularity of President 
Roosevelt and the fact that he is now tacitly, if 
not openly, recognized as the head of his party. 
But tlie discipline in the party is greatly relaxed 
and there is nearly everywhere a lack of unity. 

B. B. Odell, Jr., who forced himself into the 
leadership two years ago while still governor by 
the open use of the state patronage to compel 
obedience, has been ousted from the chairmanship 
of the State Committee. The influence of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt anil his immediate followers 
brought about the nomination of Charles K. 
Hughes, who was not the candidate the Repub- 
lican "bosses" would have chosen had they been 
left to their own devices. 

That tlie new governor will perform the task 
he was elected to perform is the general expecta- 
tion in the Republican organization. The leaders 
look forward to a genuine housecleaning, after 
January 1, 1907, and they do not like the pros- 
pect, even while they realize that the future suc- 
cess of Republicanism in the state absolutely de- 
pends upon a reorganization of the state govern- 
ment in a thorougli and workmanlike manner. 

Mr. Odell and the small group of leaders who 
went down with him are seeking to magnify Mr. 
Hearst in the hope that he will bring about a gen- 



eral smashing of botli inachines. whicli will en- 
able them to regain the places from which they 
have been ousted. 

Timothy L. Woodruff, the new chairman of 
the Republican State Committee, is not and prob- 
ably will not be the leader of his party. He lost 
his own county of Kings, although aided by a 
Democratic defection which brought more than 
twenty thousand votes to the head of the Repub- 
lican state ticket. The weakness of the Repub- 
lican machine was demonstrated in the election 
returns. Thousands of the Republican voters in 
the interior of the state either went over to the 
enemy or did not vote at all. Mr. Hughes was 
elected by Democratic votes. 

Mr. Hughes' Victory Personal. 

Although Mr. Hughes was elected, his triumph 
was a personal one, due to the fact that the peo- 
ple of the state had confidence in his integrity, 
while they felt a deej) distrust for Mr. Hearst 
and his methods. There was undoubtedly 
treachery in the Republican camp, and there is a 
deep feeling of discouragement in the organiza- 
tion over the defeat of the state ticket with the 
exception of its head. Every leader is blaming 
his neighbor and seeking justification for him- 
self. Many of the chairmen of the Republican 
county committees feel they were ignored and 
neglected during the campaign as of no import- 
ance. Insurance interests, which had felt the 
Hughes dissecting knife, threw their influence 
against him. Friends of Governor Higgins did 
not exert themselves overmuch to roll up a large 

There is no Republican "boss" to hold the 
party reins with a firm grasp and compel obe- 
dience. Senator Piatt 's day has passed. Mr. 
Odell's attempt to make himself dictator of the 
party cost him his leadership. President Roose- 
velt can not give his attention to the details of 
party management even if he were so disposed. 

The Republican organization, therefore, has 
become an oligarchy filled with animosities and 
private quarrels. The warfare for the control of 
the machine which smouldered all through the 
Odell administration has ended with his defeat, 
and for the present there is a truce. 

There is no truce, however, in the Democratic 
ranks. Mr. Murphy has come to the conclusion 
that the time is at last ripe for the extension of 
the power of Tammany to the entire organiza- 
tion of the state. He made W. J. Conners chair- 
man of the State Committee as his representative, 
and he is now in fact, temporarily, at least, the 
Democratic state leader. Taking advantage of 
the demoralization of the Democratic machine 
created by Samuel J. Tilden and maintained by 
David B. Hill, he is seeking to read out of the 
party all Democrats who rejected Mr. Hearst or 
who will not submit to his will, so that he may 
build up a new organization, with himself in 
supreme power. 

The realization of Mr. Murphy's ambition has 
been the signal for an organized revolt headed by 
a score of the more influential leaders outside 

the city. Such men as William M. Osborne, of 
Auburn ; D. Cady Herrick, John N. Carlisle, John 
B. Stanchfield, George Raines, Charles N. Bulger, 
and many others are in more or less open rebel- 
lion against Murphy and Hearst. They have be- 
gun a systematic organization of the Democracy 
in the up-state counties, with the avowed purpose 
of defeating the aggressions of the Murphy- 
Hearst alliance. They are determined, if pos- 
sible, to repair the neglect which permitted Mr. 
Hearst to gain a foothold in the organization 
and to drive Mr. Murphy back to the Westchester 
line. There has been no ees.sation in the Demo- 
cratic warfare since election day, and there is 
likely to be none until the issue has been decided. 

Murphy Weaker in City. 

But while Mr. Murphy is .seeking to subdue 
the up-state counties his power in the city is by 
no means secure. The organization in Kings, 
under the leadership of Senator McCarren, laughs 
at his assumption of authority and his threats 
to exclude it from the party. Richmond is in 
revolt and Queens is preparing to rid itself of 
Joseph Cassidy, the Murphy figure-head, set up 
after the regular delegates from the county had 
been driven out of the state convention. The 
Democrats of Queens overthrew Mr. Cassidy in 
the primaries and the organization there is in 
the hands of his enemies. 

Mr. Murphy's most immediate danger, how- 
ever, is in Tammany itself, where Mayor McClel- 
lan has at last found a leader with courage and 
ability enough to attack the "boss," even though 
he is now backed by the support of Mr. Hearst. 
This leader is Maurice Featherson, admittedly 
one of the ablest and most successful leaders in 
the Tammany organization. Mr. Featherson, if 
he can, will depose Mr. Murphy from the leader- 
ship when the Tammany general committee reor- 
ganizes in the last week in December, and the 
fight for control promises to be one of the most 
memorable in the history of the organization. 

Mr. Murphy and his friends profess to be con- 
fident he will manage to hold the organization 
against Mr. Featherson, but there is an uneasy 
feeling among the Tammany leaders who will be 
called upon in the next six weeks to make their 

The Feathei'son. forces are already laying claim 
to the support of fourteen of the thirty-live 
assembly districts. There has been no real fight 
against Mr. Murphy since the mayor decide>\ to 
get along without him at the beginning of his 
second term. 

Every Tammany leader depends very largely 
upon his ability to hold office himself and to keep 
his followers in office. In addition he must be 
able to procure favors for his friends and to pun- 
ish his enemies. The followers of Mr. Mui-phy 
are seeking to raise the confidence of their adhe- 
rents by promising that places will be found in 
the state departments under the Democratic state 
officials for all Murphy men who are displaced by 
the contest for the control of the local organiza- 



Not Much Patronage. 
This assurance has made some impression, and, 
of course, it can not be verified until the new 
administration has come into power after the re- 
organization has taken place in the General Com- 
mittee. As a matter of fact, however, there will 
be very little patronage at the disposition of the 
state officials. There are few places to be par- 
celed out, as the great majority of the state em- 
ployees are under the civil service and in depart- 
ments controlled by officials appointed by the 
governor and not elected. The state patronage 
which will fall to the share of the Democratic 
officials will be insignificant in comparison with 
the patronage at the disposal of the mayor and 
the heads of his departments. 

Richard Croker's expected arrival in this 
country early in December is attracting much 
attention in Tammany, in view of the contest be- 
tween Messrs. Featherson and Murphy. It was 
Mr. Croker who first made Mr. Featherson a dis- 
trict leader, and the former master of Tammany 
has watched his progress ever since with a 
friendly interest. Mr. Croker's retirement from 
the leadership of Tammany has left him without 
direct authority in the organization, but he still 
has friends there, and whatever influence he may 
be able to exert will be thrown in favor of Mr. 

If Mr. Featherson succeeds in defeating Mr. 
Murphy the latter 's campaign to get absolute 
control of the party machinery in the up-state 
counties will collapse and the conservatives will 
have no difficulty in regaining the mastery. If 
Mr. Murphy gains the victory the contest for 
control will go on, backed by the organization in 
Kings and by at least a strong minority in Tam- 
many Hall. The mayor has still three years to 
serve before his term ends, and the local battle 
will be renewed in the primaries. 

It is the opinion of the most farsighted of the 
leaders of both parties that whether the radical 
movement in this state shall gain strength or 
decline between now and the next election will 
depend mainly upon the administration of Gov- 
ernor Hughes and the work of the legislature. 
If the demand for reform, both in legislation and 
in administration, is satisfied there will still re- 

main the radical element which is the basis of 
the Hearst movement and which will be satisfied 
with nothing short of a redistribution of prop- 
erty; but the dissatisfaction with existing condi- 
tions and the distrust of the old parties which 
caused thousands of voters all over the state to 
vote for Mr. Hearst as a protest will very largely 

The best judges of the situation in the state 
sum it all up in the remark, " It 's up to Governor 
Hughes. ' ' 


"I do not control one mile of railroad." — E. 
H. Harriman. 

Is that so? 

Well, now, do you know 
Some people think that you 
Have corralled a few 
And laid them away 
For a rainy day? 
Not many, of course, but enough 
For a bluff 
When the game 
Calls for the same, 
If it ever does. 
My suz! 
Ain't it funny 
How a chap with money 
Acquires a reputation 
Among the common herd 
Of really and truly being 
A Julius Caesar bird. 
When he ain't anything but a dove 
Chuck-full of brotherly love- 
For everything that has a worm 
He needs in his business? 
Oh, say. 

Ain't it rotten to think that way? 
It's a sham dame 
To queer the fair fame 
Of a saint 

Who is what he is and ain't what he ain't. 
Don't it? 

What do you suppose inspires 
People to be such liars? 
Huh? —W. J. L., in New York World. 


"What are yez goin' back agin to the house fer?" 

"Sure, I forgot me pipe an' I'll just go back an' lave me tobaccy pouch, 
aggravate me, knowin' I couldn't smoke all day." 

It would only 

— Judge. 





Wages zuid 

Standard Oil 

Makes an 



— Adapted from New York World. 





GIVEN the benefit of the doubt, even the 
big corporation man may be said to be 
beginning to emerge from the period of 
eastigation and enforced reform with a lib- 
eral inheritance of the spirit of the times 
and an apparent conviction that t^e com- 

munity in vrhich he seeks to be a leader, 
either financially or otherwise, will be the 
better both for him and for others if he does 
his part in the reforming. With this faith 
in mind, he finds himself raising wages, pay- 
ing hitherto evaded taxes, withdrawing 



from directorates to which it is impossible 
that he give just or adequate attention, and 
even proposing new laws for the restraint 
of trusts and receiving government sub- 
penas as cheerfully, almost, as if they were 


General Movement to Meet Anti-Capitalistic 
Sentiment Said to Be the Cause. 
The strife of November 6 was scarcely 
over and time had hardly elapsed to permit 
of a study of the returns, when a number of 
the largest of the corporations announced a 
general advance in wages. Said the New 
York Herald: 

It became known in Wall Street recently that 
practically all the great railroad and industrial 
corporations of the country, the affairs of which 
are directed from this city, have decided to in- 
crease the jjrevailing rate of wages to their em- 
ployees. It was predicted that the action of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad management in increas- 
ing the wages of its array of 165,000 men nearly 
$12,000,000 would soon be followed by all the 
important railroad and industrial corporations 
of the United States. 

The Standard Oil Company has decided to in- 
crease the wages of its 60,000 employees in dif- 
ferent parts of the United States. The increase 
will be carried out through the company's sub- 
sidiary corporations. 

Information also reached the city from Mon- 
tana that the Amalgamated Copper Company, 
generally known as the Copper Trust, which em- 
ploys nearly 15,000 men in the mines of Mon- 
tana, has already made a proposal to its em- 
ployees increasing their wages about 10 per cent. 
The United States Steel Corporation, the 
world's largest trust, which advanced the wages 
of its army of 175,000 employees in March, 1905, 
without solicitation from the men, is also con- 
sidering the question of a wage increase. 

The Philadelphia & Reading Company, the 
New York Central, the Lackawanna, and other 
Eastern roads have either been requested to ad- 
vance the wages of the employees or have taken 
some steps to do so. 

Cost of Living Higher. 
One reason for the general tendency of trust 
managers to increase the wages of the workmen 
was brought out recently by a trade agency, 
which reported that the present cost of living 
was the highest in twenty years. According to 
Dun's Index Number of commodity prices pro- 
portioned to consumption, the average cost was 
$106,683 on November 11 last. Compared with 
a year ago on the same date the present cost, 
ns shown by the Index Number, is $3 higher. 

Another reason given by financiers is that the 
industrial corporations are all in a highly pros- 

perous condition and the scores of plants are 
being worked to their full capacity and under 
high pressure. Under these conditions it is said 
to be the desire of the managements of the 
larger corporations to have their workmen par- 
ticipate in the prosperity. 

Men of prominence in the financial world saw 
in the concerted action of the great corporations 
a desire to checkmate the growing tide of antag- 
onism to corporations such as was brought out 
in the recent election. The discontent among 
the laboring element, the higher cost of living, 
tiie lowered purchasing power of the dollar unit 
and the effect of the disclosures of corporate 
abuses, it is generally admitted here, forced the 
corporations to adopt a more liberal policy to 
the workingmen and thereby conciliate the active 
antagonism which was reflected in the election. 


Seth Low, Former Mayor of New York, Sets a 
New Example in Honesty. 
With wages being raised without coercion, 
the following story of another act done with- 
out coercion is doubly meaningful. It is 
from the New York Times : 

Ex-Mayor Seth Low paid $27,397:28 in back 
taxes voluntarily recently. It came to Controller 
Metz in the form of a check from Mr. Low 's 
counsel, Edward M. Shepard, for the payment 
of taxes which, through indefiniteness in the law 
governing the taxation of mortgages in 1901 and 
misajaprehension of its terms, Mr. Low had failed 
to pay at that time and also in 1902 and 1903. 

Mr. Low deducted from his personal estate 
liable to taxation a mortgage on certain prop- 
erty belonging to him. Just learning that he was 
not entitled to make the deduction as the law 
then read, because technically the bond secured 
by the mortgage was not his own, he determined 
to pay forthwith the additional sum that was 
legally due the city in 1901 from his estate with 
interest at 6 per cent. 

In his letter to Mr. Shepard the ex-Mayor said: 

"The law that constrains me to such action 
because the mortgage upon mv property did 
not secure my own bonds seems to be very in- 
equitable, and I shall be very glad if this incident 
does something to bring about an amendment to 
the law." 

New York City citizens have been knocking 
at the doors of the Legislature for several ses- 
sions to get amendments to the mortgage tax law. 
They have obtained some, but never all that they 
believed mortgage conditions in that city de- 


Increase of $30,000,000 Depends on Employees 
Giving Up Eight-Hour Day. 
The following from the New York World 



Kansas City, Mo., Nov. 22.— The spectacle of W. J. Bryan, commoner and former advo- 
cate of radical currency reforms, leading Leslie M. Shaw, Roosevelt's Secretary of the Treas- 
ury and stand-patter, to the rostrum, was afforded delegates to the annual Congress of Trans- 
Mississippi Commercial Clubs here to-day. — Dispatch to the Inter-Ocean. 

, — Chicago Inter Ocean. 

gives a little further idea of the extent of 
the increased wage movement: 

Chicago. — The railways of Chicago contem- 
plate increases in the wages of their men be- 
tween now and January 1 which will make the 
combined incomes of the 450,000 employees of 
these lines from $25,000,000 to $30,000,000 
greater in 1907 than in 1906. 

The only thing that may prevent the pro- 
posed advances is the inability of the railroads 
and their trainmen to reach an amicable agree- 
ment. The engineers, conductors, firemen, brake- 
men, and other trainmen have asked for 10 per 
cent advances and for an eight-hour day. 

Railway officials indicate that they are will- 
ing to give the 10 per cent increase, but they are 
not willing to grant the demand for an eight- 
hour day, and their present disposition is to 
withhold the wage advance until the eight-hour 
dav demand is withdrawn. 


Capitalist Withdraws From Many Holdings in 
Interest of Limited Few. 

While the cartoonist seems to east doubt 
upon the sincerity of the incident described 
in the following from the New York World, 
it yet is consistent with other manifestations 
of reform among the financial leaders: 

Thomas F. Ryan, who controls the majority 
of the stock of the Equitable Life Assurance So- 
ciety, made the following announcement recently 
through an intermediary: 

'•I have resigned from the directorates of a 
large number of railroads and other corpora- 
tions. My accumulating interests and responsi- 
bilities render it impossible for me to attend so 






Rate two ■ 
years ag-o. 

Eng-ineers of passenger trains $ 3.88 a day 

Engineers of freight trains 3.82 a day 

Engineers on yard locomotives 3.27 a day 

Firemen on passenger engines 2.20 a day 

Firemen on freight engines 2.25 a day 

Firemen on yard engines 1.96 a day 

Conductors of Passenger Trains 3.65 a day 

Conductors of freight trains 3.41 a day 

Brakemen of passenger trains 1.91 a day 

Brakemen of freight trains 1.82 a day 

Flagmen on trains 1.91 a day 

Baggage men on trains 2.18 a day 

Section men and trackmen 1.35 a day 

Machinists and mechanics 72.73 month 

Gatemen and ferrymen 45.00 month 

Clerks, average 72.73 month 

NOTE — The present raise of ten per cent in wages appli 
Pittsburg and Erie "who are now receiving $200 or less a 
about 95 per cent of the Eastern service. 


Present rate 
of wages. 

$ 4.27 a day 
4.20 a day 
3.60 a day 
2.42 a day 

2.47 a day 
2.16 a day 
4.01 a day 
3.75 a day 
2.10 a day 
2.00 a day 
2.10 a day 
2.40 a day 

1.48 a day 
80.00 month 
49.50 month 
80.00 month 

New rate 

of wages. 

$ 4.70 a day 

4.62 a day 
3.96 a day 
2.66 a day 
2.72 a day 
2.38 a day 

•4.42 a day 
4.12 a day 
2.31 a day 
2.20 a day 
2.31 a day 
2.64 a day 

1.63 a day 
88.00 month 
54.45 month 
88.00 month 

es to all employees east of 
month. The order Includes 

— New York World. 

many directors' meetings and to properly dis- 
charge my obligations to the stockholders con- 

"I have also reached the conclusion that I 
can best serve the financial and fiduciary institu- 
tions with which I am associated by severing my 
ofHcial connection with the railroad and indus- 
trial corporations with which they necessarily 
have constant business relations. I hope and 
believe that the decision which I have made will 
prove to the advantage of all the interests for 
which my friends hold me responsible and of 
the gentlemen with whom I have so long been 
associated in the various corporations from 
whose boards I have resigned." 


Jacob H. Schiff Charges New York Bank With 
Immoral Methods of Loaning. 

Still another evidence that the financial 
men do not look with approval upon many 
practices vt'hieh formerly were generally ac- 
cepted and endorsed is to be found in the 
following from the New York Times : 

Jacob H. Schiff, at the Chamber of Commerce 
meeting recently, in the course of an attack on 
what he described as the 'barbarous conditions' 
in the call money market on the New York 
Stock Exchange, accused one of the prominent 
financial institutions in Wall Street, which, how- 
ever, he did not mention by name, of calling its 
loans when money is lending at 6 or 7 per cent 
and taking advantage of the demand thereby 

created, and the consequent rise in rates, to put 
out the funds again at the increased premium. 

Mr. Schiff introduced a resolution, which was 
adopted by the Chamber, calling on the Commit- 
tee of Finance and Currency "to examine into 
and report upon the practicability of devising 
means through which the interest rate beyond 
6 per cent upon call loans made at the New 
York Stock Exchange can be better regulated 
than is the case at present." 

Speaking in support of his resolution, Mr. 
Schiff said he could not believe that the con- 
ditions in the call money market were a neces- 
sary evil. 

"While at times," he continued, "under ex- 
isting methods and conditions, money is liable 
to advance beyond the legal rate of interest, I 
can not, for a moment, believe that it is neces- 
sary for the rate of interest on demand loans at 
the Stock Exchange to advance on a single day 
from 6 to 7 per cent in the morning to 25 or 
30 per cent and higher in the afternoon. It must 
be in the long run destructive of the best inter- 
ests of the country, and there must be means, 
even if they are difficult to find, to better regu- 
late such a state of affairs. Such means may be 
actual methods or moral methods. It is stated, 
for instance, that one of the prominent — and 
I do not hesitate to say so, because it is stated 
with much emphasis — that one of the prominent 
financial institutions in this city, which is a large 
loaner of money, makes it a rule, when money 
in the morning is only 6 or 7 per cent, to call 
its loans, and to wait until the rate has ad- 
vanced, which it naturally does, in consequence 
of large calls, to consent to loan its money again. 

' ' Such methods are reprehensible, and ought to 
be corrected by moral pressure and moral means; 




'8^^.VH vliiiDE'R'-rD 

— Chicagfo Record-Herald. 



but there must be actual means, too, possibly 
in the Clearing House, and possibly in the Stock 
Exchange itself by which this barbarous con- 
dition may be corrected. I believe the Commit- 
tee on Finance and Currency, if it looks into the 
question, can suggest something which to some 
extent, at least, will improve the existing state 
of affairs." 


Beef Trust Attorney Suggests a Special Com- 
mission for Corporations. 

The following may or may not have its 
genesis in the discovery by the corporate in- 
terests that there is no reversal possible for 
the existing movement toward corporate 
regulation. The item is from the Chicago 
Record-Herald : 

A commission similar in power, scope and com- 
position to the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
and which will have full charge of the corpora- 
tions of the country, is the recommendation of 
John S. Miller, who probably will be the chief 
attorney for Standard Oil in the Government at- 

Mr. Miller prophesies that Congress will pro- 
vide such a tribunal either directly by its own 
act or by an enlargement of the provisions of 
the Sherman anti-trust law, the act which the 
Standard Oil Company and its individual fac- 
tors are now up against. 

Indicating that his estimation of the Sherman 
anti-trust law was that it was incomplete, 
equivocal, and weak, Mr. Miller all but declared 
tnat the energies of the Standard attorneys 
would be devoted to an attack directly upon the 
act itself. 

"Nobody knows just what the law permits 
and what it prevents," he said. "What is neces- 
sary is a statute whereby the business man, the 
merchant, or the manufacturer can read the law 
and know when he is in danger of violating it 
without having to see a lawyer. That is impos- 
sible under the law as its provisions now stand. 

Remedy is Offered. 

"The proper remedy, it appears to me, 
would be to provide for the appointment of a 
commission to be constructed along the same 
lines as mark the powers of the Intei-state Com- 
merce Commission. I would have this new com- 
■ mission a part of or a bureau under the Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor. Its duties would 
be to exercise general supervision of corporations. 
It would construe the law, it would make its in- 
distinct provisions clear, and it would make of 
practical operation a law which now fails to 
perform the functions for which it was in- 
tended. ' ' 

Mr. Miller could not indicate the length of 
time which he deemed would be necessary for 

completing the case which was opened at St. 
Louis Thursday, in view of the fact that he was 
hot able to state definitely that he would be of 
counsel for the Standard Oil Company. 

"Ordinarily it would take up a great deal of 
time simply in taking the necesstiry testimony, 
where there was no h.ard-fough^, 'ontcst to im- 
pede the progress of the hearing," was the sig- 
nifieant statement of Mr. Miller. 


J. J. Hill Urges Some of the Difaculties Which 
They Meet. 
As the corporations clear themselves of the 
burden of fighting the popular will it be- 
comes increasingly easy for them to make 
such appeals and pleas as the following, from 
the Chicago Record-Herald: 

Chicago. — In an indignant outburst in the 
midst of a speech James J. Hill, president of 
the Great Northern Railroad, protested against 
the agitation against the American railroads 
and plans for Government ownership of the lines. 
He declared political agitators are hampering 
the Nation's growth. 

"To-day the entire country is suffering from 
want of transportation facilities to move its 
business without unreasonable delay," he said. 
"The prevailing idea with the public is that the 
railways are short of cars, while the fact is 
that the shortage is in tracks and terminals to 
provide a greater opportunity for the movement 
of the cai-s." 

"It has been noticed," he said emphatically, 
"that from June 30, 1895, to 190.5— ten years— 
the growth in ton mileage was 110 per cent. The 
growth in the mileage of railroads to handle 
that traffic was 20 per cent. There's where you 
stand to-day — you can see it in that brief com- 
parison. There's where the whole country 
stands. The traffic of the country is congested 
beyond imagination. The commerce of the coun- 
try is paralyzed, which, continued, means slow 

"More cars? Yes, we need more cars, but we 
need also cars of greater capacity, heavier 
trains, and more miles of railroad to haul them 
over. In ten years the railroads of the country 
expanded 20 per cent for the handling of a 
business that increased 110 per cent. Suppose 
you are able in the near future to increase that 
expansion 50 per cent? That will still leave 
40 per cent a year of the business without any 
facilities for taking care of it. 

"It is estimated that from 115,000 to 120,000 
miles of track must be built at once to take 
care of this immense business. But to build 
that amount will cost as much as the Civil War 
cost, at least. It will cost from .$4,000,000,000 
to .$5,000,000,000. A thousand million dollars 



a year for five years will scarcely suffice. Why, Civil War of half the consequence of this one. 

there is not money enough nor rails enough in Why, you can't go out and contract with any 

all the world to do this thing. railroad in this country to move 500 cars of 

"And if the rails were piled up ready for the freight from here to New York in thirty days. 


-St. Louis Republic. 

undertaking and if the money were in the bank And the i-ailroad could not deliver it if it should 

to-day, it would be impossible to get • the labor contract to do it. ' ' 

with which to do it. Labor in the mines, in the ,(fri,„..„ :^'-^^4. _■ u'L:iJ:i 

forest, in , the quarry are behind a stone wall 
which they can not scale. 

.."I tell, yon there is no question since the isting. " ' 

"There is'iiot money enough' available to bring 
relief to this situation under the conditions ex- 




Foreign Representative of the Trust Declares 
Corporate Form Necessary. 

Even the Standard Oil itself has encour- 
aged itself to appeal to the public, as witness 
the following from the Chicago Tribune : 

The Standard Oil Company, in a statement 
just issued over the signature of William H. 
Libby of the company's foreign department, 
maintains that the form of its corporate organ- 
ization is necessary if the company is to hold its 
large foreign trade. Mr. Libby holds the com- 
pany is obliged to compete with combinations of 
oil producers in every other country and cites 
many examples of such combinations. 

It is only by combination, he insists, that 
American oil producers can compete in the for- 
eign markets. He insists the business of Amer- 
ican oil producers would be crippled abroad in 
the event of the success of the Government 's pro- 
ceeding to dissolve the company. The statement, 
which is in the form of a letter to the editor, 

"The desirability, and the necessity almost, 
of the concentration of brains and capital have 
been recognized without exception in all the im- 
portant petroleum producing countries of the 
world. Not only have corporations and holding 
companies on the general lines of the Standard 
organization and other similar American organ- 
izations been created, but several have become 
international in their scope. 

"These amalgamations administered by some 
of the best industrial brains and most prominent 
capitalists of Europe, so far from receiving the 
opposition of governments, press, or communi- 
ties, so far from being regarded as 'conspiracies 
in restraint of trade' or as ingenious subterfuges 
in trade autocracy, are regarded abroad as being 
the natural pathways of legitimate, economic, 
progressive commerce, especially commended 
when the motive is emphasized of eliminating 
the American product from competitive markets. 
Against this array of formidable elements in- 
numerable, and other opposing factors, the 
Standard Oil Company is fighting the world's 
markets for the continued supremacy of Amer- 
ican petroleum." 


Bill Henkel, U. S. Marshal, Seeking Ogre, Finds 
a Lamb. 

And as if the above incident were not 
sufficient to denote a change in the strongest 
of all quarters, the following, from the 
Chicago Tribune, to be treated levitously, is 
for those who remain skeptical : 

New York. — Breezy Bill Henkel, United States 

marshal, has grasped the tentacles of the oil 
octopus and likes the memory of the sensation. 
As Bill puts it himself, he shook hands with 
John D. Rockefeller, Henry M. Flagler, and 
others while serving them with subpenas to ap- 
pear as witnesses in the Standard Oil case in 
Missouri, and "never found a finer bunch of 
gentlemen" in his life. 

Some of his deputies served papers on the 
lesser lights of the Standard Oil corporation, but 
he himself made the appointments with the sub- 
penaed, chiefly by telephone. He personally 
visited Mr. Rockefeller at his home at 4.10 p. m., 
November 28. 

"Naturally," said the marshal, "I expected 
to have some trouble after reading about the 
time they had trying to serve John D. last sum- 
mer. But, say, it really was a cinch — the softest 
thing I ever struck in my life. I felt almost 
ashamed I hadn't a silver salver — say, that's 
a fine combination of words, almost as good as 
truly rural — to put the subpena on when I went 
up to John D.'s house after I had called him 
up by phone and told him Uncle Sam had a little 
business with him. He set the hour and minute 
he would see me, and told me to come up myself. 

"Dee-lighted," John D. Says to Him. 

"After a little ride in the subway I found 
myself pressing John D.'s electric bell. Out 
comes a little man — a butler, I guess — who asks 
me what I want. I told him I was a United 
States marshal and he looked as if he didn't 
believe it. I guess he thought I ought to be 
togged out in uniform, with a sword. He invites 
me to step into the hall and presently out comes 
John D. himself, with a smile as broad as a 
slice of cantaloupe. He grasps me by the hand 
and says he's delighted to see me, pronouncing 
the word just like the President does, and asks 
me to sit down. 

"I began to think somebody surely had been 
lying about the old gentleman, his manners 
were so fine. In fact, I was a bit embarrassed, 
when he began talking about the weather. I 
began to spar for an opening and he gave me a 
chance to get in. I had pulled out the subpena, 
intending to shove it at him the moment I met 
him, but I sneaked it back inside my pocket 
and when he gave me a chance I got it out again. 
He was direct and to the point, but all-fired 

All Smiles and Soft Talk. 

"When he saw my hand going up to the 
pocket he said : 

" 'I believe you have a subpena for me.' 

"Of course, he knew I had, as I had told him 

over the phone all about it, but it was a 

gentlemanly way to put it. It relieved me a 
good deal to have him say it. 

"He took the paper and said he was much 
obliged to me and regretted he had given me 
the trouble of coming all the way uptown. Then 
he shook my hand again with the grasp of a 
man that has a pretty long lease on life on this 



planet and went to the door with me. He bowed 
to me and I bowed back. He also smiled a few 
more times and then I left him with the paper 
in his hand. He didn't look at it before vae. It 
wasn't necessary, however, as he knew what was 
in it." 

The service on the other defendants was made 
at the offices of their companies. 


Expert Says Tide of Prosperity Is Rendering 
the Situation Acute. 

Chicago. — Great interest is manifested in Chi- 
cago and the entire West in the general move- 
ment for an increase in the schedule of wages 
paid to labor, in the scarcity of laijorers to meet 
the demand, and incidentally in the figures that 
have been submitted showing the high cost of 
living at present. AH these things are taken 
to mean a tide of prosperity never before reached 
ifa the country. 

After receiving reports from many labor cen- 
ters, F. W. Job, secretary of the Chicago Em- 
ployers' Association, announces there is a short- 
age of 350,000 to 500,000 workingmen in the 
United States, as compared with the urgent de- 
mand. He expresses the opinion that if the 
present pace of manufacturing, railroad building, 
and general industrial activity keeps up there 
will need to be some revision of the immigration 
laws to meet an emergency. 


Principles for Which Trade Movement Stands 
Stated by Federation. 

Minneapolis. — After defeating resolutions fa- 
voring old-age pensions and attacking the militia 
in the various states, the convention of the 
American Federation of Labor adopted 
a declaration of principles outlining what the 
American trade-union movement stands for. The 
declaration of principles followed the demand 
of a number of delegates in the early days of 
the convention. It was suggested then that, as 
labor had gone into politics, it should provide 
an economic platform which would let the gen- 
eral public know what the organized labor move- 
ment stood for. 

The Committee on Resolutions appointed its 
chairman, James Duncan, to write a platform 
which was submitted to the convention. The 
platform contains seventeen planks and is the 
first to be submitted to a convention since the 
Denver gathering in 1894. It contains some of 
the same planks as the old platform and several 
new ones are added. 

Varioos Reforms Asked. 

The preamble outlines the reasons why the 
organized workers demand certain economic 

reforms, and then gives the following as the 
labor platform: 

1. Free schools and compulsory education. 

2. Unrelenting protest against the issuance 
and abuse of injunction process in labor disputes. 

3. A workday of not more than eight hours 
in the twenty-four-hour day. 

4. A strict recognition of not over eight 
hours per day on all federal, state, or municipal 
work and at not less than the prevailing rate 
per diem wage of the class of employment in 
the vicinity where the work is performed. 

5. Release from employment one day in 

6. The abolition of the contract system "on 
public work. 

7. The municipal ownership of public util- 

8. The abolition of the sweatshop system. 

9. Sanitary inspection of workshop, factory, 
and home. 

10. Liability of employers for injury to bodj 
or loss of life. 

11. The nationalization of telegraph and tele- 

12. The passage of anti-child-labor laws in 
states where they do not exist, and rigid defense 
of them where they have been enacted into law. 

13. Woman suffrage co-equal with man suf- 

14. Suitable and plentiful playgrounds for 
children in all cities. 

15. Continued public agitation for publie 
bath-houses in all cities. 

16. Qualifications in all permits to build in 
all cities and towns that there shall be bath- 
room and bathroom attachments in all houses or 
compartments used for habitation. 

17. We favor a system of finance whereby 
money shall be issued exclusively by the Govern- 
ment with such regulations and restrictions as 
will protect it from manipulation by the banking 
interests for their own private gain. 


Men on Medium Salaries Can No Longer Afford 
the Orange. 

"There was a great deal of talk in the recent 
campaign," said a young married man, who 
holds a salaried position at fair wages, "about 
the handing out of lemons to this candidate 
or that. 

"In my opinion oranges had not a little to 
do with the result; with the vote that elected 
Hughes, and at the same time was altogether 
too small to satisfy those who were opposed to 
Mr. Hearst." 

When asked to explain this anagram, the 
young man said — and he spoke for a great many 
thousand men, young and old, when he said it: 

"When oranges were twenty-five or thirty 
cents a dozen, my wife and T each ate one at 
breakfast, and occasionally the children took 
part with us. Now that they are sixty cents a 



dozen, we go direct from napkins to oatmeal, 
or let a small apple take the place of the oranne. 
I said a small apple, because the large ones 
even this early in the year- are bpoimiins; to 
cost money." 

The Protest First at Hand. 

' ' I have made use of the orange, ' ' he con- 
tinued, "as typical of the whole list of eatables, 
whether meat, fish, or fruit. The cost of living 
in New York City, rent included, is becoming 
so great, that men on medium salaries are find- 
ing it more difficult each day to make both 
ends meet. We have been looking for a cause 
and a remedy, and let me tell you that there 
were more thousands of fellows like me who 
voted for Hearst than most people imagine. 

"Why did we do it? As a dumb protest. The 
only sort of a protest we can see our way to 

Two Classes Help Themselves. 

Since the election there has been heard not 
a little talk like the above. The men of medium 
salaries, whether in manufacturing, mercantile, 
or professional concerns, are stating their posi- 
tion in words like these : 

"The employers can protect themselves by 
combination and consolidation. They can put 
up the price of goods on which they have not 
been making money, and then meet the advances 
in the cost of raw material and in the price 
of living. 

"The men who work in the trades can protect 
themselves by another form of combination. 
They form their trade unions, and by confer- 
ence or by strike have been steadily increasing 
their wages to meet the increase of the cost of 
living in the past half dozen years. A carpenter 
or a bricklayer can afford to live as well as he 
did in 1902 even though food, clothing, and 
rent are higher,, for he is getting much larger 
wages than he did four years ago. The fruits 

of the present prosperity have been his, because 
in his unions he has had a club with which to 
knock them from the tree." 

Votes Not Understood. 

"But let me call your attention to another 
class of men whose woes have not excited the 
agonies of the political orators or been wept 
over by the press. There are tens of thousands 
of us in New York City. We do not do much 
talking because we do not care to risk our 
.jobs. AVe do not hold mass meetings, or write 
signed letters to the newspapers. But we read 
and think and talk it over with the wife at home 
— and the politicians who have overlooked us are 
surprised when the votes are counted, because 
there is found in the ballot boxes a lot of tickets 
that they are totally unable to understand." 

Men of the Middle Class. 

These statements were made by a man of 
education and of temperate views on religion 
and social topics. He was very much in earnest; 
has been, he said, a Republican all his life, and 
still is one. He was then asked : 

"The class of which vou speak — who are 

"Men who occupy positions like mine," he 
answered. "Clerks, stenographers, bookkeep; 
ers, salesmen, bank employees, all that class that 
lies between the men who own the place and 
those who put on an apron and do the physical 
labor. Ninety-nine out of each one hundred 
are getting no more pay than they did three or 
four years ago, but the cost of living has greatly 
increased, and an advance is made in something* 
each day. No one can tell where it will end. 

"We are not combined in unions. Each case 
must be considered on its individual merits. We 
can resign at any moment we care to, but who 
cares to give up a job unless he can get a better 





IF IT be true that wealthy men, as well as 
poorer men, are becoming appreciative of 
the values of higher social motives and are 
to that degree altering their own standards 
and methods, the need of such steps as are 
indicated i^' the following story from the 

Philadelphia ' North American will become 
much less in the future years. But, for the 
present, it stands as an instance of the power 
of men, in whatever station and circum- 
stances, to unite and protect themselves 
against'odds of almost any magnitude. 



After a year's trial, a co-operative, coal-mining 
industry at Saginaw, Mich., has been declared 
a success. 

This mine is owned by the workmen who oper- 
ate it. They establish prices, make contracts, 
and go down underground to dig out the 

There are no labor troubles or strikes, for 
every man is personally interested in the wel- 
fare of the company. 

It was on September 1, 1905, that coal was 
first sold from the new mine of the Caledonia 
Company. There has been no idleness since, and 
the ■ workmen-owners are preparing to put on 
double shifts to keep pace with their orders. 

When it was organized, the plan was to have 
the company consist of 100 men and the capital 
stock was placed at $50,000. After a year of 
success, it has been decided to increase the cap- 
ital to $250,000 and the company to 500 men. 

So well, in fact, has this purely co-operative 
mine done that two other organizations have 
been formed in Michigan along similar lines. 
One of these new companies, like the Caledonia, 
is formed entirely of practical handlers of the 
pick and shovel. 

The men forming the Caledonia selected their 
executive officers from among themselves. Busi- 
ness of the company is looked after by a gen- 
eral superintendent, who is responsible to a 
board of managers. 

At all times the acts of the Board are subject 
to review by a general assembly of the miners, 
who keep as closely in touch with the affairs 
of the concern as they do with the vein of coal 
from which they make their hving. 

When it came to an allotment of the stock 
few of the men were able to take more than a 
small holding. They were not capitalists. 

Some, in fact, had little or no money and ar- 
ranged to pay their part in labor. 

Last spring the Caledonia workers fixed upon 
the 1903 scale of wages as that to be paid in 
their mine. This is 5.55 per cent higher than the 
scale of the succeeding season — 1904-05. The 
average pay of the Caledonia miner is now 
$2.75 a day. 

So far the workmen-owners have refrained 
from declaring a dividend. Starting with a 
small capital, they have considered it wiser to 
turn back into the mine, for the development of 
the property, all profits above operating ex- 

Then, too, the original mine had only foiiy 
acres of coal land, and as there has been a 
steady demand for the output it was necessary 
to look to the future. 

Recently the company has purchased an addi- 
tional 500 acres adjoining its mine and is sink- 
ing a shaft on that property. 

It was by good fortune and an exercise of 
shrewdness that the Caledonia people secured 
their original forty acres. 

In the midst of land controlled by a combina- 
tion of existing companies was this little tract, 
on which the combination was paying royalties. 

Thinking that it would be well to save this 
amount, and that there woult^ be no difficulty 
in securing control at any time, the holders 
pei-mitted the lease to lapse. 

Waiting for just such an opportunity, the 
Caledonia promoters quietly and quickly secured 
a lease upon it themselves. 

So secretly were all the preliminaries carried 
on that it was only when the work of sinking 
a shaft was begun that the actual existence of 
the new workingmen's company became gener- ' 
ally known. 

Success, however, was not attained without op- 
position on the part of the other companies. 
The Caledonia miners, for instance, wished a 
spur run to their property from a nearby rail- 
road. They offered to grade the track and fur- 
nish the ties. 

About one thousand feet of rails were necessary 
to make the spur, and for this, it is stated, the 
railroad company demanded $3000. The mine- 
owners are still pegging along without their 

The first brush over prices began almost as 
soon as Caledonia coal was placed on the mar- 
ket. Other operators had advanced to the reg- 
ular winter combination price of $4.50 a ton ; 
the Caledonia began selling at $4.25. 

After storming their expostulations in vain, 
the other operators undertook to smoke out the 
workmen owners by lowering the prices, which 
dropped in the city to $4 and then to $3.50, 
where the Caledonia figures have remained. 

For a time opposition coal was sold in front 
of the Caledonia Mine for $1.75 a ton, but this 
measure was too drastic to be kept np, especially 
as the Caledonia people made no attempt to meet 
the cut, but sold all the coal they could mine 
at their own price. This opposition, however, 
continued to sell at $3 a ton, which was fifty 
cents under the Caledonia price. 

Undaunted by Opposition. 

The Caledonia people went serenely along 
their way, selling all the coal they could mine 
at the price they had fixed, and constantly add- 
ing to their contracts. Many of the largest con- 
sumers of the city are now using the Caledonia 

Having their reputation to make, the miners 
see to it that their output will stand the test 
of quality. Then, too, the officials have made a 
specialty of giving the retail trade preference 
over everything else, and this policy has brought 
them a large number of regular customei-s. 

When it seemed, early last spring, that oper- 
ators and miners would be unable to get to- 
gether upon a satisfactory basis of agreement, 
there was a general accumulation of coal. Of 
the many heavy orders given the Caledonia 
workers got their share. 

More than this, however, they announced that 
the result of the pending differences, even of a 
prolonged strike, would not affect them. They 
owned the mine they worked, they fixed their 
own wages, and had no quarrel witG themselves. 


Consequently, they were able to announce So this experiment of a co-operative mine, 

they would go right along digging and selling owned as well as worked by the miners, has 

coal, even if a strike settled over a greater part proved successful, 

of the country. The men say that they have enjoyed their 

This brought them a great deal of additional freedom and independence, and in a financial 

business. Consumers hastened to make contracts way they have fared much better than their fel- 

with a concern that had no fear of a strike low-workmen, employed by operators in the sur- 

and was never crippled by labor troubles. rounding territory under the old conditions. 


I'll sing you a song of the plow; deep with my 
tempered share 
I furrow the earth, the rich brown earth, pav- 
ing the way for spoil. 
With joy I bend to my task, guided with sturdy 
care — 
Prom dawn till dusk I follow the way through 

loam and fragrant soil. 
And sing as I go my way. 

From dawn till the sunset's gold. 
And I sleep when the world is gray — 
Deep in the morn's enfold. 

I come with the lark and thrush, and my good 
steel shimmers bright. 
Steady I turn my furrows deep that fields 
may grow and wave; 
The bread of the world is mine, reared by my 
strength and might, 
And I scatter it wide, from land to land, that 

all may say I gave. 
And I sing as I go my way, 

From dawn till the sunset's gold. 
And I sleep when the world is gray — 
Deep in the morn's enfold. 

My share came from the earth, and so to the 
earth I cleave. 
And I shall cling to its breast fore'er, to serve 
my master, man; 
And never shall I forsake, and never my master 
Till the world and Time are old and gray in 

this, God's earthly plan. 
But I sing as I go my way. 

From dawn till the sunset's gold. 
And I sleep when the world is gray — 
Deep in the morn's enfold. 

— Exchange. 



'Consam ye, this ain't no time to fight!" 

-Cleveland Plain Dealer. 






HOWEVER great America's traffic prob- 
lem, however pressing the repeated 
money crises, or hoM'ever reassuring the pro- 
gress that has been made in the regulation of 
corporations and the reform of general poli- 
tics, there still lie before the country issues 
and burdens which are likely to make these 
appear only as preparatory steps. For, not 
only is the nation already confronted with the 
gravity of the Japanese controversy, but its 
entire economic system has reached the point 
where it can probably no longer stand alone 
without reference to the systems of other 

countries; its postal agreements are in jeop- 
ardy, its friendship with Great Britain is 
being assailed for strategic purposes by 
enemies of Great Britain, its fraternity with 
Mexico may sooner or later be strained be- 
cause of the revolt of a section of the Mex- 
ican people against the liberality with which 
commercial concessions have been made to 
Americans; its precipitation into the vex- 
atious storms of Africa is almost inevitable 
thru the recalcitrancy of Morocco and the 
reckless challenging of human decency by 
King Leopold in the Congo Free State, and 



it is only a question of time when, the pres- 
ent Sultan of Turkey dying and the coun- 
try remaining in debt to the United States, 
participation must be had in the perennial 
international vortex that sweeps around the 
Bosporus and the Adi-iatie. 


Some of the Considerations With Which the 
President Was Recently Burdened. 

A few of the international difficulties 
which the President had before him when 
he spoke so strongly on the Japanese ques- 
tion were thus reflected by John Callan 
O'Laughlin, the Washington correspondent 
of the Chicago Tribune: 

Washington, D. C— President Roosevelt 
punctuated his consideration of various domestic 
questions by dealing with those of international 
moment. The questions involving foreign rela- 
tions ranged from Morocco in the near east to 
Japan in the far east, from Newfoundland in the 
north to Cuba and Santo Domingo in the south. 
Through all ran the subject which, is especially 
close to the heart of the President and Secretary 
Root — expansion of American trade. 

Secretary Root and Assistant Secretary Bacon 
lunched with the President, and discussed the va- 
rious matters mentioned. And Secretary Met- 
calf submitted his report on his investigation of 
the Japanese school incident in San Francisco. 

Regarding Morocco, it appears that the pow- 
ers are raising numerous questions under the 
treaty signed on April 7 last at Algeciras, Spain, 
including the military occupation by the forces 
of France and Spain. It has been determined 
to pursue in this affair a 'hands off' policy, and 
leave Europe to settle the disturbances which are 
injurious to the trade of all countries. 

Expect England to Respect Modus. 

As far as Newfoundland is concerned, the 
United States will continue to look to Great 
Britain to prevent any annoyance of American 
fishermen by the colonial authorities and to see 
that the latter respect the modus vivendi ar- 
ranged by Secretary Root and Sir Edward Grey, 
the British Secretary of State for Foreign Af- 

The new treaty with Santo Domingo will be 
signed probably this week and the President 
urged upon Senator Cullom, who is chairman of 
the important Committee of Foreign Affairs, to 
press it for ratification by the Senate immediate- 
ly after that body convenes. 

Governor Magoon is doing as well as could be 
expected in Cuba under the circumstances, and 
there will be no .change in the policy he is pur- 

The President has approved the steps taken 
by Secretary Root to adjust tho tariff questions 
which have ari.sen with German.v, Spain, and 
Italy, and it is apparent he is in hearty sym- 
pathy with the plan of reciprocal trade relations 
wherever it can be adopted. 

The Senate is the great obstacle in the way of 
the satisfactory achievement of general reci- 
procity, as it has giveji unmistakable evidence of 
its unwillingness to ratify any treaties dealing 
with this subject. 


Tariff Differences With Europe Act as Curb on 
Commercial Growth. 

Something of the trade aspect of the in- 
ternational situation was also given by the 
above writer: 

(By John Callan O'Laughlin.) 

Washington, D. C. — There is no concealing the 
fact that the administration is becoming more 
and more concerned over the present status of 
the commercial relations of the United States 
with various European countries. 

An effort is being made through mutual dis- 
cussion in Berlin to pave the way to the re- 
moval of tariff diffei-ences with Germany. Aus- 
tro-Hungary, taking its cue from the policy of 
its (lerman all.y, has excluded American meats. 
Spain has negotiated new commercial treaties 
against which the United States can make no 
complaint, but which are harmful to American 
trade. Now Italy, according to news received at 
the state department to-day, is about to conclude 
an arrangement with Russia which will kill the 
valuable oil trade between the United States and 
the Italian kingdom. 

To add to the sum of our commercial woes, 
the differences with Newfoundland over the fish 
eries question are arousing so much resentment 
in that British dependency that apprehension is 
felt here it will embark upon a policy of dis- 
crimination against American products. 


Cancels Its Convention with United States on 
Second-Class Matter. 

An instance of the unavoidable overlap- 
ping of American domestic problems into 
the international field is reflected in the re- 
volt of Canada against the excesses of 
American second-class postal matter, con- 
troversy over which has become somewhat 
strained within the United States. Said 
the Chicago Record-Herald: 




^^v ^ 

The California View of It. 

^Pittsburg Gazette-Times. 

Ottawa. — The Canadian postal authorities 
have canceled the convention with the United 
States for the exchange of seeond-class mail mat- 
ter. The Po-stmaster General of Canada is 
authority also for the statement that the entire 
postal arrangements as between the Dominion 
and the United States are undergoing a sweeping 

It may be pointed out tliat many years ago it 
was agreed by the governments of the two coun- 
tries that each should handle all the newspapers 
and other second-class mail matter originating 
in the other country free of charge. This ar- 
rangement operated considerably to the disad- 
vantage of Canada, for not only did the United 
States offer Canada ten times the weight of 
newspapers that Canada offered the United 

States, but Americans threw open their second- 
class list to printed matter that, in this country, 
was treated as advertising merchandise and only 
carried at the rate of eight cents a pound. 

As such printed matter originated in the 
United States, it came to Canada as second-class 
matter and was carried at the rate of one cent 
or one-half cent a pound, according to circum- 
stances. This state of affairs has been regarded 
as giving Americans a privilege in Canada from 
which Canadians themselves were excluded, and 
it allowed a flood of advertising matter to come 
in which had the effect of diverting a consider- 
able quantity of trade to American firms which 
should have gone to Canadians. Efforts to get 
the United States authorities to change their sec- 
ond-class conditions not being successful, it was 



therefore decided that Canada would cancel the 
convention after May 1 next. This will give the 
two countries an opportunity to make necessary 
changes in the classification of their second-class 
matter, and it is expected that an agreement will 
again be made for the exchange of newspaper 
mail matter on a more equitable basis. If a new 
agreement is not reached all American publica- 
tions will have to pay postage at the rate of 
eight cents a pound to enter Canada. 



Canada Provides an "Intermediate" Schedule 
for Strategic Uses. 

Larger in potential difficulty than the 
mail problem betv^een the United States and 
Canada, looms the tariff, whose latest phase 
is shown by the Philadelphia North Ameri- 

Toronto, Ont. — Speaking generally, the new 
Canadian tariff just presented to Parliament 
makes an all-round increase of five per cent on 
goods imported from the United States. 

British preference has been lowered five per 
cent, which will operate against American im- 
portations. Much dissatisfaction is heard be- 
cause the Government refused to place a duty 
on tinplate and thus protect a Canadian indus- 
try which is as yet in its swaddling clothes. 

A new feature is the arrangement of the tariff. 
Hitherto there have been only two divisons in 
the protectionist schedules, the general tariff and 
the British preference. Both these are con- 
tinued, and there is added an intermediate tariff 
in which the rates generally are one-tenth less 
than those in the general tariff. 

This new tariff is not to go into effect at once. 
It is to be used in negotiating with countries that 
will make tariff deductions in favor of Canadian 
exports. In such cases it may be put into force 
by order in council. The arrangement then 
made will continue only from day to day and may 
be ended at any time at the instance of either 
party to the arrangement. 

When it takes on a permanent character it will 
be submitted to the Canadian Parliament, and 
after having received its sanction the treaties 
that are so approved will be negotiated through 
the British Foreign Office in the usual way. 

Here are some of the tariff increases against 
the United States: 

Silverware, perfumery, toilet articles, baths, 
bath tubs, 30 to 35 per cent ; vegetables, hats and 
caps, satchels, purses, cloaks, watches, 25 to 35 
per cent ; typesetting machines, 10 to 20 ; bar- 
ley, 20 to 30; collars, silk manufacturers, 35 to 
371/2; brick and clay manufactures, 20 to 221/2! 
brushes and canned meats, 25 to 27%, and raw 
sugars, 15 per cent. 

Lemons and oranges are placed in the free list. 
On agricultural implements the duty is reduced 
from 20 to 171/^ per cent. Iron and steel boun- 
ties are continued for four years longer. 

American Packers Pinched by the Increased 
Duties and Closer Inspection. 
Something of how this same tariff and 
reciprocity matter carries the American re- 
sponsibilities across the Atlantic is shown 
in the following from the Chicago Record- 
Herald : (By William E. Curtis.) 

Washington. — George Marsles, head of the 
foreign department of the Cudahy Packing Com- 
pany, calls my attention to the fact that there 
was a sharp advance in the rates of duty on 
American pork products in Germany on the 1st 
of March of this year, which was dictated by 
the agrarian party. Bacon was advanced from 
twenty marks to thirty-six marks per 100 kilos, 
which is equal to nearly four cents a pound, and 
the duty upon the new beef products that are 
allowed entrance was more than doubled, the ad- 
vance being from seventeen to thirty-five marks, 
or from about one and three-quartei-s to three 
and three-quarters cents per pound. This in- 
creased duty, with the high prices of pork prod- 
ucts at home, due to the enormous demands for 
home consumption on account of good times, will 
render it very difficult to sell meat in Germany. 
"In addition to the high duties," said Mr. Mar- 
bles, "there are all sorts of inspection fees and 
annoying regulations at the frontier. We had an 
instance the other day when a shipment of ours 
of 250 half-barrels of lard was held up on the 
ground that it contained cottonseed oil. We 
protested that the lard was pure, but each and 
every one of the 250 packages was subjected to 
a chemical analysis. The result was that 248 
half-barrels were passed and two were rejected, 
and we had to pay a bill of $75 for the chemists' 
fees. ' ' 

Mr. Marsles showed me a letter he had just 
received from Cudahy 's agent at Frankfort, who 
says that "all meat is very dear here, and the 
large stock of American bacon which we had 
on hand has now vanished into the interiors of 
our poor laborers, who, I am afraid, have very 
little bacon or meat to bite on. Even if they 
buy American meats the duties and expenses are 
so exorbitant that the retailers are compelled to 
ask immense prices. For example, American 
bacon is now retailed here at one mark per 
pound, which is equal to twenty-five cents." 


Alleged Plot in Japan to Encourage Emigration 
to America. 

Also that the immigrational system of the 
country must be vitally reorganized has 
been a political purpose for two or three 
years. One reason why this must take place 
is reflected in the following from the Chi- 
cago Record-Herald: 



suim ! 


-Chicago Record-Herald. 

44 • 


Washington, D. C. — In connection with the Jap^ 
anese controversy California members of Congress 
are using a forgotten, but very sensational, re- 
port made in 1S!)9 to the Commissioner (ieneral 
of Immigration by Mr. W. M. Rice, Commis- 
sioner of Immigration at San Francisco, and 
transmitted to Congress under a resolution of 
inquiry by Mr. Lyman J. Gage, Secretary of the 
Treasury, on May 14, 1900. 

As a preliminary to the report Mr. T. V. Pow- 
derly. Commissioner General of Immigration, 
said that Mr. Rice had been dispatched to Japan, 
where he had spent several months making his 
investigation, and added : 

''The report of this officer expressed tlie opin- 
ion that such immigration was fostei'ed by a 
number of societies, among whose members were 
found Japanese subjects high in political and 
social life, and that the occasion of the organiza- 
tion of such societies, while ostensibly for the 
purpose of furnishing passports to such subjects 
of the Mikado as desired to come to this country 
and to insure that only such as were admissible 
under the laws of the United States should em- 
bark for the purpose of temporary or permanent 
settlement here, the true occasion was the large 
profit derived from commissions paid either 
directly by the immigrants or through the 
agency of the steamship lines. 

In his report Mr. Rice discloses how he ob- 
tained evidence that there was an important 
industry in Japan for inducing and assisting 
immigration to the United States, because the 
soil of Japan could not support the enormous 
population and because the United States offered 
opportunities for Japanese to work at cheap 
wages, but far larger than those received at 
home. He found that the system had been built 
up through a combination of the wealthy and 
political classes, which created immigration com- 
panies which acted in connection with the gov- 
ernment and steamship companies. 


Roosevelt's Act May Be Master Stroke Which 
Will Solve Problem. 

While the Pacific Coast became very much 
incensed over the President's attitude in the' 
Japanese matter, there were some close stu- 
dents of international affairs who saw in the 
entire dispute the following, as noted in the 
Chicago Record-Herald: 

(By Sumner.) 

Washington. — The United States has made 
the flret stroke in a game that seems likely to 
match the diplomacy of America and the 
diplomacy of Japan in a supreme test, 
the destinies of the Orient. President Roose- 
velt's message to Congress on the San Francisco 
school question, assuring Japan of the sincere 

intention of this Government to carry out to 
the strict letter all treaty obligations, eventually 
may prove a master stroke in the direction of 
reaching an agreement that will not place Japan 
in a position where its pride will suffer injury, 
and at the same time give the Pacific Coast peo- 
ple of our own country no cause to harbor anger 
or indignation over the Japanese question. 

The administration is most desirous of retain- 
ing the highest regard of the Japanese Govern- 
ment. But also it has at heart the interest of 
Americans, who in the case now to the front 
happen to be particularly the people of the 
Pacific Coast. There may be found good reason 
for changing treaty stipulations to the extent 
of restricting immigration along certain lines, 
and strong intimations were given from high 
official sources to-day that such a move is possi- 
ble. President Roosevelt's recommendation to 
Congress that an act be passed specifically pro- 
viding for the naturalization of Japanese who 
come here intending to become American citizens 
will go a long way toward convincing the Gov- 
ernment beyond the Pacifi? of our earnest desire 
to treat it on a basis of absolute equality, the 
same as we treat the people of any of the coun- 
tries of Europe — provided that they amalg imate 
and become part of our population, in fact, as 
do the peoples of other favored countries. 

It may be pointed out to Japan that if con- 
ditions were reversed and a tide of American 
emigration to its shores set in, resulting in the 
formation of alien colonies in its country, a 
race feeling might grow up there which would 
be as disagreeable to the .lapanese Government 
as the California situation is to our Government. 
But the tide of emigraticfn is all the other way. 
Our citizens in Japan are either merchants — men 
of affaire — or tourists, mostly the latter. The 
Japanese in this country, increasing at a rapid 
rate, are of the labor-seeking class, who retain 
their Japanese status under the protection of 
our laws and treaties with respect to aliens. The 
conditions that have arisen were not foreseen 
when the treaty with Japan was negotiated in 
1894, and that treaty has six years of life re- 

Secretary of State Root is not only behind the 
President in all that has been developed up to 
date in the more than sensational Japanese 
affair, but it developed that it is his 
diplomacy that is being played. Secretary Root, 
in fact, is managing the situation so far as the 
American end of it is concerned. 

The situation has developed its theorists on 
both sides, and, while there are those who look 
to see a great triumph for American diplomacy 
that will maintain the record made during Sec- 
retary Hay's administration of the State De- 
partment when troublesome Eastern problems 
perplexed the statesmen of all the great world 
powers, there are others who contend that Japan 
occupies the advantageous position now, and 
later will make a stroke against us in the inter- 
national arena for which it long has been waiting- 




How California Would Settle the Controversy 
with the Japanese. 

San Frandsco. — California has a plan for the 
settlement of the Japanese embroglio in connec- 
tion with the school situation and the invasion 
of the little brown men. and it now comes forth 
with a series of provisions as a basis of a settle- 
ment as follows : 

The Federal Government to enact a new treaty 
with Japan, excluding Japanese coolie labor 
from the United States and Hawaii, and Amer- 
ican labor from Japan. 

Japanese contract labor importations to cease. 

Equality in public schools, with separate 
schools for adult Japanese desiring primary and 
grammar .school training. 

A decision by the United States Supreme 
Court on the state's right to pass anti-miscegena- 
tion and school laws. 

The Federal Government to decide the right 
of franchise for the Japanese, California sug- 
gesting only Federal cognizance of Japanese 
class distinctions in passing the law. 

Keep the question out of the hands of Con- 


Mexico and Great Britain Become Alarmed Over 

One of the most strenuous contentions 
of the opponents of the Japanese was that 
their immigraion but foreshadowed a gen- 
eral immigration of Asiatics. That some 
ground existed for this apprehension is evi- 
dent from the following dispatch in the 
St. Louis Republic : 

Washington. — America's incipient imbroglio 
with Japan, together with reports from Mexico 
that Japanese colonists in that republic are com- 
plaining bitterly to their Government regarding 
treatment alleged to be cruel and unjust ; Brit- 
ain 's troubles in Australia, springing from an 
anti-Asiatic feeling among her subjects in that 
section of the world, and the Orient's aggressive 
stand in matters relating to encroachments upon 
her territory, have brought students of world 
politics to the belief that the German Emperor's 
outcry against the ' ' yellow peril ' ' is not with- 
out cause. 

Added to' this is the announcement that Jap- 
anese military operations are very active and ' 
that the Japanese cabinet has decided upon a 
policy which will increase the standing anny of 
the island empire to 7.')0.000 men, making her 
fighting force equivalent to that of many of the 
greatest military nations of Europe and entirely 
eclipsing the soldiery immediately available in 
the United States. 

China Assembling an Efficient Army. 

This declaration of Japan's new policy conies 
rapidly upon the heels of confirmed reports of 
China's awakening and her assembling of an 
efficient army. 

European army officers who have recently 
viewed the maneuvers of China's fighting force 
express the belief that a bettpr drilled, better 
disciplined, and better equipped soldiery does not 
exist in any nation. 

Despite the strained relations between the 
United States and Japan, growing out of the 
San Francisco public-school fiasco, no fear 
exists in the minds of Washington's diplomats 
that any serious difficulty will result. 

That some understanding relative to the im- 
migration of Japanese coolies into the United 
States must be arrived at between the two na- 
tions is the opinion expressed on every hand, and 
that Japan will be willing and eager to enter into 
such a readjustment of affairs is not doubted. 

Japan Wants Natives to Go to Manchuria. 

It is pointed out by public men familiar with 
the policies of the Japanese Government that 
the emigration of her farming class to the Pacific 
Coast and other parts of the Western Hemi- 
sphere is not sanctioned by the Mikado, nor by 
any of his advisers, but that the wish of Japan 
is to turn the tide of emigrants to the fields of 
Korea and Manchuria where their work will 
count more for the prosperity of their own Gov- 


British Columbia Finds a Campaign of Exclusion 
Is Imperative. 

The .same thing was further obvious from 
the following dispatch in the Associated 
Press : 

Vancouver, B. C. — British Columbia has deter- 
mined to wage war against the Hindoo invasion. 
Two hundred more of these cheap laborei*s ar- 
rived on the Athenian, a large number are en., 
route on the Empress of Japan, and the Monteagle 
is to bring one hundred. In fact, there is a large 
colony waiting at Hongkong to take ship for 
Vancouver. There is no law to keep them out, 
but this province will, demand of the Dominion 
Parliament that it pass one at the session to be 
held at Ottawa next month. R. G. Macpherson, 
M. P. for this city, has already started the cam- 
paign in this direction. In fact, he has just re- 
turned from the Federal Cabinet, and stated that 
the Dominion Government is so alive to the 
menace that it has decided to introduce restric- 
tive legislation. 

A Hindoo named Dr. Davichand is the apparent 
moving spirit in this Asiatic invasion. He and 
those working with him are said to have 20,000 
more contracted for, who will shortly leave Cal- 
cutta for here. 



Bernhard Dernburg, the New Head of the 
Kaiser's Colonial Department, as a German Car- 
toonist Sees Him. 

— Chicago Tribune. 

The passage of these Hindoos through Hong- 
kong and Shanghai, and the tales told of wealth 
in British Columbia are causing trouble in the 
Sikh departments in those cities, many of the 
men who are now acting as police there desiring 
to throw up their jobs to join in the rush to the 
El Dorado, which they imagine this province to 
be. To those who formerly earned a few pence 
a day the wages offered in British Columbia seem 
vondrous large. 


Attempt to Show German-American Hostility to 

"With the United States at tension with 
Japan, naturally the alliance of Japan with 
Great Britain becomes of paramount im- 
portance. The following from the Chicago 
News shows something of the value placed 
upon this point: 

London. — It is suspected at the Foreign Office 
and the American embassy that systematic efforts 
are in progress in some quarters further to re- 

frigerate Anglo-American relations. President 
Roosevelt is represented as being in close and 
confidential communication with the Kaiser and 
af favoring an understanding between Germany 
and America to act in harmony if Japan should 
menace the white race. 

American Flag Story Discredited. 

In the House of Commons last' night Sir Ed- 
ward Grey, secretary of state for foreign affairs, 
was asked if he had heard that in the event of 
a war involving Germany, the German merchant 
marine would he taken under the protection of 
the American flag. Sir Edward replied in the 
negative. Afterward the gossip of the members 
in the lobby centered upon the puzzle as to the 
origin of such a report. 

Misrepresents the Alliance. 

Late dispatches from New York indicate an 
attempt to circulate the notion in America that 
the Anglo-Japanese alliance of August, 1905, 
"contains no clause relieving the British people 
of the necessity of supporting the Japanese 
should Japan engage in a conflict with the United 
States." Such a notion, according to official 
information, entirely misrepresents the alliance. 
In the first place, the treaty relates exclusively to 
matters connected with the Far East — Asia and 
India; secondly, neither of the contracting powers 
can start a war without the consent of the other, 
and, thirdly, neither is bound to assist the other 
in resisting aggression unless the attack is upon 
the territorial rights or special interests of the 
second power. The special interests of Britain, 
as defined by the treaty, refer to the Indian fron- 
tier and those of Japan to Korea. Even as to 
Korea, Japan is expressly prohibited from in- 
fringing on the principle of equal opportunities 
for the industry and commerce of all nations. 

Conditions of Aid in War. 

This principle forms one of the three main 
objects of the treaty, and Lord Lansdown em- 
phasized the point when the agreement was pub- 
lished that only an "unprovoked attack" could 
bring either party to the support of the other, 
and such attack must take place when the country 
attacked is defending its territorial rights and 
special interests as indicated in the text of the 
treaty. The Daily News correspondent is assured 
that the Foreign Office regards the Philippines as 
quite outside the scope of the agreement. 


Sensational Report in an Italian Paper Denied 
on Good Authority. 

For several years Japan has been accused 
of looking with envy upon the Philippines 
and therefore of watching for an oppor- 
tunity to provoke a quarrel with the United 
States. Another phase of the Mikado's al- 



leged territorial ambition is reflected in the 
following from the Chicago News: 

The Hague. — The Italian paper, the Giornale del 
Lavori Publice, contains a sensational article 
which has been copied by the German press and 

demonstration against Java. Many Japanese 
spies and agents have overrun Java in every 
direction; the important towns swarm with Jap- 
anese agents, who are trying to win the natives 
for the Mikado's Government and inciting to 
revolt against Dutch rule. Every day encounters 


-Chicago Tribune. 

which alludes to Japan's military and naval 
preparations as being directed against the Dutch 
East Indies. It says: "Japan's naval and mili- 
tary preparations, which are being pushed with 
feverish haste, are directed against the Dutch 
Indian island of Java. All the arsenals and 
dockyards are overcrowded with work. The 
Mikado's Government intends to make a naval 

occur between Japanese sailors and Dutch sub- 
jects, and several armed conflicts have taken 
place. By its geographical and strategic position 
Java would be of great importance to Japan, and 
the great natural wealth of the country would 
render Japan independent of Western European 
nations. ' ' 



No Truth in Reports. 

It seems that the influential papers of the 
foreign press have taken the sensational news 
seriously, and so it is necessary that it should be 
immediately denied from Dutch sources. I can 
most authoritatively deny the truth of all these 
rumors with reference to Java. In Dutch Indian 
circles nothing is known about conflicts between 
the Dutch and Japanese sailors or about the secret 
working of Japanese agents among the natives. 
Sporadically the Indian press has made mention 
of sujjposed Japanese spies who have been ar- 
rested on suspicion only. Three instances oc- 
curred during or just after the Russo-Japanese 
war and may be ascribed to the fear of the 
Japanese Government that Russia might try to 
violate the neutrality of Holland by coaling or 
taking on contraband goods in Dutch Indian har- 
bors. The Dutch Indian Government affirms that 
relations between Japan and the Dutch colonies 
are of the most friendly nature, and that nothing 
warrants the spread of such sensational reports. 

In well-informed circles it is asserted that 
Japan is far too clever to contemplate any such 
risky scheme. 



United States Carefully Charting Fortifications 
of the Mikado's Empire. 

A phase of the Japanese situation likely 
too reassuring to Americans, is the follow- 
ing, as given in the Chicago' News : 

AVashington, D. C. — The Government has in its 
possession maps showing the defenses of Japan. 
The attempt of the Japanese to sketch the forti- 
fications in Manila has disclosed the fact that the 
War Department is compiling much information 
about those of the Mikado. No underhand 
methods are employed. 

Maps showing everything of military value or 
significance, together with other information, 
have been procured, and the work already done 
ir. remarkably complete. 

The undertaking is not based on any particular 
impression that Japan is likely to become an 
enemy, though among army and navy men it is 
the general opinion that there is more likelihood 
of complications with Japan than with any other 

In gathering military information American 
countries and .Japan have received the most at- 
tention. Canada, for instance, is well in hand, 
and Cuba has been charted with the greatest 
detail and exactness. 

These maps, verified and kept corrected to date, 
would be of the greatest value in case of war. 
fhe Japanese owed much of their Manchurian 
campaign to their superior intelligence service, 
each Japanese commander being ^'ell supplied 
with information at the beginning of his cam- 

Irrigation Problem Along the Rio Grande In- 
volves United States. 

Last Month's Pandex showed the relation 
of the United States to the incipient but 
abortive revolutionary movement in Mexico. 
Another, and perhaps more serious point of 
relationship is the following, ■ as shown in 
the New York World: 

Austin, Tex. — Without flourish of trumpets, 
the Boundary Commission has visited Brownsvillt 
to see whether the big Yoakum irrigation project 
is getting the United States into trouble with 
Mexico through diverting a large share of the 
waters of the Rio Grande. 

No report upon the conclusions of the Commis- 
. sion has been made public. There is no doubt, 
nevertheless, that it learned enough to keep some 
of the wise ones at Washington busy for some 
time, and incidentally, probably set in motion 
plans for smoothing over the abstraction of about 
one-fifth of the entire flow of the Rio Grande 
for private use. 

The troublesome phase of the ease lies in the 
relation of the river to the two republics. If an 
American syndicate can take one-fifth of the 
waters of the river at one point, there is no 
logical reason whj' a similar syndicate can not 
take a similar amount elsewhere, or why Mexicans 
may not use the water as the Americans are 

Reduced to a logical conclusion, the present 
operation and possible succeeding ones would 
permit the absorption of the entire water supply 
of the river, leaving Biownsville. a river town, 
without a river, and permitting constant passage 
across the border of all classes of undesirable 

Mexico would not tolerate the building of 
canals, and it is expected that the Republic may 
ask some questions about the violation of her 
rights. The pumps do in a technically legal way 
what it would be unlawful for canals to do. 

Development of this great scheme has gone on 
very quietly. It is the greatest irrigation enter- 
prise ever undertaken by private capital. Mil- 
lions are expended in making lands worth many 
times their cost and the cost of the improvements. 

But Mexico is very jealous of the Rio Grande. 
It is a boundary line that can not be disputed 
under the law. If it should be allowed to be 
obliterated — only a vague possibility, but still. 
a possibility — it would open the way for . the 
powerful rival Republic on the north to encroach 
on the weaker one on the south. So, Mexico is 
wisely disposed to look upon any movement that 
may hamper the flow of the river with a jealous 
eye. What action it may take is purely prob- 
lematic,' since this question has never before 
arisen. - - . . 



PROBLEM IS WORLD VEXATIOUS London.— The question of relations between tlie 

■ white race and peoples of other colors is one of 

White Man's Burden Stirring Minds of Diplo- almost world-wide agritation at the present mo- 
mats in All Europe. ment. It occupies the public mind in England, 
mi i ii, TT -i J c-i i • i 1 • .. Germany, Belgium, France, and Spain. 
That the United States is not alone in the The Congo question has passed from the stage 



"John D. Rockefeller, Jr., is a stockholder in the new American Kongo Company." — News 
Item. — Chicago News. 

problem which San Francisco's school board of sentimental discussion to a serious inter- 
has precipitated is made evident by the national issue Despite the scathing condemna- 
^ 1^ •' tion of King Leopold in the Belgian Parliament, 
Chicago Tribune's dispatches: it is doubtful if genuine refonns will be volun- 



tarily adopted which will lead Great Britain to 
abandon its declared intention to intervene in 
behalf of the natives. 

Should England step in the world shall see 
the first serious test of the Anglo-French entente, 
for in all previous international attempts to deal 
with the Congo question France has supported 
Germany, and there is little doubt that Germany 
will continue to oppose any interference by the 

If the Clemeneeau Government reverses its 
former position and supports Groat Brits in, then 
for the first time the world will realize the 
momentous and far-reaching importance of the 
recent regrouping of the powers, which has 
changed the direction of modern political history. 

Rough Work to Quiet Moors. 

France and Spain are on the eve of the execu- 
tion of their mandate to reduce the turbulent 
Moors to order. There is every indication that 
their task is more formidable than the delegates 
at Algeciras expected. Rough work, approach- 
ing war on a small scale, seems probable. 

Germany watches with jealous eye, but appar- 
ently it has no intention to render the task more 
difficult either by real or threatened interference. 

Germany, indeed, has a race scandal of its own 
of the blackest description. No story of the 
Congo or of Russian ante bellum atrocities in 
Manchuria can compare in horror with that told 
in the Reichstag recently by Herr Bebel. 

The Socialist leader described the extermina- 
tion of whole villages in Southwest Africa by 
German troops, which massacred adults and then 
drowned children in the river. The most the 
Government could say in reply was that there 
had been abuses, but that the reports were ex- 
aggerated. The Spectator says: 

"There is positive danger lest the whole native 
population of Africa become permeated with a 
dread and hatred of white men. It is reported 
from many quarters that this feeling already is 
betraying itself throughout the vast dominion of 
the Congo State. It may easily spread south- 
ward and northward till the entire continent is 
filled with a hostility to Europe resembling that 
which three hundred years ago undermined the 
ascendancy of the triumphant Spanish monarchy. 

Blacks May Band Against Whites. 

"There is a comity of the blacks as there is in 
the white world. Though the black is prepared 
to be governed by his white superior with a cer- 
tain absolutism, he will not bear that unreason- 
able cruelty which keeps him in perpetual terror 
as well as a kind of bewilderment concerning 
what is required of him. 

"However stern the conquerors are in enforc- 
ing their own superior civilization they must be 
on the side of justice, however harsh it may be 
to themselves. They must avoid a cruelty which 
suggests to their victims that they are in the 
hands rather of evil demons than of able fighting 

"The whites must learn what was early learned 

in India — to let the women alone. Negresses are 
not English ladies, but they care for their 
children. If some of the stories 'told in the Ger- 
man Parliament be true there may be hatred of 
white men handed down through villages from 
generation to generation, and Europeans won't 
rule Africa. 

"Mussulman missionaries, already thousands 
in number, can say with truth that where the 
Christian is there is the habitation of cruelty." 

The British Government finds itself faced with 
a similar difficulty in the Transvaal as confronts 
Roosevelt in California's anti- Japanese action. 

The inhabitants of the Transvaal resent the 
competition of the natives of India who have im- 
migrated into the country. They have endeavored 
to discriminate against them by imposing serious 
disabilities by law. The victims appealed to the 
home government, wheh has vetoed the act. 


Ryan Secures Rubber Concessions in the Country 
of Scandals. 
How the American people, willy nilly, may 
be thrown into the African battle is shown 
in the following from the New York Amer- 
ican : 

New York.- — Confirmation of the many vague 
reports received from the Continent in recent 
months of the enlistment of American capital in 
the development of Central African mineral fields 
has been obtained from the Ryan-Guggenheim 
interests in an acknowledgment that they have 
obtained mineral rights in the Congo Free State, 
and are proceeding with the organization of a 
company to explore and develop the new field. 

The concession, which is a part of the rights 
obtained from King Leopold personally, and from 
the Belgian Government by Thomas F. Ryan, dur- 
ing his stay abroad last summer, covers an area 
of many thousand square miles. 

It has been known in a general way since the 
earliest days of African exploration that there 
are large mineral deposits, including copper, 
silver, and gold, in the Free State territory, and, 
though the field still remains largely unmapped, 
it was said at the Guggenheim office recently that 
quiet work has been going on in the district of 
late years, which has confirmed the early finds 
beyond doubt. John Hays Hammond, now chief 
director of the Guggenheim field work, gained a 
large part of his reputation as a mining engineer 
in the South African gold fields, and during the 
years he spent in Africa had opportunities of 
gaining knowledge of the mineral wealth of 
Central Africa which, it is said, has been chiefly 
responsible for the venture of the Guggenheims 
into this untried field. Already the firm headed 
by Daniel Guggenheim is the largest single pro- 
ducer of precious metals in the world, and is 
credited with, supplying about 25 per cent of the 
copper produced in this country. 

It could not be learned on what terms the 



African mineral concessions had been obtained, 
but it is understood that they are part of the 
general grant obtained by Mr. Ryan, which was 
announced at first as applying only to the rubber 
lands owned by King Leopold. The American 
Congo Company was incorporated at Albany a 
few weeks ago in the interest of Thomas F. Ryan, 
the Messrs. Guggenheim, Edward B. Aldrich, and 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to take over the rubber 

The mineral exploitation will be undertaken by 
a foreign corporation, it was said authoritatively, 
but whether this would be organized in England 
or on the Continent could not be definitely 
learned. Neither could it be ascertained whether 
the Ryan-Guggenheim interests intend to carry 
on the work alone or with the aid of French and 
English capitalists whom cable reports credit 
with having been jointly interested with Mr. 
Ryan in the negotiations with King Leopold. 



Ties Said to Be Weakening Between Australia 
and Mother Country. 

With Anglo-American friendship threat- 
ened by international intrigue, the fate that 
may befall English colonies, especially in the 
Pacific ocean, becomes of importance. Said 
the Chicago Record-Herald: 

Ottawa, Ont. — That Australia will, in the near 
future, declare for political independence is, ac- 
cording to G. W. Inglis, who passed through here 
on his way to Europe, the opinion prevalent in 
that country just now. Mr. Inglis is a member of 
the Australian Parliament, a prominent exporter 
of Melbourne and in touch with public sentiment 
throughout the commonwealth. He states that the 
ties are weakening between Australia and the 
mother country. Organized labor, which controls 
the political situation in Australia, while neither 
disloyal nor yet loyal, has no sympathy with im- 
peVial connection. The Federation scheme itself 
is not regarded by the people as having proved 
anything of a success so far. 

There is a feeling abroad in the country that 
it is over-governed; that the system of govern- 
ment is too costly, and that the administrative 
chain is greatly strained by overlaping authority 
and is liable to break at any moment. No actual 
rupture, it is thought, will take place so long as 
the country is enjoying a measure of pro.speritj' 
with which it is at present favored, but it is 
claimed that when the pinch of depression again 
is felt, as it will be with the return of unfavor- 
able seasons and the blighting effects of the 
periodical drouth, there will be merciless cutting 
down as the result, and something will give way. 

Revolutionary Manifestos Call on Inhabitants of 
Empire to End "Savage Oppression." 

While Turkey remains in debt to the 
United States, the following as to the in- 
ternal conditions of the Ottoman Empire 
bears special interest to American states- 
men. It is from the Chicago Record-Herald : 

Constantinople. — A number of revolutionary 
manifestos, attributable to the young Turk move- 
ment, are being circulated clandestinely here and 
in the provinces. One of these, distributed by 
an organization styling itself the Ottoman Liberal 
Committee, advocates in moderate but explicit 
language the re-establishment of the Constitution 
of 1878 in revised form, rendering some of its 
provisions more applicable to the needs of the 
country, and invites Ottomans to unite for the 
accomplishment of this object instead of by vyork- 
ing in different directions, enabling a despotic 
government to neutralize their efforts. 

It declares that the new sovereign must pledge 
himself to introduce the Constitution of 1878, in 
return for which the nation shall respect the 
rights of the imperial dynasty, especially the 
mode of succession to the throne established by 
centuries. The revised Constitution, it is added, 
should rely on the ancient principles, including 
the respect due to the sovereign's prerogatives, 
equality and liberty in equal degree for all Otto- 
mans, and a large degree of decentralization in 
the provinces. 

Another pamphlet purporting to emanate from 
the same source invites the inhabitants of the 
Empire without distinction to combine against 
the "savage oppression of those unhealthy beings 
who are the intermediaries of the cruelties and 
persecutions of the sultans," and says that the 
despotic government must be overthrown and law 
and justice established. 

The manifestos are considered indicative of the 
feeling of general discontent prevailing through- 
out the Turkish Empire. 


Kaiser's Government Not Trying to Rouse the 
Moslems Against England. 

The following, also, has similar interest 
to the above. It is from the Chicago News : 

Constantinople. — Much has been said about 
German attempts to influence the Moslem world 
against England but it is very doubtful whether 
such is the case. At the very time when the 
worst accusations were being made, namely when 
the question of the Egyptian frontier was up, it 
is a fact well known here that Germany was 


advising the Sultan to give way, pointing out to 
him that worse would befall him if he did not. 
Of course, Germany has always been opposed 
to England on commercial grounds, has done her 
utmost to oust Great Britain, and has succeeded 
in almost every attempt, the reason being that 
the German Emperor, the German Government, 
and German trade are all one and the same thing 
and work together fox one end. The Germans 
saw a large field in Turkey for German enter- 
prise and left no stone unturned to secure it. 

Has Trade in View. 

The German Emperor's visit here in 1898 was 
solely for the pui-pose of helping German trade, 
and lie then made the granting of the Haidar 
Pasha Harbor a personal matter and got it. All 
the time he posed as the Sultan's friend, and 
coming as he did when all Europe was down 
on the Sultan after the Armenian massacres and 
at the very moment when the Britisli troops were 
massacred in Crete, it is not surprising that the 
Sultan should have been taken in and believed 
he had a real friend. The Emperor has proved a 
friend in giving advice, but there it ends. In 
variably when a crisis has occurred and the con- 
cert of ^urope was threatening destruction, 
Germany has always refused to help in coercion 
and has always kept in the background, telling 
the Sultan that Germany is his friend and will 
not act against him, but at the same time advis- 
ing him to give way or come to terms and also 
at the same time getting some new concession. 
In all this there is no special animus against 
England, except that England is most in the way 
and interferes with German commerce. England 
was the stumbling block for a debouche for the 
Bagdad Railway and had to be opposed. 


Has Steadily Lowered Great Britain's Imports 
for Ten Years. 

Another Oriental kingdom whose imme- 
diate destiny may affect America is told 
in the following from the Philadelphia In- 
quirer : 

London.^In the last few years Russia has 
made wonderful strides in the Persian markets 
and it is now stated that it predominates in the 
trade there. This is due, it is said, as a result 
of the friendly intercourse established between 
the two countries. 

Ten years ago the Russian imports into Persia 
amounted to only fifteen per cent of those of 
Great Britain. Now, however, Russia actually 
imports more than England does, and the imports 
of the latter country are steadily diminishing. 
The reason for this is not far to seek: Russian 
influence is now supreme in Northern Persia. 
A new railway line for Russian commerce has 
also been opened, facilitating the communication 

between the two countries and enabling Russians 
to compete successfully with other commercial 

The first section of this line, Tiflis-Alexandro- 
pol, was opened as far back as 1899. A second 
section, Alexandropol-Erivan, was then opened 
in 1902, while the third section, Envan-Nake- 
chevan-Jidfa to the Persian frontier, has re- 
cently been completed. In this way a continuous 
line has been constructed, connecting Central 
Russia with Persia, running through Rostof, 
Perofsk-Baladjar, and Tiflis. The distance from 
St. Petersburg by this new railway is about 
3000 miles, and from Moscow about 2600, or 
six days' journey. 

This new line, of course, very much shortens 
the time formerly required for the journey by 
way of Baku or Petrofsk, as it obviates the ne- 
cessity of a long caravan journey. It is now 
proposed to extend this new line from Julfa 
through Persian territory as far as Tabriz, the 
Moscow of Persia and by far the largest trading 
center of that cotmtry. 

The surveys for this railway were made by 
the Russian engineers in 1900-01 at the same 
time as those for the Alexandropol-Julfa line, 
and the intimate relations at present existing 
between the two countries render the realization 
of this scheme only a matter of time, as the con- 
struction of the final link in the chain of com- 
munication has already been begun. 

The Russian Government hopes to have the 
line completed and in thorough working order 
early next year. It will be extremely interesting 
to see which extraneous power (if any) is to 
predominate in the commerce of the kingdom of 
the Shah. 


Ex-Grand Duke of Tuscany, or His Children, 
May Succeed to Throne. 

A country, the life of whose ruler the 
aspiring German emperor watches with a 
keenness that bears great international im- 
port is Austria-Hungary, concerning whose 
probable succession to the throne the St. 
Louis G-lobe-Demoerat has printed the fol- 
lowing : ■ 

When Archduke Leopold of Austria volun- 
tarily surrendered his imperial rank and pre- 
rogatives, as well as his Austrian citizenship, to 
wed a little actress, and became a citizen of 
Switzerland under the name of Leopold Wolf- 
ling, he probable failed to appreciate the fact 
that he was sacrificing not only his status as a 
prince of the reigning house but likewise the 
thrones of Austria and Hungary. True, at that 
time his prospects of succession may have 
seemed somewhat remote. But since then there 

The p a x d e x 



This cartoon, taken from the Tokio Puck, had the following caption attached to it: "Pan- 
American Trust." Uncle Sam, who has already swallowed the Philippines and the Hawaiian 
Islands and has lately seized the Cuban republic, is now contemplating a Pan-American trust 
to look down on the Old World. 

has been a change and to-day he would be re- 
garded in the light of an heir presumptive to 
Emperor Francis Joseph's crown. 

As everybody knows, that venerable monarch 
lost his only son at Meyerling, and is therefore 
without male issue. His eldest nephew, Arch- 
duke Francis Ferdinand, the heir apparent, is 
morganatically married, and has solemnly 
pledged himself never to attempt, when 
emperor, to endow his morganatic sons 
with imperial prerogatives or rights to 
the throne. Francis Ferdinand's next 

brother. Otto, has just died, leaving two sons, 
namely Charles Francis and Maximilian, both of 
whom are delicate, the elder one especially so. 
After them comes their father's youngest 
brother, Archduke Charles Louis, who is in- 
fatuated with the daughter of Professor Czuber 
of the Vienna University and who swears that he 
will never wed any one else unless he can marry 
her. The infatuation has lasted for several 
years, and all the endeavors of the Emperor to 
put an end thereto by sending the Archduke to 
travel abroad have merely served to strengthen 

it. The Emperor absolutely refuses to give his 
consent to any union of his nephew with Mile. 
Czuber, a union which, of course, could only be 
morganatic. It is believed than when the Em- 
peror dies, and Francis Ferdinand ascends the 
throne, he will be unable to withhold from his 
only surviving brother the permission to wed 
morganatically the woman he loves, in the same 
way he (Francis Ferdinand) has done himself 
in the case of Princess Hohenburg. 

Tuscan Prince Is in Line. 

Next after Archduke Charles Louis, now 
thirty-eight years of age, comes the ex-grand- 
duke of Tuscany, who was deprived of his throne 
by the great Italian revolution of IStiO, which in- 
corporated his dominions into the present 
kingdom of Italy. The grand duke, who is over 
seventy years of age, is hardly likely to survive 
the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and Charles 
Louis. But his eldest son is the Ex-archduke 
Leopold, now a Swiss citizen, and his second son 
is Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, who, it may be 
remembered, was dispatched by his family and 



by the Emperor to Switzerland to endeavor to 
induce the ex-erown princess of Saxony to return 
to Dresden, after her elopement with Giron, and 
to persuade Archduke Leopold to abandon his 
little actress and to resume his place at the head 
of his regiment at Olmutz. As everybody knows, 
the mission was unsuccessful. 

Of course, the Emperor has one surviving 
brother, Archduke Louis Victor, but he has long 
been afflicted with softening of the brain, and 
for several years past has been under restraint 
in one of the imperial chateaux near Salsburg. 
His case is incurable. 


It Is to Be Opened by Tale and Columbia 

For many years the need of special train- 
ing of Americans to meet the increasing bur- 
dens of international relationship has been 
agitated. That the proposition is finally 
taking shape is shown in the following from 
the New York Sun; 

New Haven. — The Yale-Columbia recipe for 
making expert diplomats is just out. It is in 
the form of a circular announcing the number 
and names of the courses for diplomats that are 
to be offered by Yale and Columbia Universities, 
which have combined to start the first school 
for diplomats in this country. 

The experiment is the result of the efforts of 
Yale alumni who believe that the diplomats sent 
to foreign countries by the United States are 
not all as highly trained as they should be. Presi- 
dent Nicholas Murray Butler of Columbia and 
President Arthur T. Hadley of Yale met not 
long ago in New York to talk over the matter. 
Secretary Elihu Root is said to be in sympathy 
with the movement and it is stated that Presi- 
dent Roosevelt has expressed himself as favoring 
some such undertaking. 

Andrew D. White, Yale '53, who represented 
the United States as ambassador in Germany for 

many years, started the movement here. On re- 
turning to New Haven to celebrate his fiftieth 
anniversary, he criticized the diplomatic service 
of this country and expressed the hope that the 
time would come when the United States would 
train its diplomats so that it would hesitate as 
much to send an unlettered, untrained man to 
represent the Government at some foreign post 
as it would to send a butcher to represent Amer- 
ican surgery at an international gathering of 


To Save, Not Destroy Life, Is Inventor Hol- 
land's Plan. 

New York. — Believing that to cripple and not 
annihilate will be the object in wars of the 
future, John Holland, the submarine torpedo 
boat inventor, is at work on a design for a new 
boat for this purpose. Mr. Holland is of the 
belief that the time is not far off when the 
nations of the earth will be settling their differ- 
ences without fighting, in which event destructive 
agents will not be necessary. He hopes by his 
new idea, however, to startle the world by the 
creation of a new mode of warfare. 

Mr. Holland took occasion to discuss the tor- 
pedo boat and some of his plans at a meeting 
of the Lasalle Society in Newark. 

"Submarines," said Mr. Holland, "are the 
only sort of weapons built against which there 
can not be any defense. But the one I am at 
work on and hope soon to build is a real new 
one and will be the chief instrument of all in 
doing away with wars. It will not go forth 
with the idea of destroying, but with a view to 
crippling or disabling, incapacitating, as it were, 
everything it attacks. With it nations can seek 
antagonists' ships and say, 'We will not destroy, 
we will only cripple.' It will put boats out of 
commission and render them unfit for service, 
and without, I am hoping, the loss of a single 



Cabinet, Legislature, Judiciary and 
Others at Work 

— Adapted from New York Times. 




THE opposition of Vested Interests to leg- 
islation calculated to force them into 
consideration of the public welfare having 
been much moderated, if not indeed having 
lost the bulk of its once enormous force, 
the attempt of the Government to govern 
itself takes on a freer and far more 
inspiring aspect than it has for many 
years past. Cabinet officials, as well 
as the President, give an unwonted sub- 
stance and progressiveness to their annual 
reports, and Congressmen venture upon res- 
olutions and bills with an earnestness and 
assurance which can but be most wholesome 
for the country. Whether there is a subtle 
and deeply hidden antagonism still being 
waged by the corporations and the finan- 

ciers, and whether they are using the present 
surface liberation to cover designs that will 
entrench them more vitally than ever, is 
something which it will require further time 
to demonstrate. 


Controller Insists upon Reforms That Will 
Create Elasticity. 

As significant as anything of the compara- 
tive harmony of interests in the country is 
the unanimity with which the various fac- 
tors appear to agree upon the line which cur- 
rencv reform should take. Controller 


T H E P A i\ D E X 

Ridgeley defined the movement in the recom- 
mendations made in his annual report, the 
following summary of which is from the 
Pittsburg Gazette-Tim«s : 

Washington.— William B. Ridgely, controller 
of the currency, in his animal report to Congress 
calls the attention of Congress to the necessity 
of a change in the national currency and renews 
the recommendations made in his report of De- 
cember 1, 1902. that the national banks be 
authorized to issue a portion of their circulation 
as uncovered notes as the best means of adding 
to this circulation the greatly needed quality of 

Controller Ridgely recommends that the 
laws be amended so as to allow of the following 
changes : 

All national banks which have been in oper- 
ation for not less than two years and which 
have an unimpaired surplus of not less than 
twenty per cent of their capital stock to be per 
mitted to issue not to exceed fifty per cent of 
the amount of their bond-covered notes in notes 
uncovered by bond deposits. 

To protect these notes the' banks to carry the 
same reserves as against deposits, in gold or its 
equivalent. In reserve banks this would be 
twenty-five per cent and in all others fifteen 
per cent of the outstanding notes. 

These notes to be further protected by a guar- 
antee fund of five per cent, to be deposited by 
the issuing bank with the treasurer of the 
United States before any are issued. 

Out of this guarantee fnnd all such gold- 
reserve notes to be redeemed on demand. 

The guarantee fund to be kept good by a grad- 
uated tax on the gold-reserve notes, beginning at 
a rate of not over two and one-half per ccat 
per annum. 

Every bank issuing gold-reserx^i notes to be 
required to provide means of redemption for 
such notes in every reserve and central reserve 
city, and also such other points as may be desig- 

These points to be numerous ai'd i'oiiveni?nt 
enough to put every national bank within twenty- 
four hours of a redemption center. 

The provision limiting the retiremeiu of the 
present bond-secured notes to $3,000,000 per 
month not to apply to gold-reserve notes, and 
this limit to be repealed or greatly extended 
at the discretion of the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, in its application to bond-secured notes. 

The stock of money in the United States on 
June 30, 1906, amounted to $3,069,900,000, of 
which $2,162,000,000 was in coin (including bul- 
lion in the treasury) and $907,000,000 in United 
States notes and national bank notes. The 
coin, bullion and paper currency in the treasury 
as assets amounted to $325,400,000, the re- 
mainder, .$2,744,500,000, being in circulation. 
The estimated population of the country on that 
date was 84,622,000. giving an average circula- 
tion per capita of $32.42, against a per capita 

of $31.08 for 1905 and $21.10 in 1896. The 
amount of money held by national and other 
reporting banks in the United States, shown by 
reports nearest to June 30, 1906, was $1,010,- 
700,000, which leaves $1,733,800,000 in circula- 
tion, exclusive of money in the treasury and in 
banks, being a gain of $133,700,000 over the 
amount in circulation in 1905, outside of the 
banks and the treasury. The money in the treas- 
ury on June 30, 1906, represented 10.60 per cent 
of the stock; in reporting banks, .32.92 per cent; 
and elsewhere, 56.49 per cent. The per capita 
unaccounted for in 1906 appears to be $20.48, an 
increase of $1.26 over the per capita estimated 
for 1905, and a gain of $6.83 in the per capita 
of money estimated to be in circulation ten 
years ago. 


Attorney General Advises New Laws to 
Strengthen Government. 
Another significant phase of the state of 
public mind is reflected in the emphasis with 
which the retiring- Attorney-General, Mr. 
Moody, urged that increased power be given 
the Government's law department to deal 
with trusts. Said the Chicago Record- 
Herald : 

Washington. — Recommendations for new legis- 
lation which will assist the Department of Jus- 
tice in the prosecution of offenders, particularly 
under the anti-trust law, are made by Attorney 
General William H.. Moody in his annual report, 
which was submitted to Congress. The reforms 
which he urges are as follows : 

1. An amendment of the law respecting the 
arrest of persons indicted for crime. 

2. Enactment of a law giving to the United 
States the right of appeal on questions of law 
in criminal cases, with the proviso that a verdict 
of acquittal on the merits shall not be set aside. 

3. Restoration to the Government of the right 
to appeal customs cases to the Supreme Court. 

4. The necessary legislation and appropri- 
ation to send the reports of the Supreme Court 
to each place of holding United States Circuit 
and District Courts. 

5. Amendment of the right of appeal from 
the Court of Appeals for the District of Colum- 
bia, so that it shall be coextensive with that of 
the various Circuit Courts. 


Secretary Metcalf Thinks This the Only Way 
to Regulate Trusts. 

In further elaboration of the requests of 
the Attornej'-General were those of the re- 



tiring Secretary of Commerce and Labor. 
Said the Philadelphia North American in 
summarizing Mr. Metcalf's report: 

Washington. — In his annual report just made 
public, Secretary Metcalf, of the Department 
of Commerce and Labor, calls attention to the 
fact that individual states have demonstrated 
their inability to effectually curb the improper 
uses of^ corporate powers. He suggests Federal 
control of corporations and says the most feas- 
ible way would be on the Federal franchise plan. 

"This plan," suggests the Secretary, "is sim- 
ply to require the greater industrial corpora- 
tions to obtain a license from the Federal Gov- 
ernment if they are to engage in interstate and 
foreign commerce. There would be no inter- 
ference with the powers of a state over the cre- 
ation of corporations, nor their actions wholly 
within the state. Under a license the Federal 
Government should require, as a condition prece- 
dent to granting the license, a full disclosure 
of all facts necessary to show the ownerehip, 
properties, tinaneial condition, and management 
of the corporation. 

"Furthermore, the corporation's records 
should be open to proper inspection; annual 
reports should be required, and, finally, the Gov- 
ernment should have the power to revoke the 
license and prevent the continuation of engaging 
in interstate and foreign commerce in the event 
the coi-poration fails in its obligations toward 
the Government or is convicted of violating Fed- 
eral laws. 

"Ordinarily the imposition of fines does but 
little to correct corporate abuses, but if the pen- 
alty be the denial of the right to continue busi- 
ness a most effective remedy is provided. 

"The railways have been brought under Fed- 
eral regulations by tlie Interstate Commerce Act. 
The principle of such regulation has been adopted 
in the* acts regarding meat inspection and pure 
food. The next act should extend the license 
plan over the greater industrial eoi-porations 
dealing in the staple commodities." 


Secretary of the Navy Urges Stronger Naval 
Equipment at Once. 

Public sentiment, regardless of other an- 
tagonisms, has long been well united on the 
question of the Navy and its adequate expan- 
sion, but since Congress reassembled, no less 
of a Republican than Senator Hale has given 
notice of his intention to fight further in- 
creases of naval and military expenditure. 
In view of this the following summary from 
the Chicago Tribune of the retiring Secre- 

tary of the Navy's recommendations is 
doubly interesting : 

Washington, D. C. — Three new battleships, 
each as large and powerful as the already famous 
British Dreadnaught, will be added to the navy 
if Congress heeds the urgent advice of Secretary 
of the Navy Bonaparte, in his report recently 
made public. 

Congress already has authorized the construc- 
tion of one of these battleships. 

Secretary Bonaparte urges the simultaneous 
construction of two more, so that the navy 
would have a homogeneous squadron of the most 
formidable fighting ships afloat. In doing so, 
he makes one startling argument. He says: 

"I think it is but right to call attention to 
certain features of our country's situation, 
which, although sufficiently obvious and of self- 
evident importance, nevertheless appear to be 
frequently overlooked. Although a continental 
power, for practical purposes we share with 
Great Britain the immense advantages of an in- 
sular position. Provided our naval strength be 
sufficient to retain command of the sea, we are 
absolutely safe from invasion, and consequently 
escape the burdens of a vast military estab- 
lishment, which bear upon all the great powers 
of the European continent; but if we have not 
a sufficient navy, the oceans to the east and west 
of us, instead of serving as bulwarks for de- 
fense, become highways for invasion. 

Invasion Possible in a Week. 

"The extensive steam merchant marines which 
serve the commerce of the world are no less 
available to transport men and munitions of war, 
and they place our shores within a week's, or at 
least a fortnight's, march of a powerful army 
from any one of the great military countries 
of the world, a danger rendered far more serious 
by the fact that an enemy coming by water is 
restricted to no line of advance ascertainable 
beforehand and may choose for aggression any 
point of our coast line which seems the most vul- 

"Under these circumstances, unless \\e are 
willing to maintain a strong standing army, the 
maintenance of our naval strength is a matter 
of supreme moment to the national safety, and 
I am convinced that an enlightened and patriotic 
opinion will assent gladly to any reasonable sac- 
rifices necessary to assure such safety." 


Large Increase in the Revenues Shown by the 
Treasurer's Annual Report. 

Two of the great Departments of the Gov- 
ernment exhibit at least some of the reasons 
why the country is so easily harmonized. 



The following condensation of the report 
of the Secretary of the Treasury gives one 
phase of the matter. It is from the New 
York Sun: 

Washington. — The report of the Secretary of 
the Treasury for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1906, was just transmitted to Congress. 

Mr. Shaw devotes the early part of his report 
to a setting forth in detail of the income and 
disbursements of the Government which show 
the total of receipts to have been $762,386,904.62, 
and the total expenditures, $736,717,582.01, show- 
ing a surplus for the fiscal year of $25,669,322.61. 

Including the issue of Panama bonds the pub- 
lic debt November 1, 1906, was $925,159,250. Of 
this amount bonds of the face value of $631,- 
542,630 were held by the Treasurer of the United 
States in trust for national banks as security 
for circulating notes and deposits, leaving $293,- 
616,620 in the hands of other investors. 

Revenue Receipts. 

Compared with the fiscal year 1905, the re- 
ceipts for 1906 increased $65,285,634.67, and 
there was an increase in expenditures of $16,612,- 
083.46. The customs receipts for 1906 amounted 
to $300,251,877.77, an increase over the previous 
year of $38,453,020.86. The receipts from in- 
ternal revenue for the year were $249,150,212.91, 
an increase over the previous year of $15,054,- 
472.06. The receipts from the operation of the 
Postofflce Department were $167,932,782.95, 
being an increase over the previous year of $15,- 
106,197.85. The total expenditures on account 
of the military establishment were $117,946,- 
692.37, an increase over the previous year of 
$5,776,843.35, while the total expenditures on 
account of the naval establishment were $110,- 
474,264.40, an increase of $6,198,162.46. The 
amount paid to pensioners was $141,034,561.77, 
a decrease over the previous year of $739,402.80. 
The Indian service cost the Government $12,746,- 
859.08, a decrease over the previous year of 
$1,489,214.63. Interest on the public debt 
amounted to $24,308,576.27, a decrease over the 
previous year of $282,367.83. The aggregate 
expenditures for the year 1906 were $736,717,- 
582.01, and the increase for the year was $16,- 

The revenues of the Government for the cur- 
rent fiscal year (1907) are estimated, upon the 
basis of existing laws, at $813,573,264, ana for 
the same period the expenditures are estimated 
at $755,573,264, showing a surphis of receipts 
over e.xpenditures of $58,000,000. 


Secretary Shaw's Optimistic View of Its Cause 
and Its Possible Remedy. 
Despite prosperity's high tide, as reflected 

by the condition of the Treasury, the na- 
tional money market has seldom been more 
strained than it has in recent months. Here 
follows Secretary Shaw's explanation, as 
condensed by the New York Sun from his 
annual report: 

Reviewing the causes and effects of the recent 
monetary stringency in the East and the West 
particularly, but more or less throughout the 
country, Mr. Shaw says: 

"In February of 1906, $10,000,000 was depos- 
ited in national bank depositaries in seven of 
the principal cities and satisfactory security 
other than Government bonds accepted, but with 
the distinct understanding that it would be re- 
called in July of that year. This relief was not 
sufficient, however. Banks everywhere, West as 
well as East, found themselves in the spring 
with surphis reserve exhausted. The foreign 
exchange market responded sympathetically in a 
very marked decline in sterling exchange suffi- 
cient to have insured the importation of gold if 
the banks had been in position to buy the ex- 
change with which to secure it. The Secretary 
then offered to make deposits, satisfactorily se- 
cured, equal in amount to any actual engagement 
of gold for importation, the same to be promptly 
returned when the gold actually arrived. In this 
way approximately $50,000,000 (more than six 
carloads) in gold, largely in bars, was brought 
from abroad. Most of this came from Europe, 
but in part from Australia and South Africa. 

"This was accomplished without expense to 
the Government and without profit to the import- 
ing banks, but with great benefit to the business 
interests of the country. The various banks 
which imported this gold lost in the transactions 
several thousand dollars, as established by their 
books; the price of exchange promptly advanced 
so that merchants and exporters of graih and 
cotton having exchange to sell were benefited in 
excess of $150,000, and interest rates dropped 
sufficiently to effect a saving to borrowers in New 
York City alone of more than $2,000,000. This 
means of relieving financial stringencies, which 
has been once since repeated attracted far more 
attention throughout Europe than in the United 
States, though it has been widely commented 
upon in both places. It has at least demon- 
strated that the United States is in a position to 
more effectually influence international financial 
conditions than is any other country, and justi- 
fies great caution lest while protecting our own 
interests we cause distress elsewhere which will 
soon be reflected here. 

Crops Taxed Resources. 

' ' The harvest of 1906 overtaxed our granaries, 
our warehouses, the carrying capacity of our rail- 
roads, and, in conjunction with our unprece- 
dented industrial activity, strained well nigh tr 




-Indianapolis News. 



the limit the credit possibility of the country. 
A cotton crop sometimes estimated at 14,000,000 
bales, 750,000,000 bushels of wheat, nearly 3,000,- 
000,000 bushels of corn, 300,000,000 bushels of 
potatoes, garnered in a single season, required 
both actual money and bank credit based thereon. 
During the summer months grain sacks were not 
in use, granaries and warehouses were empty, 
freight cars stood on sidetracks, business men 
fished in mountain streams or rested at vacation 
resorts. Meanwhile the banks were comfortably 
well supplied with money, and interest rates were 
low. Everything seemed serene to everybody 
except to those who recognized that in this lati- 
tude crops mature in the fall. 

More Gold Imported. 

"Finding transportation facilities inadequate 
to promptly export our agricultural products, the 
Secretary of the Treasury deemed it wise to 
again facilitate the importation of gold from 
abroad with which to carry them until they could 
be exported. Under plain and unequivocal 
authority of law, and without a penny of ex- 
pense to the Government, approximately another 
$50,000,000 of gold was brought from abroad 
and turned into the channels of trade. In addi- 
tion $26,000,000 of the money withdrawn in mid- 
summer was restored. Of this, $3,000,000 was 
given to New York City and the same amount 
tendered to Chicago, a part of which was de- 
clined, however, because the banks found it im- 
possible to borrow the bonds with which to secure 
it and unprofitable to buy them. Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, St. Louis, and New Orleans each re- 
ceived $2,000,000; Baltimore, Louisville, Kansas 
City, Cleveland, and Cincinnati, $1,000,000 each; 
Pittsburg, Buffalo, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, De- 
troit, St. Paul, Omaha, Des Moines, Denver, 
Sioux City, Memphis, Peoria, Atlanta, Nashville, 
and Sioux Falls approximately $500,000 each. 
Meanwhile sensational writers told the people 
that all this was being done for the encourage- 
ment of speculation on Wall Street. 

"If those who recognize that a deposit of 
money at Denver relieves financial tension at 
Wall Street will also acknowledge that a deposit 
in New York relieves financial stringency at Den- 
ver, no material harm will ensue. Money is al- 
most as liquid as water and finds its level about 
as quickly." 


Speaker Against Ship Subsidy and River and 
Harbor Bill a Club. 
With the several federal Departments 
making recommendations with unusual free- 
dom, as seen above, the probable result of 
Congressional action, of course, becomes ex- 
tremely important. Early in December, the 
New York Sun gave the following forecast 

of the session, which has proved so remark- 
ably accurate that scarcely any other his- 
tory of the doings of the first seventeen 
days is necessary : 

Washington, December 2. — The second session 
of the Fifty-ninth Congress will open at noon 

All during the past week senators and members 
of the House have been arriving in Washington 
preparatory to taking up the work of legislation. 
To-night the hotel corridors and the apartment 
houses are crowded with solons, private secre- 
taries, clerks, and the vast horde of satellites 
which are drawn here by reason of the assem- 
bling of the national lawmakers. 

If the plans of the leaders do not miscarry, 
and usually they do not, this will be strictly a 
business session and one without many frills 
and little to excite the attention of the country 
at large. There will be no railroad rate bill 
or statehood measure to absorb attention, as was 
the case at the session of the present Con- 
gress, for Congress intends that the Hepburn 
Act shall have an opportunity to demonstrate 
its worth or lack of worth before any attempts 
are made to remedy any defects, and there is no 
possibility of statehood for New Mexico and 
Arizona being considered. 

Everything is in readiness to start the wheels 
of legislation in motion, and as the session is 
short no time will be lost in getting down to 
work. For the past ten days or two weeks the 
House Committee on Appropriations has been 
hard at work on the Legislative Appropriation 
Bill and now has it practically completed. It 
will be reported either to-morrow or Tuesday. 
This will afford opportunity for the talkers to 
talk until something else is ready to be acted 

There is promise of a lively scrap over the 
River and Harbor Bill, the ground work of which 
was laid by Representative Burton and his com- 
mittee last session. The amount which it will 
carry will depend to a large extent upon the ap- 
propriation for increase in the navy and per- 
haps upon whether or not the ship subsidy bill 
is to become a law. It will be large if the in- 
crease in the navy is small and the shipping bill 
is allowed to die in Representative Grosvenor's 
committee, and comparatively small if the pos- 
sibility of war with Japan frightens members 
into complying with the President's demand for 
a lai'ger navy and if the shipping bill is not 

The prospects are that Speaker Cannon will 
not permit the Gallinger Subsidy Bill to come 
out of the Committee on Merchant Marine and 
Fisheries. The Speaker has never been friendly 
to the proposition, and if there is to be a large 
appropriation for rivers and harbors, and an- 
other Dreadnaught authorized, the shipping bill 
will stand a mighty poor show of enactment, de--. 
spite the threat of Senator Gallinger and others 




— New York World. 



that they will knife the River and Harbor Bill 
if the subsidy measure does not meet with favor- 
able consideration. 

The Speaker is not easily bluffed by the Sen- 
ate, as has been shown upon several occasions, 
and is not inclined to back down and yield upon 
a measure which he has all along opposed as 
he has the Subsidy Bill. Still the friends of 
that measure profess to have some hopes for it 
this winter. 

Probably the most interesting topic in the 
Senate this winter will be the Smoot case. Sen- 
ator Burrows, the chairman of the Committee 
on Privileges and Elections, has declared that it 
is his intention to call up the matter early in 
the session and press it to a vote. 

Senator Gallinger of New Hampshire arrived 
in Washington to-night in a comparatively happy 
mood. In reply to the threat of Representative 
Burton of Ohio, chairman of the House Com- 
mittee on Rivers and Harbors, that he would 
oppose the passage of the Ship Subsidy Bill this 
winter, he promptly served notice on the Ohio 
Congressman that if the shipping bill were 
blocked in the House the River and Harbor Bill 
would be cut into ribbons when it reached the 
Senate. Senator Gallinger said : 

"Mr. Burton should understand from the be- 
ginning that if he interposes any obstacle in the 
way of the shipping bill, there will be some men 
in the Senate who will carefully scrutinize the 
provisions of the River and Harbor Bill. There 
is no logical reason why we should expend hun- 
dreds of millions to improve the highways of 
commerce for the benefit of foreign shipping and 
refuse to appropriate a mere pittance for the 
rehabilitation of the American merchant 
marine. ' ' 


Senator Beveridge Proposes Drastic National 

A new object in national legislation, but 
one which promises to be of great force, was 
described as follows in the Pittsburg Dis- 
patch : 

Richmond, Ind. — At a meeting of the repre- 
sentatives of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations of Indiana and Ohio, Senator Albert J. 
Beveridge stated that on the opening day of the 
coming session of Congress he intended to in- 
troduce a bill prohibiting the labor of children 
throughout the country, and a bill to make more 
rigid the present meat inspection law. 

He said the Child Labor Bill will provide that 
no railroad, steamship, steamboat, or other car- 
rier of interstate commerce shall transport or 
accept for transportation the product of any 
factory or mine that employs children under 

fourteen. The bill, he said, would provide that 
every carrier of interstate commerce shall re- 
quire an affidavit from every factory or mine 
owner that he does not employ children under 
fourteen years of age, the form of the affidavit 
to be prescribed by the Department of Commerce 
and Labor or the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion, with heavy penalties, both civil and crim- 
inal, for violation of the law. 

The bill, if it becomes a law, he believed, will 
stop the practice of ruining future citizenship 
by working children of tender age in factories 
and mines. 

There is no other way, he said, to reach this 
growing evil. A Federal statute can not be 
passed directly controlling the factories and 
mines in the states. That is the province of the 
states. But Congress has absolute power over 
the railroads, boats, ships, and other agencies of 
interstate commerce, and unlimited power under 
the Constitution to provide that they shall not 
carry the products of factories and mines which 
employ children. 

The bill to amend the Meat Inspection Law 
will require the putting of the date of inspec- 
tions on every can of meat product, and the 
packers to pay the cost of inspection. 


Republican Leaders Expect to Sweep the Coun- 
try on This Issue. 

Despite an obvious popular sentiment in 
its behalf and much pressure from within 
the party itself, the President has refrained 
from urging tariff revision. One of his rea- 
sons, possibly, is the following, as given in 
the Washington Post: 

Tariff revision immediately following the 
presidential election in 1908. This is the Repub- 
lican program. There will be no extra session 
of the Sixtieth Congress. The President, what- 
ever he may have thought of revision of the 
tariff twelve months ago, does not now think it 
would be wise to agitate this matter at a session 
of Congress on the eve of a presidential cam- 

Members of Congress of the Republican faith, 
who are now coming into Washington appear to 
be largely of one mind on the tariff question. 
The stand-patters, who deprecate the idea of 
anything being done, admit that revision is made 
necessary by the attitude of the people, who, 
whether rightly or wrongly, attribute high prices 
to tariff-protected trusts. Revisionists, who wish 
to see their party perpetuated in power, even 
though the majority does not agree with them 
on the subject of amending the tariff schedules, 
are willing to postpone action for a short period, 



if definite pledges are given them and the coun- 
try. These pledges are to be given by the na- 
tional convention of 1908. 

Revolt Is Threatened. 

Party leaders believe that, with a definite 
pledge, couched in language devoid of ambiguity, 
and about which there can be no uncertainty, 
they will sweep the country in 1908. Up to this 

Senators Cullom and Burrows, standpatters of 
the most pronounced type, have begun to dis- 
cuss the advisability of revision. They will be 
followed by others who have become aroused to 
the danger of continuing longer in a policy that, 
although it has done immense good to the coun- 
try in general, has fostered special industries 
until they have become a menace to the peace 
of the people. 


-St. Louis Republic. 

time, revision has simply been held up before the 
people as a possibility. The Republicans have 
declared their intention of 'revising' the tariff 
when conditions required it, and have asserted 
that no schedule is sacred. These things have 
been said so often, and revision has been re- 
fused so steadily, that revolt has crept into the 
party and threatened to disrupt it. 

There is not a member of the House Ways 
and Means Committee returned by the Repub- 
licans to the Sixtieth Congress who does not 
come back with the warning of a reduced m.a- 
jority staring him in the face as a reminder of 
promises still to be fulfilled. Public men, like 


Stupendous Task Being Accomplished by Con- 
gressional Committees. 

A phase of legislation which has had but 
little public comment but which is of ex- 
treme moment is refiected in the following 
from the New York Times: 

Washington. — Lawyers throughout the country 
are manifesting much interest in the work of the 
joint committee of the Senate and House to re- 



vise the laws of the United States. Members of 
the committee are in receipt of many letters con- 
taining inquiries about the work of the commit- 
tee. The stupendous task involved is appreciated 
by few laymen. 

Representative Swager Sherley, of Kentucky, 
who is a rhember of the committee, talked of 
the scope of the work and shed a good deal of 
light on the subject. 

"The committee," said Mr. Sherley, "is now 
at work on the Criminal Code, and this will be 
the first general section to be reported. It is 
probable that this code will be submitted soon 
after Congress convenes. This title was repoited 
to the House at the last session, but it failed of 
consideration owing to the congestion of legisla- 
tion at that time. 

"After the Penal Code, consideration will be 
given to the title relating to the judiciary, in 
which it is proposed to make some far-reaching 
changes. For example, the district courts will 
be the only courts of original jurisdiction. The 
Circuit Court of Appeals will be abolished and 
the Circuit Court will sit merely as an appellate 
court. The consideration of this title will con- 
sume much of the time and attention of the 
committee, and it is not at all improbable that 
it will cause considerable discussion in the Sen- 
ate and the House after it has been reported to 
these bodies. It is believedj however, that the 
proposed changes regarding the District and 
Circuit Court of Appeals meet with the general 
approval of the legal fraternity. 

"After the Criminal Code and the judiciary 
title are disposed of the committee will likely 
take up the first sections of the revised statutes 
relating to the organization of the Government, 
followed by the army and navy and other titles, 
until the entire revision is completed. 

"The enormity of the task before the com- 
mittee and Congress will be appreciated when it 
is known that the statutes to be revised and codi- 
fied embrace more than 9000 sections. The Penal 
Code alone consists of nearly 500 sections, and 
the Judiciary Code embraces more than 700. 

"In order to secure consideration of this re- 
vision at the coming short session, it is not un- 
likely that night sessions will be necessary, as 
proper consideration of bills of such magnitude 
will practically preclude other legislation. 

"The last revision of the statutes of the United 
States was made in 1878, and the present revision 
is the result of tlie Act of Congress approved 
June 4, 1897, which authorized the President to 
appoint a commission to revise the laws, and of 
subsequent acts of Congress enlarging the work 
of the commission. The work is now practically 
completed, and the commission expires on De- 
cember 15 next. 

"Since the revision of 1878," concluded Mr. 
Sherley, "there has been a great mass of legis- 
lation of a permanent nature, and these enact- 
ments are found in nearly twenty large volumes 
of the Statutes at Large, and are commingled 
with temporary enactments and appropriation 
bills under titles which often give little or no 

indication of their nature and import. The 
necessity, therefore, for a speedy and thorough 
revision of the statutes is apparent. There is a 
universal demand on the part of the legal pro- 
fession in particular, and the public in general, 
for a ready and accurate reference to the 
statutes, and this affords sufficient justification 
for prompt action on the part of Congress. 

"The revisiori will attempt to bring together 
all statutes and parts of statutes relating to the 
same subject, omit redundant and obsolete en- 
actments, supply omissions, and root out in- 
accuracies, even making changes in the substan- 
tive existing law, where such changes are deemed 
necessary and imperative." 


Not Matured. 

"What are you looking so gloomy about?" 
"Oh, I'm just home from the race track." 
"Why, you told me before you went down 

there that you had picked a sure winner." 
"Yes, but — I — er — guess I picked him before 

he was ripe." — Philadelphia Public Ledger. 



Great Scott, 

Mathot ! 

You've got 

Your shot 

Too hot. 

Somebody's not 

All rot. 


Of couree, a lot 

Should get it hot. 

But please spot 

That lot. 

And don't pot 

Everybody but Mathot, 


— W. L. 


Realizing that their magazine is hard reading 
under the most favorable circumstances, the 
editoi-s of the Congressional Record have decided 
not to apply the simplified spelling rules. — Puck. 

Count Boni's Love Lyric. 

Across the lighted boulevards 

The happy crowds are straying; 
Think, countess, of the happy hours 

When we two went a-Maying. 
When we two went a-Maying, Dieu ! 

My creditors were trusting; 
For with your francs, oh, heart of mine ! 

My poeketbook was busting. 








— Adapted from St. Louis Republic. 





While the country is so phenomenally 
prosperous and yet so sharply pinched for 
the medium wherwith to conduct its busi- 
ness; and while, at the same time, no small 
percentaore of its prosperity is rendered 
futile by an alleged inadequacy of its trans- 
portation facilities, a wise public attention 
seems suddenly diverted to the long neg- 
lected subject of canals and waterways. 
Perhaps it is the Panama Canal that has 
served as the prompting agency, especially 
since the President's trip to the Canal Zone; 
but more likely it is the upward impulse 
of a natural objective, which has long been 
unduly smothered both by circumstance and 
bv device. 


Landlocked Waterway from Savannah to Mexi- 
can Border Proposed. 

One of the most striking of the canal 
proposals is the following, as described in 
the Chicago Tribiuie: 

Philadelphia, Pa. — Plans for a land-locked sea 
canal extending from the mouth of the Rio 
Grande, at the Mexicah ' border, all the way to 
New Orleans, and then following the coast 
around to Savannah, with small interruptions, 
are being prepared by the Trades League Canal 
Committee, who will present them at, the coming 
conference of the Rivers and Harboi-s Congress 
in Washington soon.. .. 



It is argued that by the expenditure of a little 
money in connecting the hundreds of arms of the 
sea along the southern coast, a still-water sea ca- 
nal thousands of miles long would be made which 
would reduce the cost of navigation immensely, 
as ordinary river-going barges could be trans- 
ported along the coast where it is now necessary 
to go outside in the rough ocean in steamers 
or sailing vessels. A similar canal from Van- 
couver to Alaska has saved millions, it is pointed 
out to the navigation companies. 

Professor Lewis M. Haupt, chairman of the 
Trades League's canal committee, is getting the 
matter into shape for presentation. 


Convention Inaugurates Gigantic Movement in 
Behalf of Rivers and Canals. 

The strength of the canal movement is 

well illustrated in the following from the 

New York World: 

Washington, D. C. — The appropriation by Con- 
gress of at least $50,000,000 annually for the im- 
provement of the rivers and harbors of the coun- 
try was the keynote of the speeches delivered 
before the National Rivers and Harbors Conven- 
tion which assembled here for a two days' ses- 
sion. The convention was called to order by 
Harvey D. Goulder, of Cleveland, president of 
the Congress, and was opened by prayer by the 
Right Reverend Henry Yates Satterlee, Bishop 
of Washington. Addresses were made at the 
morning session by Mr. Goulder, Speaker Can- 
non, and Theodore E. Burton, chairman of the 
House Committee on Rivers and Harbors. 

Mr. Burton said the convention should not ask 
for appropriations from Congress for any par- 
ticular community, but for the greater projects 
of the country. He thought less should be spent 
on the navy and more for improvement of the 
rivers and harbors of the country. 

At the afternoon session speeches were made 
by John Barrett, the American Minister to Co- 
lombia; John Fitzgerald, Mayor of Boston; Bird 
S. Coler, president of the Borough of Brooklyn ; 
es-Senator Berry, of Arkansas, and others. 


Offers Executive Encouragement to the Water- 
ways Promoters. 

That the canal and waterway movement 

is appreciated in the highest circles of the 

Government is manifested in the following 

from the Philadelphia North American: 

Washington, D. C. — Emphatic indorsement of 
the broad proposition that the waterways of the 
United States must be developed and utilized to 
their fullest transportation capacity was given 
by President Roosevelt. 

His views upon this highly important national 

problem found expression in the remarks the 
President made in the White House to the dele- 
gates of the National Rivers and Harbors Con- 

The President's remarks came in response to 
the presentation to him of resolutions adopted 
by the convention at its final session, but were 
also in general recognition and encouragement 
of the widespread movement for improved rivers 
and harbors. 

Speaking to the delegates — business men from 
all parts of the United States, here to represent 
the industrial interests of the nation in a de- 
mand for adequate transportation facilities and 
reasonable freight rates— the President struck 
the heart of the whole matter when he said that 
"the Government should concern itself with 
the proper control and utilization" of the water- 
ways "where they are fitted to be the great 
arteries of communication." 

It Would Affect Railway Rates. 

Further explaining why the nation should be- 
stir itself, the President voiced the proposition 
that "we need and must have further facilities 
for transportation, and one of the effective meth- 
ods of affecting railway rates is to provide for a 
proper system of water transportation." 


Railroad President Declares It More Important 
Than Panama. 

What adequate canal facilities may mean 
has been reflected in no more significant way 
than by President Hill of the Great North- 
ern Railway, who has always been one of 
the country's most able students of traffic 
affairs. Said the New York Times : 

Chicago.— James J. Hill was the guest of honor 
at the banquet of the Merchants' Club recently 
and delivered an extended address upon "Chi- 
cago's Interest in Reciprocity with Canada." 
Charles D. Norton, president of the club, in in- 
troducing Mr. Hill, said that Chicago had suf- 
fered two great calamities, the first the great 
fire and the other the fact that James J. Hill 
passed through the city without stopping when 
he went to make his home in the Northwest. 

Mr. Hill, in beginning, gave attention to trans- 
portation problems. 

"To-day the entire country is suffering from 
want of transportation facilities to move its busi- 
ness without unreasonable delay," he said. 
"The prevailing idea with the public is that the 
railways are short of cars, while the fact is that 
the shortage is in tracks and terminals to pro- 
vide a greater opportunity for the movement of 
the cars." 

He declared that the country to-day faces a 
transportation problem which only time, patience, 
and the expenditure of enormous sums of money 
will remedy. He asserted that there is a crying 
need now for the construction of a fifteen-foot 
canal between St. Louis and New Orleans, and 



said that the necessity for this would increase 
with time. There is no more important general 
work for the Government to perform, he said, 
than to construct a canal capable of carrying ves- 
sels of fifteen feet draught. 

Mr. Hill recited figures to show that the trade 
with the people whom the United States will be 


Army Engineers Favor Plan to Install Fifty-two 
Locks and Dams. 

The most extensive and costly of the 

waterway plans which is likely to secure 


Daily Diversions; the President Is 'It.' 

— Chicago News. 

able to reach by the construction of the Panama 
Canal amounts to only about $54,500,000 an- 
nually, while our trade with Canada is over 
$200,000,000 per annum. He asserted that the 
conservation and increase of this latter trade is 
of greater importance than anything that will 
accrue to the United States because of the con- 
struction of the canal. 

immediate action is the one described in 
the following from the Pittsburg Dispatch: 

Pittsburg. — The Board of Army Engineers, 
which has supervision of all the river and harbor 
work done and paid for by the United States 
Government, has completed a survey of the Ohio 
River from Pittsburg to Cairo, made with the 



Maximum fines^ifassessd 

* I 81, 960.000.' 

7"e Approximate: 


* 181.960,000. 


-Chicago Tribune. 

view of establishing the feasibility of the 'On- 
to-Cairo' project inaugurated by the Dispatch. 
The engineers will recommend to the Committee 
on Rivers and Harbors of the House of Repre- 
sentatives that $65,000,000 be appropriated by 
Congress for the building of fifty-two locks and 
dams between here and Cairo, which will main- 
tain a boating stage of nine feet in the Ohio 
River during the whole year. 

The officers believe that with the river can- 
alized in the way proposed, there will be up- 
stream tonnage in volume almost as great as 
that which now passes down. If in weight it is 
not as great as the downward commerce, in 
value it will be greater and the income of the 
transportation companies accordingly increased. 


What the Mississippi River, Lakes, and Gulf 
System of Waterways Means. 

Something of the appeal of the whole 

range of internal waterway development 

to the popular imagination is to be found 

in the following extended article from the 

St. Louis Globe Democrat: 

The waters of Lake Michigan are already run- 
ning into the Gulf of Mexico, as they were sev- 

eral hundred thousand or million yeare ago be- 
fore something happened to the poles of the 
earth and the ice age struck Missouri and Illi- 
nois. It changed things considerably while it 
lasted in Missouri and Illinois, making many 
changes more lasting than the slight ridge which 
has been cut through since 1890 to allow the 
waters of the lakes to resume their natural 
course. But when that cut has been followed by 
all that goes with it in the natural course of 
things, we will have the Mississippi River, lakes 
and gulf system of waterways in operation as 
the most important inland water system on the 

As a system it is already an accomplished fact. 
Duluth, at the western head of Lake Superior, 
already touches the New York wharves by water 
through Lake Superior, the Sault Ste. Marie 
canals. Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and the Erie 
Canal. It already touches water at the New 
Orleans wharf and the Eads jetties through Lake 
Superior, Lake Michigan, the Chicago ship canal, 
the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. If this mid- 
continental water connection east and west, north 
and south from tidewater to tidewater, through 
the heart of the continent, were nothing but a 
dream, it would still be one of the greatest dreams 
that ever entered the human mind. But it is an 
accomplished fact already in all but certain Avork 
of finishing touches, and these finishing touches 
are sure to be made, regardless of arguments 




— Washington Post. 



for or against them. They may cost certain large 
figures in money millions and in thousands of 
men and of days' work upon them before 'whale- 
backs' from Duluth tie up at the St. Louis levee, 
but it will be done as a certainty, and when it is 
done it will then slowly dawn on the minds of 
those who have done it that it is one of the 
greatest accomplishments of human mind and 
muscle in the history of civilization. 

Its magnitude as an accomplishment at com- 
paratively small cost can only be guessed at 
now as a result of holding in mind something 
like a hundred pages of the statistics of results 
already accomplished and waiting to unite with 
its results far greater things in the future. This 
can be done, for the time being at least, by any 
one who deliberately and systematically under- 
takes it, but the strain of doing it is so great 
that we will never know what such an undertak- 
ing as this means until it is actually showing 
its results, as it will actually show them to the 
eyes of many now living in Si. Louis, in Chi- 
cago, in Duluth, in Milwaukee, in scores and hun- 
dreds of other towns along the courses of the 
rivers and the shores of the lake which are to 
be connected and made a 'system.' 

An Idea That Demands Fulfilment. 

The idea is one of those which can not enter 
the human mind with even a suggestion of its 
immediate possibilities without compelling its 
own accomplishment as a practical fact. There 
is no real need of argument. The facts of what 
the idea means have only to be put together and 
the idea accomplishes itself, compelling all the 
resources of mind and money that can be brought 
to bear on it. 

If poets could dream in scores of pages of 
statistics, in thousands of men at work, as farm- 
ers and factory operatives, sailors, engineers, and 
stokers in the engine rooms of steamers, roust- 
abouts, draymen, shipping clerks, and merchants, 
millers, bakers, and finally of millions in "pa- 
latial homes and dismal tenements" in a thou- 
sand towns and cities of this country and Europe, 
expecting or getting without expecting it, their 
daily supply of food, then a poet might dream 
something like a realization of the full and final 
meaning of such an accomplishment as this in 
answer to the world-prayer, "Give us this day 
our daily bread." 

As this sort of dreaming is almost as difficult 
as canal digging, we get ideas at less expense by 
being struck with a few striking facts. The facts 
in this connection have become so striking in the 
last twenty-five years or so that it is now hard 
to stand up against collision with them. But let 
us see what has been happening just north of us 
on the lakes since Proctor Knott convulsed the 
country with his famous speech showing the hu- 
mor of the circle Duluth had drawn around itself 
to confine the spheres of influence it expected to 
exert in the future of the world. 

Last year, sailing and steam vessels entered 
the ports of the United States on the Atlantic, 
the Gulf, and the Pacific Coasts from Belgium, 

France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, 
England, Scotland, Ireland, British America, the 
Central America states, Argentina, Brazil, Co- 
lombia, the British East Indies, China, Japan, 
Hawaii, the British possessions in Africa and the 
adjacent islands. These alone are enumerated 
singly, but the total tonnage of the vessels from 
these and all other countries thus entering all 
the ports of the United States through the whole 
year was 24,793,000 tons as reported by the 
United States Bureau of Statistics, the total 
world tonnage, entered and cleared, being 49,819,- 
000 tons. 

During the season, which does not include the 
whole year, the Sault Ste. Marie or Saint Mary's 
Falls Canals, between Lakes Superior and Huron, 
were passed by vessels with a registered tonnage 
of 36,617,000 tons, as reported by the acting gen- 
eral superintendent, L. P. Morrison, under the 
direction of Colonel Charles E. L. B. Davis of 
the United States Engineer Corps. 

Comparing Tonnages. 

We put these two totals together. We find the 
registered tonnage of a few miles of canal and 
lake water comparing thus with the tonnage of 
all the countries of the world in all the ports of 
the United States, and the thing seems out of 
the question — merely part of the dream which 
amused Proctor Knott and with which he 
amused the country. But finally, when we sea 
that we are awake and that the totals will not 
change, no matter how often we look at them, we 
have been struck by a striking fact and com- 
pelled into something like a realization of what 
it means when such dreams as this come true. 

The actual freight carried through these canals 
during the season back and forth between these 
two lakes could not have been loaded all at once 
into all the vessels of all the world which en- 
tered our ports during the year. It greatly ex- 
ceeded their carrying capacity. As the German 
Government reports the total capacity of the 
ocean vessels of the nineteen principal countries 
of the world, including the United States, it is 
between 37,000,000 and 38,000,000 tons. The 
total freight passing through the St. Mary canals 
in 1905 was 44,275,680 tons. That is, if the at- 
tempt had been made to load it all at once on all 
the ocean ships in the world, it would have sunk 
them all. 

This is a fact so striking that, after collision 
with it, we really need nothing more in the way 
of statistics. But it is really a small thing in 
its total connection. These millions of tons were 
not mere dead vegetable, mineral and animal 
matter, but facts in the lives of millions of peo- 
ple who have been coming to the territory of the 
rivers and lakes since Proctor Knott made his 
speech on the great dream of Duluth. They are 
still coming by millions. Every ton of this 
freight stands for hundreds of other tons not 
there represented, and the grand total stands 
for human effort, human stress of mind and 
muscle, human hopes and wants, successes, suf- 
ferings, failures, and renewed efforts. It is real- 




— New York WorkL 



ly the great drama of human life in one of its 
greatest climaxes that is taking shape in such 
statistics as these. 

In a generation, both on the lakes and on the 
rivers below them, there has been a change in- 
conceivably great. The obscure village of Du- 
luth has become one of the ten "principal pri- 
mary grain markets" of the world; flush with 
Chicago last year, and with more millions and 
tens of millions of bushels of breadstuffs crowd- 
ing on it for shipment each year and each 

These ten primary markets, the greatest pri- 
mary food markets of the United States, and 
hence of the world, are all on the lakes and river 
system. Five of them are on the lakes. Tive, 
including St. Louis, are on the Mississippi River 
and its tributaries. The figures of their growth 
mean the increase of the supply of food for the 
United States and the woHd. The connection 
between Lake Michigan and the Gulf by a deep 
waterway means that they will all be connected 
with tidewater in a single enormous system, on 
which their total capacity for feeding hungry 
people will bear through increased production of 
food, lower prices of marketing; more food at 
lower prices for those who eat it, and higher 
prices for those who produce it. This follows be- 
cause the higher price of marketing is deducted 
in part from what is paid those who produce 
the food and is added in part to the 
prices charged those who buy it. 

When the first drop of water from Lake Michi- 
gan passed the Eads jetties into the Gulf of 
Mexico, the "Mississippi River, lakes and gulf 
system of waterways" became an accomplished 
fact in everything except such details as invest- 
ing the money the United States Engineer Corps 
estimates it will cost to make a fourteen-foot 
channel from the Chicago canal to St. Louis. It 
was a serious matter, and not merely one of the 
greatest and most monumental developments of 
the whole history of humor that this first drop 
of Lake Michigan water, passing St. Louis on 
its way to the gulf in 1900 was loaded with mi- 
crobes, bacilli, and micrococci. The number of 
these astonishing names found in subsequent 
drops under the microscope were accompanied 
by something else in this Lake Michigan water 
as mysterious as micrococci. It was a ."poten- 
tial." A micrococcus, as a mystery, is really as 
simple as a tadpole, if not more so. He is in- 
terpreted as a potentiality of disease which may 
involve a million or more people in epidemic. The 
potentiality of Lake Michigan water on its way 
to the gulf, as it threatens to develop a freight 
"potential," threatens in the same way to affect 
more or less the whole volume of a billion and 
a quarter tons of freight. With water transit 
extending from Duluth to New York harbor by 
lake and Erie Canal and river, this potentiality 
was quite clear to some eyes without the aid of 
the miscroscopes which found the micrococcus. 
The simple fact involved was that the history of 
forty years told in tables any one may study 

out in an hour, showed that wherever a water 
route is actually operating the cost of carrying 
freight over it fixes the highest rate that can be 
charged successfully for carrying freight over all 
land routes within its "sphere of influence," 
and after doing this, takes down the highest 
land rate with it as it goes down itself. 

This is the fact that makes the completion 
of the lakes to the gulf a certainty of the fu- 
ture. The greatest thing in the history of the 
world in the second quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury was what St. Louis was most intimately 
concerned in doing through the use of steam on 
the Mississippi River and its tributaries in lay- 
ing the foundations of the States and cities which 
sprang up like mushrooms in the trans-Missis- 
sippi west during the third quarter of the cen- 
tury. Then something else which had already 
begun, worked out into the greatest single thing 
in the history of the last quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. It was the work of steam on 
the great lakes, doing between 1875 and 1900 
for population and production in a vast territory 
what the rivers with St. Louis as their greatest 
city had already done for their territory in the 
preceding quarters of the century. 

Now, when the fii-st quarter of the twentieth 
century is to join these results as two compo- 
nent totals of the same sum total, it is as much 
a matter of course as when a bookkeeper has 
footed his long columns of separate results into 
the two totals which must go together to make 
up the grand total. The immense possibilities 
already realized on the lakes can not be kept 
separated from those already realized on the 
rivers to make up the grand total for the begin- 
nings of the future, in which, with immigration 
increasing at the rate of over a million a year in 
this country and the immense wheat areas north 
and west of the lakes in Canada filling up, the 
present is still only a suggestion of what the re- 
sults of the future are likely to be. 

Deep Water in Canal. 

Besides the Chicago canal, already cut deep 
enough for twenty-eight miles for a ship canal, 
it is proposed to dredge the Illinois and Des 
Plaines Rivers until there is a depth of fourteen 
feet to St. Louis. The Chicago Canal was begun 
in 1892, and up to April, 190G, something over 
$50,000,000 had been spent on it. The first 
water from the lakes was turned into it on its 
way to the gulf on January 2, 1900. Chicago 
and the State of Illinois then proposed to turn 
the canal proper, twenty-eight miles in length, 
and fourteen miles of its Chicago and Des Plaines 
River connection, or forty-two miles in all, over 
to the United States Government on condition 
that it should establish the fourteen-foot channel 
as far as St. Louis. The most expensive part of 
the work will be eight miles between Lockport 
and Joliet, where the cut will be through rock 
to the depth of twenty-two feet. The declivity 
from Lockport to St. Louis is 171 feet and the 



estimated cost of making the channel is $27 - 
000,000, in addition to $3,000,000 that Chicago 
is expected to spend on the section beteen Lock- 
port and Joliet. The estimate of the United 
States Engineer Corps put the total at about 
$31,000,000. • 

It is no more possible to guess now how much 
of the enormous trade of the lakes will be turned 
down to St. Louis by such a connection between 
lakes and rivers than it is to guess now what 
the trade of the lakes in another quarter of a 
century will be. Fifty years after the Dnluth 
speech of Proctor Knott, the greatest effort of 
humorous oratory in the history of Congress, 
the contrasts of reality with the present may be 
as strong as the contrasts of the present are with 
the realities of the day when Proctor Knott rose, 
holding in his hand the concentric circles around 
Duluth which prophesied the present. Without 
guessing at all, however, it is easy to see that if 
it had only half the freight passing through it 
to St. Louis which passes the Sault Ste. Marie 
canals, its influence would be felt from lakes to 
gulf and from the head of navigation on the 
Missouri and Mississippi River, not only to St. 
Loiiis and the gulf, but to St. Louis and the At- 
lantic across the country. This is a necessary 
result of an open watei-way's work, fixing rates, 
even when the actual work of moving freight 
over it is at the lowest. 

The work of completing the proposed deep 
watenvay is no such stupendous thing to the 
imagination as the work actually involved in 
cutting continents in two at Suez or at Panama. 
The possibilities of results which belong to the 
Mississippi River, lakes and gulf as a system of 
waterways soon pass from the great realities of 
existing facts to the region where imagination 
can not follow them. But to the cautious judg- 
ment which ventures beyond the present only by 
inches it must become clear on the evidence that 
nothing greater than this has been undertaken 
in the United States, and that as an accomplished 
fact it is now inevitable. 


Chief Executive Won the Hearts of All Workers 
in the Zone. 

President Roosevelt's journey to Panama 
served, of course, to give life to the entire 
subject of canals as well as renewed con- 
fidence to the general public that the great 
Transisthmian waterway is to be completed 
as soon as engineering skill can accomplish 
it. Said the Associated Press concerning 
the President's visit. 

New York. — "President Roosevelt took the 
Panamaians by storm," said Theodore P. Shonts, 
chaii-man of the Panama Canal Commission, who 

arrived on the steamer Colon from Colon. Mr. 
Shonts spoke enthusiastically of the recent visit 
of the Chief Executive and declared that work 
on the canal was progressing under satisfactory 
conditions. During his talk with the newspaper 
men Mr. Shonts took occasion to deny that his 
daughter, Theodora, had become engaged to a 
titled foreigner. 

Discussing the President's visit, Chairman 
Shonts said : 

"President Roosevelt simply took the people 
of Panama by storm. The setting aside of all 
precedents by the President in his visit to 
Panama won the instant admiration and respect 
of the people of the republic. Mr. Roosevelt was 
familiar with the work theoretically and saw and 
understood more during his short stay than the 
average man would in several months. 

"The building of the canal is to President 
Roosevelt as the building of a home would be 
to any other man. He looks at it as his own 
personal work, having been given carte blanche 
by Congress in the work. 

' ' During the President 's trip through the canal 
zone one of the leading citizens asked Mr. Roose- 
velt what he thought of the criticism as written 
by Poultney Bigelow. The President answered: 
' Small people, like small flies, despoil large things 
and large enterprises.' 

* ' In the President 's speech at Colon, the thing 
that won the hearts of the canal workers and of 
the people was his statement : ' The men who are 
now working on the canal and the citizens of 
Panama who are assisting them will go down to 
posterity like the veterans of the Civil War. 
When this great work is completed the men who 
have been instrumental in its success will look 
backward and say, ' ' I was part of it, " as do the 
veterans of the Civil War when they look with 
pride at the great united nation.' 

"This did more to endear the President and 
the United States in general to the people than 
anything else he could have said." 


President Reorganizes the Panama Administra- 
tion After His Visit. 
The practical result of the President's 
trip was reflected, in part, as follows in the 
Associated Press dispatches: 

By an executive order, signed by the President 
in Panama and cabled to the offices of the 
Isthmian Canal Commission here, the working 
forces of the Panama Canal are thoroughly re- 
organized. A reorganization of the Canal Com- 
mission itself is expected to follow soon. 

The general effect of the order is to give 
Chairman Shonts more complete control of the 



administrative portion of the canal construction 
and to place Chief Engineer Stevens in absolute 
charge in Panama. 

There will be no new governor of the Canal 
Zone to succeed Governor Charles E. Magoon, 
now running things in Cuba. It is provided that 
the duties of the office of Governor shall be ful- 
filled by the general counsel, who happens to 
be Richard Reed Rogers. Mr. Rogers will con- 
tinue to maintain his office here. This step will 
leave no division of authority on the isthmus be- 
tween the chief engineer, Mr. Stevens, and the 

New Members of Commission. 

The President in reorganizing the commis- 
sion will select any new members from the heads 
of the seven departments of work created by the 
new executive order. Mr. Shonts and Mr. Stev- 
ens, of course, will be members. The commission 
by law must consist of seven members, but the 
President is not compelled to have more than a 
quorum. There are now two vacancies, one 
caused by the transfer of Governor Magoon and 
the other by the failure of the Senate at its last 
session to confirm Joseph B. Bishop. 

The present commission was appointed in the 
spring of 1905. Then there was on hand the 
problem of the type of canal that should be con- 
structed and the general work of preparation. 
There is nothing left except administrative and 
executive detail, and the commission is consid- 
ered to have outlived its real mission in life. 
Consequently the reorganization is planned. It 
is very likely that one of the new membere will 
be Mr. Rogers, the general counsel, who, in ad- 
dition to his work as such, will perform the duties 
of Governor of the canal zone, and Colonel Wil- 

liam C. Gorgas, head of the sanitation depart- 
ment. Colonel Gorgas would be the represen- 
tative of the army on the commission. 
Seven Executive Departments. 

The order just issued provides for the estab- 
lishment of seven executive departments. Here- 
tofore there have been but three, administrative, 
under Mr. Shonts ; engineering, in the hands of 
Mr. Stevens; and the third having to do with the 
control of the Canal Zone, of which Governor 
Magoon was the chief executive. These three 
heads of the departments comprised an executive 
committee. This organization is abolished by 
the executive order. The new departments will 
be administered by John F. Stevens, chief en- 
gineer; Richard R. Rogers, general counsel; 
Colonel William C. Gorgas, chief sanitary officer; 
D. W. Ross, general purchasing officer; E. S. 
Benson, general auditor; E. J. Williams, dis- 
bursing officer, and Jackson Smith, manager of 
labor and quarters. 

"The chairman," says the new order, "shall 
have charge of all departments incident and 
necessary to the construction of the canal or any 
of its accessories ; he shall appoint the heads of 
the various departments, subject to the approval 
of the commission; the head of each department 
shall report and receive his instructions from the 
chairman; he shall have charge of the opera- 
tions of the Panama Railroad and Steamship 

The chief engineer will have charge of all en- 
gineering work, the construction of the canal, 
and control of the Panama Railroad in so far as 
it relates to construction, and the custody of all 
the supplies and plant of the commission on the 



T«e iHA.Ot of PM?IU6 CaffEtM : 
ABOUT M£ FOiyy ^ygAl^fe ACQ'' 

— Adapted from the New York Times. 









OP course, the vision of such a thing is 
far away, but nevertheless recent 
events awake the imagination to the thought 
that the world of invention is on the eve of a 
device that will play an utterly new part in 
the solution of traffic problems and create 
an entirely new sphere of human intercourse 
and law. The device is the airship, which so 
lately as but five to ten years ago was looked 
upon as probable only in the dreams of 
fanatics, but which now is regarded by no 
less responsible experimenters than Sir 
Hiram Maxim and Santos-Dumont as so far 
perfected that it will shortly be in as com- 
mon use as the bicycle and the automobile. 



Santos-Dumont, After a Recent Success, 
All Will Be Flying Soon. 
Said the noted Brazilian aeronaut recent- 

ly, according to the Kansas City Star: 

Paris. — Santos-Dumont, since tlie successful 
flight of his aeroplane, "The Bird of Prey," 
talks enthusiastically of the early approach of 
the day when all mankind will be navigating 
the air and flying machines will be more com- 
mon than motor cars. Indeed, he believes that 
the flying machine will eventually become the 
poor man's motor car and be safer, faster, and 

In an interview he said : 

Machines Need Not Be Large. 

"The machine I am experimenting with is 
very large, having a surface of more than eighty 
square yards, but the practical aeroplane, which 
will be for the air what the democratic bicycle 
is for the earth, will be much smaller. With 
ordinary flying machines it is necessary to in- 
crease the size in order to increase the power. 

"With the aeroplane, on the contrary, speed 
will be increased in direct proportion to the 
diminution of the resistance surface. My pres- 
ent aeroplane was intentionally built large to 
overcome main obstacles as to principles. But 
with increased power, which means speed, the 



size can be reduced. At the same time, increased 
speed adds to the safety, as a powerful motor 
is more easily manipulated. We can, therefore, 
look forward to a practical aeroplane which can 
be comfortably housed in every home. 
Cheaper Than Motor Cars. 

"From the standpoint of maintenance, the 
cost both of petroleum and repairs, the aero- 
plane will be much less expensive than the motor 
ear. There will be no expensive tires to burst 
and no bad roads to jolt them to pieces. There 
will be no collisions. Next year people will be 
»ble to go to the seashore on their aeroplanes. 
It will become the fad and the commencement 
of a new industry. 

"The only danger would be the risk of a 
broken rudder, and I can not see that a rudder 
could break itself. The aeroplane is immobility 
itself. The swerving which made me descend on 
October 23 can be easily rectified by a second 
rudder to counteract any tendency in that direc- 


Great British Expert Thinks Problem of Aerial 
Flight Is Solved. 

Said the noted British inventor and air- 
ship student, Sir Hiram Maxim, as quoted 
in the Chicago Tribune: 

London. — The question of a perfected navi- 
gable flying machine is now regarded by experts 
here as one of the probabilities of the immediate 
future. Sir Hiram Maxim said recently: 

"We shall not have any balloons in the future. 
We shall have flying machines. A few years 
ago the automobile was looked upon as a sort of 
monstrosity. Now it is practically a necessity, 
and I really think that in ten years at the out- 
side we will be navigating the air as easily and 
as surely as we now are navigating the sea 
or the roads. 

"For a balloon to lift, it must have a specific 
gravity less than the air. To attain this it must 
be exceedingly fragile. Therefore, it is useless 
for all practical purposes. Again, it has to be 
of comparatively enormous dimensions. Thus 
you see in a balloon you have a combination 
of size and fragility which must tell against its 
usefulness, but with the advent of the true fly- 
ing machine these drawbacks will disappear. So 
I have no hesitation whatever in saying that 
before many more years pass we shall do away 
completely with the balloon. 

"A solution of the problem is coming, what- 
ever people think. I really believe .myself that 
within a year from now there will be a great 
number of machines in the air. This is certain 
to happen within two years at any rate. We 
can not get away from the fact that a real fly- 
ing machine has now made its appearance. 

Santos-Dumont has proved this in his recent 
demonstrations, and these mark the beginning 
of a totally new epoch in the history of the 

"There are sure to be startling developments 
within the next year. We are only on the thresh- 
old at present and the immediate future is full 
of possibilities." 


Declares American Firm of Wright Brothers the 
Leaders in Invention. 

Another specialist and inventor, who has 
gained his distinction in the United States, 
reviewed the subject at length recently. 
Said the New York World : 

"The impossible has been passed in aerial 
navigation and I am proud of the fact that 
America leads the world in that matter," said 
Professor Alexander Graham Bell to a World re- 
porter. Professor Bell had just returned from 
Boston, where he had delivered an address on 
the subject of aeronautics at the semi-annual 
meeting of the National Academy of Sciences at 
Harvard College. "To the Wright brothers, 
of Ohio, belongs the credit of achieving the seem- 
ingly impossible, and I believe Santos Dumont 
has incorporated their ideas in his machine," 
said Professor Bell. 

"The fact that America leads is not very 
pleasing to France. They have been at it for 
years over there, and as in some other things 
wanted to lead the world — to be in the van of 
newer creations. They lead the world in motor- 
ing, you know. When Professor Langley was 
successful in his flying machine in 1896 the 
Frenchmen were startled and surprised, for they 
had no idea that experiments were being made. 
They started in then and determined to take the 
laurels away from America. Within a year or 
two thereafter France again was in first place. 

"Now it is America's turn, and do what they 
may to claim the honor, or try to discredit what 
the Wright brothers have accomplished, the fact 
still remains plain to any one who has followed 
the subject of aerial navigation that France is 
again in second place. 

"Santos-Dumont deserves a great deal of 
credit for what he has achieved and for risking 
his life in numerous ascents and showing the 
public that he was really doing something. But 
the Wright brothers have accomplished more by 
working quietly and without any flourish of 
trumpets, so that when they are ready to show 
the public what they really have done their suc- 
cess will be all the greater. 

Day of Laughter Has Gone By. 

"Naturally I am very much interested in the 
matter from a scientific standpoint. I have done 
some experimenting myself, because I believe 
that we are approaching a progressive era of 




"Two California scientists have succeeded in charging an electrical circnit with human 
electricity by the application of electrodes to the walls of the stomach. A drink of whisky 
doubled the current." — News Item. 

"Oh, Auntie, I'm so glad to see you! And William promised to take a drink so he could 
get home quickly. He's pretty fast, anyway. 

"Watch at the window while I put away your things and perhaps you can see him coming, 
with his skates on and all lit up. 

"There he comes now, with a good-sized package. I was afraid he'd forget to get it. See! 
He's waving to you! Those motor skates save so much time." 



aerial navigation. It is but a few years ago that 
talk of flying machines produced laughter. The 
man who advocated such a thing was considered 
mentally unbalanced. But the work went on 
under adverse conditions, and so to-day we have 
a real practicable flying machine in this country. 
"I have not seen the Wright brothers' ship 
nor Santos-Dumont's, but the details of both 
are familiar to me. You see, the American in- 
ventors have gone along conducting their experi- 
ments in secret as much as possible, while San- 
tos-Dumont has been before the public a great 
deal. So the latter is very well known, and he 
holds the center of the stage as the flying machine 
star. But as a matter of fact the Wright 
brothers could displace him were they to show 
the world what they can do. 

Value in Time of War. 

"It will undoubtedly be in war maneuvers that 
the machines will be given their first real test. 
That is where their practicability will be thor- 
oughly tried out. It will mean a great deal to 
the country that has a flying machine to carry 
dispatches or make observations and drop explo- 
sives down in the enemy's camp. With a ma- 
chine under control it will be a difficult matter 
for the sharpshooters to hit it and disable it, 
for it need never remain stationary. With a bal- 
loon the navigators were at the mercy of the 
air, and it has always been doubtful whether 
their use in warfare was of any particular value. 

"This Government recognized the value of the 
flying machine long ago. That was why Pro- 
fessor Langley was allowed to go ahead and 
spend money in experiments. Had he been 
allowed to work in secret and do what he wanted 
the results would have been different. 

"Ten years ago I was given a perfect realiza- 
tion of the feasibility of the flying machine. At 
that time Professor Langley had constructed his 
first aeroplane and I was allowed to see it in 
operation. He had a steam engine in it and it 
flew about from one place to another, and I 
managed to get a photograph of it. On two 
different occasions he was successful with it. 
That demonstrated that he was on the right 
track, having a steam-propelled airship. 

"Later on he continued his studies, and the 
public through the newspapers may be blamed 
for what happened. The writers camped on his 
trail, and he was unable to make a move without 
its becoming known. He was a sensitive man, 
and all this jarred upon him. Because his ma- 
chine did not do wonders, when in fact a slight 
mishap disabled it, he was held up to ridicule 
and there is no doubt in my mind that it has- 
tened his end. He died broken-hearted when he 
might have been successful had he been left 
alone to perfect his machine. 

More Encouragement in Europe. 

"The incentive seems to be greater on the 
other side of the water. They take to it more 
over there and big rewards are offered for a 
successful flying machine. Over here the country 

is more matter of fact, and after the machine 
is perfected it will be given approval. It is this 
sort of thing that sometimes retards the devel- 
opment of scientific inventions. All inventors 
are not wealthy, and their experiments are some- 
times carried on at a cost of lots of time and 
what little money they have, and sometimes the 
needful things are not available because of lack 
of funds. 

' ' No doubt Santos-Dumont could have done 
much better had there been no great crowds 
present when he made his ascent. The people 
are not educated to the fact that a flying ma- 
chine is something heavy and substantial, and 
were one to hit you it would kill or seriously 
injure you. But the people regard them in the 
light of balloons, and so jeopardize their lives 
by crowding about, preventing a man from pick- 
ing out a suitable landing place. Of course, 
Santos-Dumont is a victim of his own circum- 
stances, for if he had not let it be so generally 
known what he was going to do, it would have 
been much different and his success would have 
been more pronounced. 

"The fact that the Wright brothers have been 
able to fly with a machine that weighs 1925 
pounds proves conclusively that the first stage 
has been passed. Their engine alone weighs 
more than two pounds and their car embodies 
a great many principles which are in the line of 
progress. The fiexibility of the rudders in front 
and rear is something that seems to augur well 
for the future success. While I have not person- 
ally seen it, yet I can readily see how such rud- 
ders may be worked advantageously in control- 
ing the machine. 

It Is the Old Story of Evolution. 

"Flying machines are simply coming into 
vogue now as they did many years ago. It is 
the same old story of evolution, only we of this 
age are making greater progress. Years and 
years ago people were experimenting with all 
sorts of devices, but many of them sacrificed 
their lives in attempting to fly, so it died out. 
This present age, however, is one that does not 
admit defeat and the people are struggling along 
accomplishing something all the time. They have 
the advantage of more knowledge gleaned from 
scientists and this they can turn to great advan- 
tage. ' ' 


Grows Angry Over Statement That He Imitated 
Wright Brothers. 
The reflection contained in Professor 
Bell's interview naturally was resented by 
the eminent Brazilian. Said the New York 
Herald : 

Paris. — When seen yesterday by a Herald cor- 
respondent concerning the criticism made upon 
his performances by Professor Graham Bell, M. 



Santos-Dumont said he was surprised to see such 
foolish remarks in print. He very much doubted 
whether Professor Bell ever uttered such words. 

"You see," said the young Brazilian, "one 
part of the argument destroys the other. For 
instance, Professor Bell is reported to have said 
that he believes the Wright brothers have made 
a machine which has flown and that naturally 
they kept it perfectly secret. Almost in the 
same breath he is reported as accusing me of 
copying the designs of the Wright brothers. 

"How could I do such a thing if the machine 
had been kept hidden away from every observer? 
The thing is altogether too absurd. As I said 
once before, there is absolutely no evidence ob- 
tainable here to support the alleged statements 
of the Wright brothers. They may have flown, 
but there is nothing in any reports of their pro- 
ceedings which inspires confidence. 

"What might very easily take place, now 
that I have managed to construct a machine 
which has flown and of which photographs and 
plans are in everybody's hands, is that the 
Wright brothers might copy my machine, come 
out with it in public and declare they had con- 
structed it years ago when the first of their re- 
markable series of letters began. There is noth- 
ing that I can see to prevent them doing this 
and claiming to be the first to have flown." 


Lebaudy's Dirigible Balloons Are Used for Mili- 
tary Purposes. 
For a long time the French militarists have 
been viewing the airship with a seriousness 
far greater than the phlegmatic cynicism of 
the Yankee temperament has allowed itself 
to cultivate, with the result shown in the 
following from the New York American: 

Paris. — France will soon have a navy of the 
air. A fleet of aerial warships is to be built — 
indeed, a squadron is already being constructed. 

The dirigible war balloon of MM. Lebaudy, 
built on the plans by the celebrated engineer, 
Julliot, has made an astonishing flight, absolutely 
unattached, and has proved as much under con- 
trol as a first-class yacht. 

The scene of this flight was at Moisson, 
near Mantes, Department of Seine-et-Oise, and 
the distance made was sixty miles. This success 
following that of ten days ago, when the 
machine stayed in the air two hours and twenty 
minutes, has created the greatest excitement in 
the French War Department, which is now con- 
vinced that the day of a possible warfare in 
the air is at hand. This airship of the Lebaudys 
is named La Patrie, and is driven by a motor 
which gives the propellers an average of eight 
hundred and fifty revolutions per minute. She 

is cigar-shaped, but much larger and more pow- 
erful than that of Santos Dumont. 

The experiment was the more brilliant repe- 
tition of that of November 16. After several 
trials made when the airship was but a foot or 
so above the earth to see if the motor was work- 
ing well, six passengers, including an engineer 
from the War Office, entered the ear, and at 
9.20 the motor was set working and La Patrie 
rose gracefully from the gi-ound to a height 
of six hundred feet. All present, including the 
specially appointed officials from the War Office, 
expressed admiration at the rapidity and ease 
with which she answered her helm. She was 
completely under the command of her pilot, and 
the officers declared that the perfect airship had 
at last been built. 

Soon after rising the Patrie sailed off grace- 
fully in the direction of the village of Lavacourt 
at a speed of fifteen miles per hour. She then 
circled around the village, turning to the left or 
right with ease, and finally moved off to the hills 
bordering the Seine, swerved around toward 
Moisson, coming back toward her shed at the 
gait of twenty miles an hour. When over the 
shed and about two hundred feet in the air she 
slowly and gracefully settled down to the ground 
amidst the waiting squad of soldiers. 


Said to Fear That Other Nations Will Have the 
First Aerial Warships. 
What the French activity may mean is re- 
flected in the following from the Chicago 
Record-Herald : 

London. — Though the English people have been 
slow, as they were in the case of automobilism, 
to take the same interest in aerial navigation as 
other European nations, the enthusiasm which 
they are now displaying was manifested by a 
large and interested audience which assembled 
at the Royal United Service Institution to 
listen to a lecture on "recent progress in 
aerial navigation" by Colonel J. D. FuUerton 
of the Royal Engineers. Major B. F. S. Baden- 
Powell occupied the chair. 

In the course of the lecture Colonel Fullerton 
said great progress had recently been made 
toward solving the problem of aerial navigation, 
and it behooved Englishmen to keep abreast of 
the times. 

Other countries were giving particular atten- 
tion to the subject and England must do the 
same. The "soaring" balloon was never likely 
to be of any practical use and the "driving" 
was a question of the future. 

Fuel to supply this driving force presented 
a difficulty which no inventor so far had over- 
come successfully. At present oil appeared best 
for aeronautical use, as it was safe, had good 
heat value and could be easily handled. The 
motor was a machine devised to utilize the power 



of the fuel to the best advantage. In conclusion 
the lecturer said: 

"There is no doubt whatever that aerial ships 
will play an important part in future wars. It 
is consequently most desirable that this country 
should at once take steps to insure a suitable 
aerial force being ready when the time for the 
struggle arrives, and I suggest that a royal com- 
mission be appointed to report after careful in- 
quiry as to whether there is now a reasonable 
chance of solving the problem of flight." 


Carnegie Offers to Aid in Practical Test of a 
New Air Vessel. 

New York. — The only woman in the world who 
has attempted to solve the problem of aerial 
navigation is Miss E. L. Todd, of West Twenty- 
third Street. 

Since the efforts of Santos-Dumont and Pro- 
fessor Langlfcy Miss Todd has attempted to 
profit by the failures or successes of both these 
men, and believes she has found the solution 
of this difficult problem of locomotion in the air. 
She has invented a flying machine which is now 
attracting wide attention at the show of the 
Aero Club in Grand Central Palace. Her ma- 
chine is an aeroplane and relies for success on 
a ratchet arrangement for directing the course 
of the machine upward or downward at will. In 
the model on exhibition Miss Todd has found the 
same difficulty that has confronted all aerial 
navigators — that is, it won't fly. But she con- 
fidently believes that she can easily overcome 
this defect. 

The invention of Miss Todd has attracted more 
attention than any other exhibit at the Palace 
show. Andrew Carnegie spends two or three 
hours every day in going over the details with 
the woman inventor. 

"How will you regulate the landing of the 
machine?" asked Mr. Carnegie, as he was 
minutely examining the parts of the airship 
one day. 

"I think that is one of the easiest problems to 
solve," replied Miss Todd. "You see this valve 
here? Well, by putting that into play the elec- 
tric force is so curtailed that the revolutions 
of the fans decrease. Without impetus the ma- 
chine will naturally discontinue its flight. It is 
exactly the same principle as employed by the 
larger birds, ' ' she explained to Mr. Carnegie, who 
was intensely interested. 

"But do you think it will rise at the right 
time?" asked Mr. Carnegie. 

"Of course, this model will not rise," ex- 
plained Miss Todd, "but in a perfect machine I 
think that will be easily solved." 

Mr. Carnegie, it is said, would be willing to 
defray the expenses of having a practical test. 


I have heard men long for a palace, but I want 
no such abode. 

For wealth is a source of trouble, and a ieweled 
crown IS a load; 

I'll take my home in the open, with a mixture 
01 sun and rain — 

Just give me my old sheep wagon, on the bound- 
less Wyoming plain. 

With the calling sheep around me, and my do- 

with his head on my knees, 
I float cigarette smoke on the sage-scented prairie 

breeze ; 
And at night, when the band is bedded, I ereeo 

like a tired child ^ 

To my tarp in the friendly wagon, alone on the 

sheep range wild. 

I have had my fill of mankind, and my collie's 

my only friend. 
And I'm waiting here in the sagebrush for the 

judgment the Lord may send ; 
They'll find me dead in my wagon, out here on 

the hilltops brown. 
But I reckon I'll die as easy as I would in a 

bed in town. 

— Denver Republican. 

Heartless Sheila Shea. 

Shure, the parish is so quiet. 

Sheila Shea. 
All the folk are saddened by it 

In a way. 
An' the whole o' thim arewaitin' 
Pur the joy o' celebratin' 

Somethin' lively; like a weddin', let us say. 
Shure ye know it is the duty 
Of a girl that's blessed wid beauty 

To be careful not to let it waste "away. 

Do ye hear me. Sheila Shea 
Shure, how can ye be so gay, 
Wid such quiet all about ye, that ye sing the 
livelong day? 

Has no sense o' sorrow found ye, 

Sheila Shea? 
Paix, the world revolves around ye. 

An' it's gray. 
Still, the spell will soon be broken. 
Fur, although ye have not spoken 

Sorra word o' what I've begged of ye to say. 
If ye will not grace a weddin', 
'Tis meself will soon be dead, an' 

There's some comfort in a funeral, anyway. 

Do ye hear me. Sheila Shea? 
Shure, how can ye be so gay 
Wid my breakin' heart so near ye, that ye sing 
the livelong day? 

— Catholic Standard and Times. 



More than two thousand Kansas farmers have bought automobiles and the horse is rapidly 
becoming a back number in that state. — News Item. See Page 83 for No. II. 







F'OR several years there has been a reaction 
in the United States against the passion 
for industrialism which has gradually driven 
the country into its era of trusts and railroad 
monopolies, and the swing of sentiment has 
been back toward the farm. Nothing has 
stimulated the trend so much as the remark- 
able breadth and inventiveness of the work 
in the Department of Agriculture. And 
now, as the country finds itself pinched for 
money with which to do its business and 
short of facilities with which to carry its 
products, it is significant that the main cause 
of all the trouble is found to be the prolific 
output of the farm. 


National Banks to be Allowed to Lend Money on 
Unencumbered Farms. 

Probably nothing could more fully illus- 
trate the extent to which the farm has been 
rehabilitated in public esteem than the fol- 
lowing from the New York Times: 

Washington. — After years of wrangling the 
House of Representatives passed recently by a 
three-to-one vote the Lewis bill, permitting na- 
tional banks to make twelve months' loans on 
unencumbered farm lands to an extent equal to 
one-quarter of their capital stock. The debate 
was spirited, and such men as Hepburn, John 
Sharp Williams, Prince, of Illinois, Gillespie, of 



Texas, and Hill, of Connecticut, engaged in the 

It was "the great West and the farmer" ver- 
sus Wall Street and the city banker throughout 
the wrangle. Mr. Hepburn contended that 
western surpluses went to New York to supply 
the sinews for speculation and then went back 
to western borrowers at exorbitant rates. High 
rates for call money, he asserted, were not 
caused by drains of money to lend to the West, 
but by the demands on Wall Street to return 
what it had borrowed from the West. The 
farmers, he continued, had little personal prop- 
erty, while their land was their asset. 

He urged that western banks be given the 
right to make loans with this asset as collateral. 
The result, he said, would be that the farmers 
of the West could borrow at home; the banks 
there would have a field for surpluses. Wall 
Street would be stripped of this source of specu- 
lative material, and the demand for its return 
would be largely removed. Thus feverishness in 
the loan market would be lessened, and call rates 
be less subject to violent upward move- 
ment. He added that the twenty-five per 
cent limit made the transaction safe for banks, 
however small their capital, and despite the im- 
possibility of immediate realization. 


Magnitude of American Rural Output Exceeds 
All Past Records. 

The ofRcial Federal report of the coun- 
try's farming condition was condensed as 
follows in the Philadelphia North American : 

A veritable epic in figures, a triumphant song 
in statistics, is the report of the secretary of 
Agriculture, which tells the story of the Amer- 
ican farmer's marvelous store of riches won 
from the soil in the year just ended, reaching the 
astounding total of $6,794,000,000. 

This exceeds the record-breaking products of 
last year by $324,000,000. 

The value of the farm products of the nation 
during the last twelve months would duplicate 
the entire railroad system of the United States, 
rail for rail, tie for tie, ear for car. The Amer- 
ican farm products of 1905 and 1906 pay for 
every railroad in the world, including the entire 

Whatever else may be the cause of the move- 
ment from the country to the cities, it isn't the 
unproductiveness of the farms nor the unprofit- 
ableness of farming. Probably among no other 
class has there been such an advance in the ma- 
terial comforts and the general prosperity as 
among the farmers. 

Farms Worth $28,000,000,000. 

The total value of the farm properties of the 
United States is estimated by Secretary Wil- 
son's department at $28,000,000,000. This is an 
increase of $8,000,000,000 since 1900. It is more 

than twice the capitalization of all the railroads 
of the United States, and four and a half times 
their real value. The earnings of the farms for 
the year amounted to nearly three times the net 
earnings of all the railroads. 

Not only are the American farms the founda- 
tion of the domestic plenty that pervades the 
land, but they are the source of the nation's 
credit abroad. The foreign balance due the 
United States on agricultural products for the 
fiscal year of 1906 is $433,000,000, while the bal- 
ance on all other classes of exports is only $85,- 

In the last seventeen years the American 
farmer has piled up the enormous credit of six 
billions of dollars, while the pampered manu- 
facturer with all the stimulus of protective 
tariff and other government favors has a balance 
against him of $459,000,000. 

During the year 1906 the exports of agricul- 
tural products touched the high-water mark of 
$970,000,000, or $24,000,000 more than the ex- 
ports of the previous record year, which was 

Com the Banner Crop. 

Secretary Wilson notes the fact that the chief 
increase in the value of farm products during 
the year was in horses and meat cattle. The 
crops about balanced with the previous year. The 
greatest crop was corn, as usual, its value being 
$1,100,000,000. Next in line came cotton, with a 
total of $640,000,000, while hay, much ignored 
by writers on national wealth, was produced to 
the value of $600,000,000., Wheat, with a total 
of $450,000,000, showed a falling off of about 

An astonishing result is reported in the beet- 
sugar industry, which amounted to $34,000,000, 
against $7,000,000 seven years ago. 

As showing the preponderance of the United 
States in cotton, the report points out that the 
product of Texas alone is greater than that of 
British India, and three times that of Egypt, 
while it is half as much again as the entire crop 
of the rest of the world outside of the United 
States, India, and Egypt. 

There is a curious note in the fact that, despite 
the furore over the packing-house disclosures, 
the exports of that industry exceeded those of 
the previous year by $37,000,000. 

As to how the farmer has used his surplus 
earnings. Secretary Wilson says: 

The farmer's standard of living is rising 
higher and higher. The common things of his 
farm go to the city to become luxuries. He is 
becoming a traveler; and he has his telephone 
and his daily mail and newspaper. His life is 
healthful to body and sane to mind, and the 
noise and fever of the city have not become the 
craving of his nerves, nor his ideal of the every- 
day pleasures of life. A new dignity has come 
to agriculture, along with its economic strength; 
and the farmer has a new horizon, far back of 
that of his prairie and his mountains, which is 
more promising than the sky-line of the city. 





Farmers Pay Half a Billion a Year for Their 
The contribution of the farms to the in- 
dustrial world was shown, to a small extent, 
in the following in the St. Louis Republic: 

New York. — Revenues of the railroads of the 
country for carrying the agricultural products 
for the year 1906 are estimated at $524,764,025 
by Captain G. J. Grammer, vice-president of the 
New York Central lines in charge of traffic, who 
has compiled the detailed figures on the subject 
printed in an accompanying table. Transporta- 
tion men who studied its columns yesterday said 
they considered them accurate. 

In figuring out the earnings which are to come 
to the transportation companies from the prod- 
ucts of the soil, Captain Grammer takes into 
consideration the total crop production, its value 
at current market rates, the amount of carriage 
which each crop will entail, the average railroad 
rate, and the earnings per car for this service. 
Consideration is given to the fact that much of 
the property is transported several times to and 
from manufactories and the general markets, for 


Government Prepares to Grow Camphor As Pre- 
caution Against Emergency. 
Also, nothing could better illustrate the 
value of the federal activity in the agricul- 
tural field than the following from the San 
Francisco Chronicle: 

Washington. — The government is preparing to 
raise its own camphor, so that in case of trouble 
with Japan it will not be cut off from one of the 
ingredients necessary in the manufacture of 
smokeless powder. 

Beverly Galloway, chief of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, appeared recently before the 
House Committee on Agriculture and stated that 
Japan controlled the camphor output, but he 
said that it had been demonstrated that cam- 
phor could be produced in this country, and that 
a plantation of three thousand acres was to be 
set out in Florida. 

The tree is grown successfully in California, 
but only for ornament. Galloway said that in 
Japan the trees are cut down to extract the gum, 
but the Bureau has learned that it can be ex- 
tracted from the twigs, and the usefulness of the 
tree is little impaired thereby. 


Secretary Wilson Says it Will Grow Where the 
Mercury Goes Down to Forty Below Zero. 
Or, if the growing of camphor against the 
contingency of war is not a suflSicient exhibit 
of the utility of the federal farming, the 
following will give further conviction. It 
is from the New York Sun: 

Washington. — James Wilson, secretary of agri- 
culture, delivered an address at the Thanksgiving 
service of the Mount Pleasant Congregational 
Church, in which he said that within ten days 
an agent of the Agricultural Deoartment had 
sent word that he had found in Siberia an alfalfa 
which would grow where the mercury went down 
to forty degrees below zero. 

"We wanted dry-land crops and that is what 



we have found," said Mr. Wilson. "Tliat va- 
riety of alfalfa is coming to the United States. 
That is one of the most interesting things that 
has been brought to my attention during the last 
year. ' ' 

Among other things that Mr. Wilson told his 
auditors were that 13,500,000 copies of reports 
by special agricultural agents were being sent 
out by his Department for the education of the 
people ; that the farmers were so prosperous that 
they were putting money in the banks and send- 
ing their boys and girls to college, and would 
have to buy automobiles or find some other way 
of getting rid of their wealth, and that through 
modern machinery and methods one farm hand 
in the country could do as much work as four 
hundred Chinamen, and as a result rice was be- 
ing produced so cheaply in the United States that 
700,000,000 pounds of it were exported last year, 
some of it to rice-growing countries. 


Professor Leduc Produces Them by Chemical 
Process — ^Act Like Living Plants. 

Something of the intimacy of scientific 
interest elsewhere than in America in the 
propagation of food substances is reflected 
in the following from the New York Sun : 

Paris.^ — The Academy of Sciences heard Pro- 
fessor d'Ai-sonval describe artificial vegetables, 
which he exhibited, and which were produced by 
the methods of Professor Leduc, of the Nantes 
Medical College. Professor d'Arsonval inter- 
ested his colleagues greatly, but unfortunately 
for the lay public, he did not say whether the 
so-called vegetables are edible. 

While they were described as vegetables, they 
have nothing of the vegetable in their makeup, 
but they behave after their production as do the 
real vegetables they resemble under natural con- 
ditions. Into the composition of these products 
nothing living enters. Professor Leduc makes 
seeds in pill form, one part of sulphate of cop- 
per and two parts of glucose. These are de- 
posited in bouillon made of gelatine, to which 
are added three per cent of ferro-cyanide of po- 
tassium and a little sea salt. 

The seed develops sometimes on the surface of 
the liquid and sometimes in its depths, giving 
birth to plants resembling seaweed and other 
marine plants. It was announced that these 
artificial plants were not merely scientific curiosi- 
ties. Professor Leduc has been able to recog- 
nize that they have the same properties as the 
plants they resemble, and are influenced simi- 
larly by heat and light. 


Nearly Fifty-four Thousand Persons Employed 
and the Output is Worth $108,000,000 
The following from the Kansas City Star 

speaks for itself, as to one of the by-products 
of the farm: 

Washington. — The canning and preserving in- 
dustries of the United States employ 53,862 per- 
sons and their output in 1904 was worth $108,- 
500,000, according to a census bulletin which was 
made public recently. The capital of the 2,703 
establishments engaged in the business is $70,- 

The canned vegetable output was valued at 
$45,250,000, canned and dried fruits $27,250,000, 
canned fish $17,000,000, smoked fish $2,362,000, 
salted fish $6,250,000, canned oysters $3,800,000. 
California leads the states with a canned product 
of nearly $25,000,000. New York reports $13,- 
000,000, Maryland $12,750,000, Iowa canned 
$2,616,000 worth of corn, which is more than 
any other state reported. Alaska leads in the 
production of canned salmon, with an output of 
$7,618,000. Washington was second, with $2,500,- 

Maine turned out $4,291,000 worth of canned 
sardines and all the other states less than $100,- 
000. The Massachusetts product of salted cod 
was 38,000,000 pounds, valued at $2,500,000, or 
more than three times the combined output of all 
other states. 

In the canning of oysters Mississippi ranks 
first, Maryland second, South Carolina third, 
Louisiana fourth, Georgia fifth. 


Texas Ranchmen Find They Can Convert the 
Cactus Into Denatured Alcohol, 

Nothing has more continuously marked 
the progress of systematic study of agricul- 
ture than the discovery from time to time 
of the serviceability of hitherto rejected 
substances and growth. An example in point 
is the following from the New York Herald: 

Fort Worth. — In portions of West Texas and 
over a great deal of South and Southwest Texas 
the prickly pear has long been regarded as an 
unmitigated nuisance, although during seasons of 
drought the ranchmen have found it a very good 
cattle food after the spines are removed by burn- 

Since the impetus given the making of dena- 
tured alcohol it is claimed that there is a bonanza 
to be reaped from these cactus lands of Texas as 
a material for manufacturing alcohol, and at 
several points in West Texas arrangements are 
being made to soon begin work with portable 
stills, which will be moved around in the cactus 
region as the supply diminishes. Owners of this 
cactus land are figuring on some big revenue 
when the alcohol making begins, and it is an ex- 
periment that is being watched with much inter- 
est throughout the state. 

The feeding of this prickly pear to stock has 



also been given a new impetus in consequence of 
some experiments that have recently been made 
and the boost given the idea by the federal 
authorities at Washington. As a result of care- 
ful experiments it has been shown that a ration 
producing between one and a quarter and one 
and a half pounds of butter per day cost about 
thirteen cents when pear, rice, bran, and cotton- 
seed meal were fed. 

Although prickly pear is low in nutritive value 
from the chemical standpoint, the steer-feeding 
experiment shows also that there is abundant 
justification for the practices in vogue of prepar- 
ing cattle for market upon prickly pear and cot- 
tonseed meal. A gain of one and three-quarter 
pounds a day at an expense of three cents per 
pound compares favorably with the feeding re- 
sults obtained from standard feeds. 


An Astonishing Yield Gathered This Year in In- 
dian Territory. 

In connection with the creation of a new 
State in the Southwest, the following as to 
a feature of the State is imperative. It is 
from the Kansas City Star: 

Muskogee, I. T. — Just now Indian Territory is 
attempting to move the greatest corn crop that 
has ever been produced in the new country — and 
every bushel of it is worth thirty cents. This is 
the first year that Indian Territory has had a 
chance to show what it could do in producing 
corn. The result is a revelation. Every shipping 
point is crowded, while elevators and corn cribs 
are bursting with their loads. 

Not a railroad in the territory can furnish 
enough cars to move the crops, and still the 
farmers pour in with wagon loads, and each 
wagon has the side boards raised. In the towns 
in the northern part of the territory, where is 
the best corn land, there will be long ricks of 
corn piled out on the ground like stacks of 
straw, waiting to be moved. There is neither 
crib nor elevator room and the railroads can not 
move the crop. 

But the Price is Thirty Cents. 

In many towns all the elevator men have re- 
fused to buy another bushel of corn until the 
railroads furnish sufficient cars to move it, but 
still the price is thirty cents whenever a bushel 
is sold, and with corn making sixty and seventy 
bushels to the acre this is pretty good money. 


New State of Oklahoma Produces the Staple in 
Marvelous Abundance. 

Still another impressive phase of the same 
section of the country is revealed in the fol- 
lowing from the same paper : 

Guthrie, Ok. — Oklahoma and Indian Territory 

are bulging with cotton. Throughout the cotton 
belt the country is billowy with white. At every 
crossroads is a puffing gin, and along evfery coun- 
try road move wagons filled high with seed cot- 
ton. The streets of the towns are blockaded 
with cotton wagons, surrounded by cotton buyers 
in keen competition. 

In towns where compresses are established 
there is even greater activity. A famine of cars 
has made it almost impossible to move cotton, 
except to the compresses, and the buildings stand 
isolated in a level sea of bales packed as closely 
together as possible. The immense platforms are 
covered with cotton, and the bales reach far un- 
der the sheds. Switch engines bump and rattle 
along lines of loaded cars discharging their 
freight at the compresses, to be squeezed a sec- 
ond time under powerful machinery to reduce 
their size and consume less space in the holds of 
rusty, storm-beaten steamships at Galveston and 
New Orleans, which convey their >^argoes across 
the Atlantic to foreign countries, even as far 
as Russia and Japan. The trackage is so over- 
crowded that often passenger trains are delayed 
by cotton trains that can not be moved quickly 
from the main line. 

Estimated at One Million Bales. 

Some cotton brokers estimate that Oklahoma 
and Indian Territory will raise one million bales 
this year. This means fifty million dollars paid 
in cash in about one-half the geographical area 
of the state, or almost fifty dollars per capita to 
every man, woman, and child. 


Unwritten Law of Montezuma That Everybody 
Shall Breed Poultry. 

Montezuma, Iowa. — "Love me, love my hen," 
is the motto which could be written with pro- 
priety over an illuminated gateway to this little 
town. If you do not raise chickens you can not 
live in the town, enjoy its society, or send your • 
children to school. 

A few have tried to live in Montezuma with- 
out engaging in the poultry industry either for 
pleasure or profit, but they have always found 
their dislike for chickens growing into a sort of 
barrier against friendly intercourse with their 
neighbors, and they came to be almost social out- 
casts. Their children were hooted at school, 
called "snobs," and told that their parents were 
too lazy to work or raise chickens. 

These unpleasant conditions and real ostracism 
from the society of Montezuma were endured 
long, but at last the victims yielded. A delivery 
man left a jag of lumber and a few rods of wire 
netting and several mysterious boxes, from which 
flitted noisy, clucking, and crowing chickens. The 
next day the family joined the chicken raisers 
and took its place in society. 

This little town raises more chickens per capita 
than any other town in America. Here every- 
body who is "anybody" raises poultry. The 
back yards of every resident are dotted with 
chicken houses and exercise pens, while the town 



is practically hedged in with chicken farms. 
Every householder, masculine or feminine, knows 
how to fcreed, hatch, rear, feed, and care for 
broilers, roasters, layers, and exhibition fowls ; 
how to build sheds, coops, brooders, and houses 
for large and small assortments of chickens. 
Almost every man or woman is a specialist on 
diseases of poultry, knows how much red pepper 
to give, and when to use real castor oil. 

Those who believe that dead chickens are the 
only good variety to have on the place simply 
can not live here. Gardening is mingled with 
the lost arts. There is little to do but raise 
poultry. The industry has woven itself with the 
affairs of life here until social evenings, as well 
as the meetings of the town council, are given 
over to discussions of the poultry industry and 
the rights of owners. Montezuma is a big incu- 
bator and brooder for the poultry markets of 
the Northwest. 


Colorado Invention to Improve Fertility and to 
Save Irrigation. 
One of the most sweeping phases of Gov- 
ernmental interest in agriculture is the 
Reclamation Service. Parallel with the 
gigantic efforts involved in this work has 
come recently the following story of a com- 
paratively simple method of conquering the 
arid lands. The story is from the Kansas 
City Star: 

But for the serious consideration being given 
his unique propositions by leading men of 
science and affairs, one would be tempted to 
think that Colonel Albert Talmon Morgan, of 
Denver, Col., was a dreamer, a real Colonel Sel- 

His hobbies are to saw the soil of the West 
with buzz saws on wheels and thus make it laugh 
with a bountiful harvest; to fill the canyons and 
gulches of the continental divide with artificial 
glaciers, and quench the thirst of the plains in 
summer time with ice water; to abolish the arid- 
ity of the West and the excessive humidity of 
the South — these are the large contracts he has 
cut out for performance by a queer looking ma- 
chine that stands in the rear of a machine shop. 
The irreverent small boy has dubbed it the "Col- 
orado go-devil," but he calls it the Morgan auto 
saw ditcher. 

To Make Arid Lands Fertile. 
Here is the philosophy of this epochal inven- 
tion : The auto saw ditcher, hitched to a steam 
traction engine, with gang saws placed a foot 
apart, will buzz-saw the plains instead of plow- 
ing them. Millions of little trenches, or grooves, 
or riffles, or saw cuts, or whatever one chooses 
to call them, will be sawn in the arid prairie a 
foot or more in depth and an inch or an inch and 
a half in width, at right angles to the line of 
drainage. When a rain comes, or when the snows 

melt, instead of running off the surface into the 
water courses to create disastrous floods a thou- 
sand miles or more away, the moisture will sink 
into these millions of saw cuts. Gradually it 
will percolate on down into the subsoil, soaking 
it so that it, as well as the partitions between 
the grooves and the sun-baked prairie will be 
filled with water like a sponge. In these saw- 
cuts the Colonel will then plant the seed of 
whatever crops he wishes to harvest. By this 
method he declares he can grow sugar beets a 
foot long, doubling Colorado's annual production 
without the planting of an additional acre. 

Water Stored in Glaciers. 

Next in the scheme is the reintroduetion of 
the glacial age. At every little pool, lake, and 
basin near the bleak mountain tops, the Colonel 
plans to place siphons. When ice forms in win- 
ter time over these pools, these siphons will be 
put to work, pouring water from the bottoms 
of the pools out over the surface of the ice on 
lower levels. Hundreds of miles of glaciers, 
many feet in thickness might thus be formed 
every winter in the deep canyons and gulches of 
the continental divide. Instead of going off with 
a rush on the arrival of spring, as a greater por- 
tion of the snows and thin ice of the mountains 
now do, the great glaciers will melt but slowly, 
distributing their moisture into the streams 
through the hot summer months. This moisture 
can then be used to supplement that stored in 
the saw cuts on the plains for irrigation wher- 
ever needed. 

"The storing of moisture in the soil and in 
glacial formations in the mountains will inevit- 
ably reduce the drainage into the Mississippi so 
materially that the floods that threaten the levees 
and inundate the lowlands will never more be 
heard of," he declares. Was there ever a more 
beautiful example of killing two birds with one 
stone? It all sounds too good to be true. 

It is a Mechanical Success. 

Colonel Morgan has advocated these ideas in 
season and out of season for many years, but 
never got a hearing until this fall. He went so 
far as to have an experimental buzz saw on 
wheels constructed, just to convince people that 
his auto saw would saw. It did saw, and so many 
people saw it saw that doubt on that score is no 
longer possible. The way it made the sawdirt 
fly was a caution. It threatened to bury the 
horses, which supplied the motive power. A 
shield was then placed in front of the saw to 
catch the dirt and place it at one side of the 
saw-cut. When gang saws are used, the dirt 
will be placed between the channels. The buzz 
saws, it should be explained, revolve in a direc- 
tion contrary to that of the wheels of the car- 
riage. Instead of cutting down, they cut up, lift- 
ing the particles of soil from their positions and 
throwing them out of the way. 

Mechanically, therefore, the buzz saw in the 
soil is a success. It does the work expected of 
it, requiring less power for its operation than a 
plow. An acre of gi'ound, or a thousand acres 
of ground can be gang-sawed by this new imple- 



Now That Fanners Are In the Labor Union If Horses Could Talk. 

— Indianapolis News. 



ment of husbandry cheaper than it can be 
plowed. Colonel Morgan says that the buzz saw 
will crowd the plow out of business. It will be 
laid on the shelf, relegated to the scrap pile, or 
banished to museums and collections of antiques. 
This, of course, remains to be seen. The effects 
of the sawing of the soil for the conservation of 
moisture in the plains have not yet been demon- 

To be Given a Trial. 

Many prominent people have indorsed Colonel 
Morgan's plan. The Denver Chamber of Com- 
merce has indorsed the' idea to the extent of 
joining in the effort to raise $10,000 with which 
to test its practicability and efficiency on a scale 
that will forever settle the question. 

The Hon. E. T. Wells, former justice of the 
Colorado Supreme Court, predicts that it will 
revolutionize agricultural conditions throughout 
the semi-arid belt. Former State Senator 
Stranger says it is the only practicable idea ever 
advanced for the prevention of drainage from 
the surface and the reduction of evaporation to 
a minimum. He expects it to accomplish great 
things — but doesn't believe the days of the plow 
are yet past. Farmers, merchants^ bankers, law- 
yers, statesmen, scholars, and business men are 
fascinated by the novelty and the magnificent 
promise of the idea — but the necessary cash piles 
up slowly. 

The path of Colonel Morgan has not been 
strewn with roses. Most of his time and all of 
his money have been spent on the development 
of the great idea, and in a vain endeavor to enlist 
the aid of sufficient capital to give it a test. It 
seems as if the day of the buzz saw had at last 
arrived. It will, at least, be given an exhaustive 
test to decide whether the faith of the inventor 
of the auto saw is justified or vain. That is all 
he asks. 


Government Starts a Special Farm on Which to 

Can the great American hen be thoroughly 
commercialized? Can she be made to forego her 
ancient and honorable ambition to set, and in- 
duced to put in all her time and energy produc- 
ing eggs? 

The Agricultural Department believes that 
such a thing is possible, and is now endeavoring 
to produce a non-setting continuous egg-laying 
fowl that will cheerfully forego the cares of the 
nursery and lay at least one egg a day the year 

In order to ascertain just what effect encour- 
agement and training will have upon the hen, an 
experimental station has been established by the 
Bureau of Animal Industry of the Agricultural 

'This experimental plant is located at St. Denis, 
near Baltimore, Md., and is in charge of Robert 
R. Slocum, a chicken expert, who was induced 
to superintend the work. 

Efforts to induce the hen to spend less time 
setting and more time laying are being directed 

by Dr. George M. Rommel, of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry. 

Dr. Rommel says: "The matter is all in the 
future as yet, but the theory is that we can in- 
fluence the hen's egg production by feeding; that 
is, by what we feed her and how we feed her. 

"We have made practically no experiments as 
yet, but the Bureau of Animal Husbandry has 
secured the services of R. R. Slocum, who is an 
expert in that line, and he will have charge of the 
new work. 

"The first work at the hen farm at St. Denis 
will be the study of the moist and dry mash 
systems of feeding and of the use of the self- 
feeding hoppers. The equipment is necessarily 
modest, because the available funds are not 

Experiments in Feeding. 

"A house divided into three pens, each accom- 
modating twenty-five hens, with suitable yards, 
is to be constructed. This house, together with 
incubators, brooders, etc., sufficient to raise 
enough pullets to replace those used in the ex- 
periments, will comprise the immediate equip- 

"The two problems under investigation are to 
be combined by the use of three pens of fowls. 
The different lots of fowls are to be housed ex- 
actly alike, and all the conditions made equal 
except the methods of feeding. 

"Fowls in pen No. 1 Will receive, morning and 
night, a mixture of whole or cracked grains scat- 
tered in the litter, and at noon a moistened 

"Those in pen No. 2 will receive, morning and 
night, the same grain mixture, fed in the litter 
exactly as in pen No. 1, and the same mash at 
noon, except that it will be dry. 

"The only difference between these two pens 
will be that pen No. 1 receives the mash moist- 
ened, while pen No. 2 receives exactly the same 
mash dry. 

"Fowls in pen No. 3 jwill be fed exactly as 
those in the other pens, but will be fed from two 
self-feeding hoppers, one containing the grain 
and the other the mash. This mash will, of 
course, be dry. The hopper containing the grain 
will be opened about 4 p. m. in winter and 5 p. m. 
in summer, and will be left open until the next 
noon. It will then be closed; and the second 
hopper, containing the mash, will be opened, and 
left so, until the first hopper is again opened. 

"In this way the fowls will have feed before 
them at all times, and can eat as much or as 
little as they please. A comparison can be made 
with pen No. 2, the only difference being that 
pen No. 2 receives its food at regular intervals 
and in amounts indicated by the appetite of the 
fowls, while those in pen No. 3 can help them- 
selves at all times. 

"White Plymouth Rock fowls are to be used 
in the experiments, not because of any special 
preference for this variety, but simply as a mat- 
ter of convenience. Pullets are to be raised from 
the various pens, and the test will be repeated 
twice to confirm results and note the effect of 
the different systems on vitality." 





Points From the Message 

I T is probable that only reckless speculation 
* and disresrard of legitimate business methods 
on the part of the business world can materially 
mar our prosperity. 

No Congress in our time has done more good 
work of importance than the present Congress. 

I again recommend a law prohibiting all cor- 
porations from contributing to the campaign ex- 
pense of any party. 

A bill which has just passed one house of the 
Congress, and which it is urgently necessary 
should be enacted into law, is that conferring 
u[)on the Government the right of appeal in 
criminal cases on questions of law. 

There must be no hesitation in dealing with 
disordei-. But there must likewise be no such 
abuse of the injunction power as is implied in 
forbidding laboring men to strive for their own 
betterment in peaceful and lawful ways, nor 
must the injunction be used merely to aid some 
big corporation in carrying out schemes for its 
own aggrandizement. 

There is but one safe rule in dealing with 
black men as with white men; it is the same rule 
that must be applied in dealing with rich men 
and poor men ; that is to treat each man, what- 
ever his color, his creed, or his social position, 
with even-handed justice on his real worth as a 

Every colored man should realize that the 
worst enemy of his race is the negro criminal. 

Corruption is never so rife as in communities 
where the demagogue and the agitator bear full 

It should be our aim steadily to reduce the 
number of hours of labor, with as a goal the 
general introduction of an eight-hour day. 

Let me again urge that the Congress provide 
for a thorough investigation of the conditions 
of child labor and of the labor of women in the 
United States. The horrors incident to the em- 
ployment of young children in factories or at 
work anywhere are a blot on our civilization. 

Compensation for accidents or deaths due in 
any line of industry to the actual conditions 
under which that industry is carried on, should 
be paid by that portion of the community for the 
benefit of which the industry is carried on — that 
is, by those who profit by the industry. 

The e.xercise of a judicial spirit by a disinter- 
ested body representing the Federal Government, 
such as would be. provided by a commission on 
conciliation and arbitration, would tend to create 
an atmosphere of friendliness and conciliation 
between contending parties. 

The coal, like the forests, should be treated 
as the property of the public, and its disposal 
should be under conditions which would inure 
to the benefit of the public as a whole. 

In my judgment, it will, in the end, be ad- 
visable in connection with the packing house in- 
spection law to provide for putting a date on 
the label and for charging the cost of inspec- 
tion to the packers. 

There will ultimately be need of enlarging the 
powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
along several different lines, so as to give it 
larger and more efficient control over the rail- 

In some method, whether by a national license 
law or in other fashion, we must exercise, aild 
tliat at an early date, a far more competent con- 
trol than at present over the great corporations. 

Our efforts should be not so much to prevent 
consolidation as such, but so to supervise and 
control it as to see that it results in no harm to 
the people. 

The best way to avert the very undesirable 
move for the Government ownership of railways 
is to secure by the Government on behalf of tlie 
people, as a whole, such adequate control and 
regulation of the great interstate common car- 
riers as will do away with the evils which give 
rise to the agitation against them. 

What we need is not vainly to try to prevent 
all combination, but to secure such rigorous and 
adequate control and supervision of the combina- 
tions as to prevent t.heir injuring the public, or 
existing in such form as inevitably to threaten 

It is unfortunate that our present laws should 
forbid all combinations, instead of sharply dis- 
criminating between those combinations which 
do gootl and those combinations which do evil. 

There is every reason why, when next our sys- 
tem of taxation is revised, the national Govern- 
ment should impose a graduated inheritance tax, 
and, if possible, a graduated income tax. 



It should be our prime object as a nation, so 
far as feasible, constantly to work toward put- 
ting the mechanic, the wage-worker who works 
with his hands, on a higher plane of efficiency 
and reward, so as to increase his effectiveness 
in the economic world. 

The only other person whose welfare is as 
vital to the welfare of the country as is the wel- 
fare of the wage-workers are the tillers of the 
soil, the farmers. 

In my judgment, the whole question of mar- 
riage and divorce should be relegated to the au- 
thority of the national Congress. 

If it prove impracticable to enact a law for the 
encouragement of shipping generally, then at 
least provision should be made for better com- 
munication with South America, notably for fast 
mail lines to the chief South American ports. 

The recurrence of each crop season emphasizes 
the defects of the present currency laws. There 
must soon be a revision of them, because to leave 
them as they are means to incur liability of 
business disaster. 

I most earnestly hope that the bill to provide 
a lower tariff for or else absolute free trade in 
Philippine products will become a law. 

American citizenship should be conferred on all 
the citizens of Porto Rico. 

Not only must we treat all nations fairly, but 
we must treat with justice and good-will all im- 
migrants who come here under the law. Whether 
they are Catholic or Protestant, Jew or Gentile; 
whether they come from England or Germany, 
Russia, Japan or Italy, matters nothing. All we 
have a right to question is the man's conduct. 

The friendship between the United States and 
Japan has been continuous since the time, over 
half a century ago, when Commodore Perry, by 
his expedition to Japan, first opened the island 
to Western civilization. Since then the growth 
of Japan has been literally astounding. There 
is not only nothing to parallel it, but nothing to 
approach it in the history of civilized mankind. 

To shut the Japanese out from the public schools 
is a wicked absurdity. We have as much to leara 
from Japan as Japan has to learn from us. 

I recommend to Congress that an act be passed 
specifically providing for the naturalization of 
Japanese who come here intending to become 
American citizens. 

The United States wishes nothing of Cuba 
except that it shall prosper morally and ma- 
terially, and wishes nothing of the Cubans save 
that they shall be able to preserve order- among 
themselves, and, therefore, to preserve their in- 

If the elections become a farce, and if the in- 
surrectionary habit becomes confirmed in the 
island, it is absolutely out of the question that 
the island should continue independent. 

In many parts of South America there has 
been much misunderstanding of the attitude and 
purpose of the United States toward the other 
American republics. An idea has become preva- 
lent that our assertion of the Monroe Doctrine 
implied, or carried with it, an assumption of su- 
periority, and of a right to exercise some kind 
of protectorate over the country to whose ter- 
ritory that doctrine applies. Nothing could be 
farther from the truth. 

I have just returned from a trip to Panama 
and shall report to you at length later on the 
whole subject of the Panama canal. 

It must ever be kept in mind that war is not 
merely justifiable, but imperative, upon honor- 
able men, ujlon an honorable nation, where peace 
can only be obtained by the sacrifice of con- 
scientious conviction or of national welfare. 

We should, as a nation, do everything in our 
power for the cause of honorable peace. 

The United States navy is the surest guarantor 
of peace which the cffimtry possesses. 

In both the army and navy there is urgent need 
that everything possible should be done to main- 
tain the highest standard for the personnel, alike 
as regards the officers and enlisted men. 




-Detroit Journal. 





To the LSeniite unil HoiiMe of Reprenentativen: 

AS a nation we still continue to enjoy a literally 
unprecedented prosperity, and it is probable 
that only reckless speculation and disregard 
of legitimate business methods on the part of the 
business world can materially mar this prosperity. 
No Congress in our time has aone more good 
Work of importance than the present Congress. 
There were several matters left unfinlslied at your 
last session, however, which I most earnestly hope 
you will complete before your adjournment. 

Again I recommend a law 
prohibiting all corporations 
< ninpnifcn from contributing to the cam- 

ContrtbiitlonH paign expenses of any party. 
Such a- bill has already past one 
House of Congress, l^et indi- 
viduals contribute as they desire, but let us pro- 

hibit in effective fashion all corporations from 
making contributions for any political purpose, 
directly or indirectly. 



of AppenI 


Another bill which has just 
past one House of the Congress 
and which it is urgently neces- 
sary should be enacted into law 
is that conferring upon the Gov- 
ernment the right of appeal in 
cases on questions of law. This right 
exists in many of the states; it exists in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia by act of the Congress. It is, of 
course, not proposed that in any case a verdict 
for the defendant on the merits should be set 
aside. Recently in one district where the Govern- 
ment had indicted certain persons for conspiracy 
in connection with rebates, the Court sustained the 
defendant's demurrer; while in another jurisdic- 
tion an indictment for conspiracy to obtain rebates 



has been sustained by the Court, convictions ob- 
tained under it. and two defendants sentenced to 

Tlie two cases referred to may not be In real 
conflict with each other, but it is unfortunate that 
there should even be an apparent conflict At 
present there Is no way by which the Government 
can cause such a conflict, when it occurs to be 
solved by an appeal to a hlg-her court, and the 
wheels of justice are blocked without any real 
decision of the question. I cannot too stronelv 
urg-e the passage of the bill in question. A failure 
to pass it win result in seriously hampering the 
Government in its efforts to obtain justice espe- 
cially against wealthy individuals or corporations 
who do wrong, and may also prevent the Govern- 
ment from obtaining justice for wageworkers who 
are not themselves able effectively to contest a 
case where the judgment of an Inferior court has 
been against them. 

One Unsafe 

I have speclflcally in view a 
recent decision by a district 
judge leaving railway em- 
ployees without remedy for vio- 
lation of a certain so-called 
labor statute. It seems an 
absurdity to permit a single district judge, against 
what may be the judgment of the immense major- 
ity of his colleagues on the bench, to declare a 
law solemnly enacted by the Congress to be "un- 
constitutional." and then to deny to the Govern- 
ment the right to have the Supreme Court defin- 
itely decide the question. 

It Is well to recollect that the real efficiency of 
the law often depends not upon the passage of 
acts as to which there Is great public excitement, 
but upon the passage of acts of this nature as to 
which there is not much public excitement, because 
there is little public understanding of their im- 
portance, while the interested parties are keenly 
alive to the desirability of defeating them. The 
Importance of enacting into law the particular 
bill in question is further increased by the fact 
that the Government has now definitely begun a 
policy of resorting to the criminal law in those 
trust and interstate commerce cases where such a 
course offers a reasonable chance of success. 

At first, as was proper, every effort was made to 
enforce these laws by civil proceedings; but It 
has become increasingly evident that the action 
of the Government in finally deciding, in certain 
cases, to undertake criminal proceedings was justi- 
fiable; and tho there have been some conspic- 
uous failures in these cases, we have had many 
successes, which have undoubtedly had a deterrent 
effect upon evil-doers, whether the penalty In- 
flicted was In the shape of fine or Imprisonment — 
and penalties of both kinds have already been In- 
flicted by the courts. Of course, where the judge 
can see his way to Inflict the penalty of imprison- 
ment the deterrent effect of the punishment on 
other offenders is increased, but sufficiently heavy 
fines accomplish much. Judge Holt, of the New 
York District Court, in a recent decision admirably 
stated the need for treating with just severity 
offenders of this kind. His opinion runs In part 
as follcws; 


for a 


"The Gov.;rnment's evidence 
to establish the defendant's 
guilt was clear, conclusive, and 
undisputed. The case was a 
flagrant one. The transactions 
which took place under this 
illegal contract were very large; the amounts of 
rebates returned were considerable; and the 
amount of the rebate itself was large, amounting 
to more than one-fifth of the entire tariff charge 
for the transportation of merchandise from this 
city to Detroit. It Is not too much to say. In my 
opinion, that If this business was carried on for a 
considerable time on that basis — that Is. if this dis- 
crimination in favor of this particular shipper was 
made with an 18 Instead of a 23-cent rate and the 
t*rlff rate was maintained as against their com- 
petitors — the result might be and not improbably 
would be that their competitors would be driven 
out of business. 

"This crime is one which in its nature is delib- 
erate and premeditated. I think over a fortnight 
elapsed between the date of Palmer's letter re- 
questing the reduced rate and the answer of the 
railway company deciding to grant it. and then 
for months afterwards this business was carried 

on and these claims for rebates submitted month 
after month and checks in payment of them drawn 
month after month. Such a violation of the law, 
in my opinion, in its essential nature, is a very 
much more heinous act than the ordinary common, 
vulgar crimes which come before criminal courts 
constantly for punishment and which arise from 
sudden pa.sslon or temptation. This crime in this 
case was committed by men of education and of 
large business experience, whose standing in the 
community was such that they might have been 
expected to set an example of obedience to law, 
upon the maintenance of which alone in this coun- 
try the security of their property depends. 

"It was committed on behalf of a great railroad 
corporation, which, like other railroad corpora- 
tions, has received gratuitously from the state 
large and valuable privileges for the public's con- 
venience and its own. which performs quasi-public 
functions, and which is charged with the highest 
obligation in the transaction of its business to 
treat the citizens of this country alike, and not 
to carry on Its business with unjust discrimina- 
tions between different citizens or different classes 
of citizens. This crime In its nature Is one usually 
done with secrecy and proof of which it Is very 
difficult to obtain. The Interstate Commerce Act 
was past In 1887. nearly twenty years ago. Ever 
since that time complaints of the granting of re- 
bates by railroads have been common, urgent, and 
insistent. and altho the Congress has repeat- 
edly past legislation endeavoring to put a stop 
to this evil, the difficulty of obtaining proof upon 
which to bring prosecution in these cases is so 
great that this is the first case that has ever 
been brought In this Court, and, as I am informed, 
this case and one recently brought in Philadel- 
phia are the only cases that have ever been 
brought in the eastern part of this country. In 
fact, but few cases of this kind have ever been 
brought In this country. East or' West. Now. under 
these circumstances, I am forced to the conclu- 
sion. In a case In which the proof is so clear and 
the facts are so flagrant. It is the duty of the 
Court to flx a penalty which shall In some degree 
be commensurate with the gravity of the offense. 
As between the two defendants, in my opinion, the 
principal penalty should be imposed on the cor- 
poration. The traffic manager in this case pre- 
sumably acted without any advantage to himself 
and without any Interest in the transaction, eifher 
by the direct authority or In accordance with what 
he understood to be the policy or the wishes of 
his employer. 

"The sentence of this Court in this case is that 
the defendant. Pomeroy, for each of the six offenses 
upon which he has been convicted, be fined the 

He Wm Be a Good Boy. 

— St. Louis Globe-Demoerat. 



sum of $1000, making six fines, amounting in all 
to the sum of $6000; and the defendant, the New 
York Central & Hudson River Railroad Company, 
for each of the six crimes of which it has been 
convicted, be fined the sum of $18,000, making six 
fines, amounting in the aggregate to the sum of 
$108,000, and Judgment to that effect will be en- 
tered in this case." 

In connection with this mat- 
SettlnK ter, I would like to call atten- 

Aolde tion to the very unsatisfactory 

state of our criminal law, re- 
of Judgments suiting in large part from the 
habit of setting aside the Judg- 
ments of inferior courts on technicalities abso- 
lutely unconnected with the merits of the case, 
and where there is no attempt to sho'w that there 
has been any failure of substantial Justice. It 
would be well to enact a law providing something 
to the effect that: 

No Judgment shall be set aside or new trial 
granted in any cause, civil or criminal, on the 
ground of misdirection of the jury or the improper 
admission or rejection of evidence, or for error as 
to any matter of pleading or procedure unless, in 
the opinion of the Court to which the application 
is made, after an examination o*f the entire cause, 
it shall affirmatively appear that the error com- 
plained of has resulted in a miscarriage of Justice. 

In my last message I sug- 
Injnnctlons gested the enactment of a law 

Are '" connection with the issuance 

.j^ of injunctions, attention having 

necessary . been sharply drawn to the mat- 
ter by the demand that the 
right of applying ijijunctlons in labor cases should 
be wholly abolished. It is at least doubtful 
whether a law abolishing altogether the use of 
injunctions in such cases would stand the test 
of the courts, in which case, of course, the legis- 
lation would be ineffective. Moreover, I believe 
it would be wrong altogether to prohibit the use 
of injunctions. It is criminal to permit sympathy 
for criminals to weaken our hands in upholding 
the law; and if men seek to destroy life or property 
by mob violence there should be no Impairment 
of the power of the courts to deal with them in 
the most summary and effective way possible. But 
so far as possible the abuse of the power should 
be provided against by some such law as I advo- 
cated last year. 

In this matter of injunctions there is lodged in 
the hands of the judiciary a necessary power, 
which is, nevertheless, subject to the possitjility 
of grave abuse. It is a power that should be exer- 
cised with extreme care and should be subject to 
the jealous scrutiny of all men, and condemnation 
should be meted out as much to the Judge who 
fails to use it boldly when necessary as to the 
Judge who uses it wantonly or oppressively. Of 
course a judge strong enough to be fit for his 
office will enjoin any resort to violence or intimi- 
dation, especially by conspiracy, no matter what 
his opinion may be of the rights of the original 

There must be no hesitation 

Dlxorder in dealing with disorder. But 

Requires Prompt 'here must likewise he no such 

abuse of the Injunctive power 
Action as is implied in forbidding 

laboring men to strive for their 
own betterment in peaceful and lawful ways; nor 
must the injunction be used merely to aid some big 
corporation in carrying out schemes for its own 
aggrandizement. It must be remembered that a 
preliminary injunction in a labor case, if granted 
■without adequate proof (even when authority can 
be found to support the conclusions of law on 
which it is founded), may often settle the dispute 
between the parties, and, therefore, if Improperly 
granted, may' do irreparable wrong. 

Yet there are many Judges who assume a matter- 
of-course granting of a preliminary injunction to 
be the ordinary and proper Judicial disposition of 
such cases; and there have undoubtedly been 
flagrant wrongs committed by judges in connec- 
tion with labor disputes even within the last few 
years, altho I think much less often than in 
former years. Such judges by their unwise action 
immensely strengthen the hands of tho.'ie "who are 

striving entirely to do away with the power of 
injunction; and therefore such careless use of the 
injunctive process tends to threaten its very exist- 
ence, for If the American people ever become con- 
vinced that this process is habitually abused, 
whether in matters affecting labor or in matters 
affecting corporations, it will be well nigh im- 
possible to prevent its abolition. 

It may be the highest duty 
The Judiciarj' of a judge at any given moment 
and to disregard, not merely the 

«i.» i>..Kii„ wishes of individuals of great 

iiie • none political or financial power, 

but the overwhelming tide of 
public sentiment, and the judge who does thus dis- 
regard public sentiment when it is wrong, who 
brushes aside the plea of any special interest 
when the pleading is not founded on righteous- 
ness, performs the highest service to the country. 
Such a Judge is deserving of all honor; and all 
honor can not be paid to this wise and fearless 
judge if we permit the growth of an absurd con- 
vention which would forbid any criticism of the 
Judge of another type who shows himself timid 
in the presence of arrogant disorder, or who, on 
insulficient grounds, grants an injunction that does 
grave injustice, or who, in his capacity as a con- 
struer, and therefore in part a maker of the law, 
in flagrant fashion thwarts the cause of decent 
government. The Judge has a power over which 
no review can be exercised; he himself sits in 
review upon the acts of both the executive and 
legislative branches of the goernment; save in the 
most extraordinary cases he is amenable only at 
the bar of public opinion; and it is unwise to main- 
tain that public opinion in reference to a man 
with such power shall neither be exprest nor led. 

The best judges have ever 
Crltiolsm been foremost to disclaim any 

I'ltefnl t« the immunity from criticism. This 
„. ,„. has been true since the days of 

nencn jj,g great English Lord Chan- 

cellor Parker, who said: "Let 
all people be at liberty to know what I found my 
Judgment upon, that, so when I have given it in 
any cause, others may be at liberty to judge of 
me." The proprieties of the case were set forth 
with singular clearness and good temper by Judge 
W. H. Taft, when a United States circuit Judge 
eleven years ago, in 1895: 

"The opportunity freely and publicly to criticize 
Judicial action is of vastly more importance to the 
body politic than the, immunity of courts and 
judges from unjust aspersions and attack. Noth- 
ing tends more to render judges careful in their 
decisions and anxiously solicitous to do exact jus- 
tice than the consciousness that every act of theirs 
is to be subjected to the intelligent scrutiny and 
candid criticism of their fellow men. Such criti- 
cism is beneficial in proportion as it is fair, dis- 
passionate, discriminating, and based on a knowl- 
edge of sound legal principles. The comments 
made by learned text writers and by the acute 
editors of the various law reviews upon judicial 
decisions are therefore highly useful. Such critics 
constitute more or less impartial tribunals of pro- 
fessional opinion before wliich each judgment is 
made to stand or fall on its merits, and thus exert 
a strong influence to secure uniformity of decision. 
But non-professional criticism also is by no means 
without its uses, even if accompanied, as it often 
is, by a direct attack upon tlie judicial fairness 
and motives of the occupants of the bench; for if 
the law is but tiie essence of common sense, the 
protest of many average men may evidence a 
defect in a Judicial conclusion, tho based on 
the nicest legal reasoning and profoundest learn- 

"The two important elements of moral character 
in a Judge are an earnest desire to reach a just 
conclusion and courage to enforce it. In so far 
as fear of public comment does not alfect the 
courage of a judge, but only spurs him on to 
search his conscience and to reach the result "which 
approves Itself to his inmost heart, such comment 
serves a useful purpose. There are few men, 
whether they are judges for life or for a shorter 
term, who do not prefer to earn and hold the 
respect of all. and who can not be reached and 
made to pause and deliberate by hostile public 
criticism. In the case of Judges having a life 
tenure, indeed, their very independence makes the 
right freely to comment on their decisions of 
greater importance, because it is the only practical 




— St. Louis Republic. 



and available instrument in the hands of a tree 
people to keep such judges alive to the reasonable 
demands of those they serve. 

"On the other hand, the danger of destroying the 
proper influence of judicial decisions by creating 
unfounded prejudices against the courts justifies 
and requires that unjust attacks shall be met and 
answered. Courts must ultimately rest their de- 
fense upon the inherent strength of the opinions 
they deliver as the ground for their conclusions 
and must trust to the calm and deliberate judg- 
ment of all the people as their best vindication." 

There is one consideration which should be taken 
Into account by the good people who carry a sound 
proposition to an excess in objecting to any criti- 
cism of a judge's decision. The instinct of the 
American people as a whole is sound in this matter. 
They will not subscribe to the doctrine that any 
public servant is to be above all criticism. If the 
best citizens, those most competent to express their 
judgments in such matters, and above all those 
belonging to the great and honorable profession 
of the bar. so profoundly influential in American 
Vfe. take the position that there shall be no criti- 
cism of a judge under any circumstances, their 
view will not be accepted by the American people 
as a whole. 

In such event the people will turn to and tend 
to accept as justifiable the intemperate and im- 
proper criticism uttered by unworthy agitators. 
Surely it is a misfortune to leave to such critics 
a function, right in itself, which they are certain 
to abuse. Just and temperate criticism, when 
ne.cessary, is a safeguard against the acceptance 
by the people as a whole of that Intemperate 
antagonism towards the judiciary which must be 
combated by every right-thinking man. and which, 
if It became widespread among the people at large, 
would constitute a dire menace to the republic. 

In connection with the delays 

, of the law. I call your attention 

Kexirnint ^^^ jj^^ attention of the nation 

"' to the prevalence of crime 

l^yncDiDK among us. and above all to the 

epidemic of lynching and mob 
violence that springs up, now In one part of our 
country, now in another. Each section — North, 
South, East, or West — has Its own faults; no section 
can with wisdom spend its time jeering at the 
faults of another section; it should be busy trying 
to amend its own shortcomings. To deal with the 
crime of corruption it Is necessary to have an 
awakened public conscience, and to supplement 
this by whatever legislation will add speed and 
certainty in the execution of the law. 

When we deal with lynching even more is neces- 
sary. A great many white men are lynched, but 
the crime is peculiarly frequent In respect to 
black men. The greatest existing cause of lynch- 
ing is the perpetration, especially by black men. 
of a hideous crime — the most abominable in all 
the category of crimes, even worse than murder. 
Mobs frequently avenge the commission of this 
crime by themselves torturing to death the man 
committing it, thus avenging in a bestial fashion 
a bestial deed, and reducing themselves to a level 
with the criminal. 

Lawlessness grows by what it feeds upon; and 
when mobs begin to lynch for one crime they 
speedily extend the sphere of their operations and 
lynch for many other kinds of crimes, so that 
two-thirds of the lynchings are not for the un- 
namable crime at all, while a considerable propor- 
tion of the individuals lynched are Innocent of all 
crime. Governor Candler of Georgia stated on one 
occasion some years ago: "I can say of a verity 
that I have, within the last month, saved the lives 
of half a dozen innocent negroes who were pur- 
sued by the mob and brought them to trial in a 
court of law in which they were acquitted." As 
Bishop Galloway of Mississippi has finely said: 
"When the rule of a mob obtains, that which dis- 
tinguishes a high civilization is surrendered. The 
. mob which lynches a negro will in a little while 
lynch a white man suspected of crime. Every 
Christian patriot in America needs to lift up his 
voice In loud and eternal protest against the mob 
spirit that Is threatening the integrity of this 

Governor Jelks of'Alabama has recently spoken 
as follows: "The lynching of any person for what- 
ever crime is inexcusable anywhere — it is a defi- 
ance of orderly government; but the killing of 
innocent people under any provocation is infinitely 
more horrible; and yet Innocent people arc likely 
to die when a mob's terrible lust is once aroused. 

The lesson is this; No good citizen can afford to 
countenance a defiance of the statutes, no matter 
what the provocation. The innocent frequently 
suffer, and, it is my observation, more usually suffer 
than the guilty. The white people of the South 
Indict the whole colored race on the ground that 
even the better elements lend no assistance what- 
ever in ferreting out criminals of their own color. 
The respectable colored people must learn not to 
harbor their criminals, but to assist the officers 
in bringing them to justice. This is the larger 
crime, and It provokes such atrocious offenses as 
the one at Atlanta. The two races can never get 
on until there is an understanding on the part of 
both to make common cause with the law-abiding 
against criminals of any color." 

Moreover, where any crime 
committed by a member of one 
Real iHHue race against a member of an- 

iu Ijynchlng: other race is avenged in such 
fashion that it seems as if not 
the Individual criminal, but the 
whole race, is attacked, the result is to exasperate 
to the highest degree race feeling. There is but 
one safe rule in dealing Tvith black men as with 
white men; It Is the same rule that must be ap- 
plied in dealing with rich men .vnd poor men; that 
is; to treat each man, whatever his color, his creed, 
or his social position, with even-handed justice 
on his real -worth as a man. 

White people owe It quite as much to themselves 
as to the colored race to treat well the colored 
man who shows by his life that he deserves such 
treatment: for It is surely the highest wisdom to 
encourage in the colored race all those individuals 
who are honest, industrious, law-abiding, and who 
therefore make good and safe neighbors and citi- 
zens. Reward or punish the individual on his 
merits as an Individual. Evil will surely come in 
the end to both races if we substitute for this 
just rule the habit of treating all the members of 
the race, good and bad, alike. There is no ques- 
tion of "social ecjuality" or "negro domination" 
Involved; only the question of relentlessly punish- 
ing bad men. and of securing to the good man the 
right to his life, his liberty, and the pursuit of his 
happiness as his own qualities of heart, head, and 
hand enable him to achieve it. 

Every colored man should realize that the worst 
enemy of his race is the negro criminal, and above 
all the negro criminal who commits the dreadful 
crime; and it should be felt as In the highest de- 
gree an offense against the whole country, and 
against the colored race in particular, for a col- 
ored man to fall to help the officers of the law 
in hunting down with all possible earnestness and 
zeal every such infamous offender. Moreover, in 
my judgment, the crime of attack on a woman 
should always be punished with death, as in the 
case with murder; assault should be made a capi- 
tal crime, at least in the discretion of the court, 
and provision should be made by which the pun- 
ishment may follow immediately upon the heels 
of the offense; while the trial should be so con- 
ducted that the victim need not be wantonly 
shamed while giving testimony, and that the least 
possible publicity shall be given to the details. 

The members of the white race 
on the other hand should under- 
MeanM stand that every lynching rep- 

Mornl resents by just so much a loos- 

Deterlorntion ening of the bands of civilization; 
that the spirit of lynching Inev- 
itably throws into prominence In the community 
all the foul and evil creatures who dwell therein. 
No man can take part in the torture of a human 
being without having his own moral nature per- 
manently lowered. Every lynching means just so 
much moral deterioration In all the children who 
have any knowledge of It. and therefore just so 
much additional trouble for the next generation of 

Let justice be both sure and swift, but let it be 
justice under the law, and not the wild and 
crooked savagery of a mob. 

There Is another matter which has a direct 
bearing upon this matter of lynching and of the 
brutal crime which sometimes calls It forth and at 
other times merely furnishes the excuse for its 
existence. It is oul of the question for our people 
as a whole permanently to rise by treading down 
any of their own number. Even those who. them- 
selves for the moment profit by such maltreatment 
of their fellows will In the long run also suffer. 
No more shortsighted policy can be imagined than. 



in the fancied Interest of one class, to prevent the 
education of another class. The free public school 
the chance for each boy or girl to get a good ele- 
mentary education, lies at the foundation of our 
whole political situation. 

In every community the poorest citizens, those 
who need the schools most, would be deprived of 
them If they only received school facilities propor- 
tioned to the taxes they paid. This Is as true of 
one portion of our country as of another. It is as 
true for the negro as for the white man The 
white man, if he Is wise, will decline to allow the 
negroes In a mass to grow to manhood and wom- 

become criminals, while what little criminality 
there is never takes the form of that brutal vio- 
lence which Invites lynch law. Every graduate 
of these schools — and for the matter of that every 
other colored man or woman — who leads a life 
so useful and honorable as to win the good will 
and respect of those whites whose neighbor he or 
she Is, thereby helps the whole colored race as it 
can be helped In no other way; for next to the 
negro himself, the man who can do most to help 
the negro Is his white neighbor who lives near 
him; and our steady effort should be to better the 
relations between the two. Great tho the ben- 


-St. Louis Republic. 

anhood without education. Unquestionably, edu- 
cation such as Is obtained in our public schools 
does not do everything towards making a man a 
good citizen; but it does much. T|ie lowest and 
most brutal criminals, those for instance who com- 
mlfthe crime of assault, are in the great majority 
m*5Tr ■^hb have had either no education or very lit- 
tle; Just as they are almost Invariably men who 
(rWn no property; for the man who puts money by 
out of his earnings, like the man who acquires edu- 
cation, is usually lifted above mere brutal crimi- 

Of course, the best type of education for the 
colored man, taken as a whole. Is such education 
as Is conferred In schools like Hampton and Tus- 
kegee; wliere the boys and girls, the young men 
and young women, are trained Industrially as well 
as in the ordinary public school branches. The 
graduates of these schools turn out well In the 
great majority of cases, and hardly any of them 

eflt of these schools has been to their colored pupils 
and to the colored people. It may be questioned 
whether the benefit has not been at least as great 
to the wirite people among whom these colored 
pupils live after they graduate.' 

Be It remembered, furthermore, that the indi- 
viduals who, whether from folly, from evil tem- 
per, from greed for office, or in a spirit of mere 
base demagogy. Indulge in the Inflammatory and 
incendiary speeches and writings which tend to 
arouse mobs and to bring about lynching, not only 
thus excite the mob. but also tend by what crim- 
inologists call "suggestion," greatly to Increase the 
likelihood of a repetition of the very crime against 
which they are inveighing. 

When the mob Is composed of the people of one 
race and the man lynched is of another race the 
men who In their speeches and writings either ex- 
cite or justify the action tend, of course, to excite 
a bitter race feeling and to cause the people of the 



Class Hatred 

opposite race to lose sigrht of the abominable act 
of the criminal himself; and in addition, by the 
prominence they give to the hideous deed they un- 
doubtedly tend to excite in other brutal and de- 
praved natures thoughts of committing it. Swift, 
relentless and orderly punishment under the law Is 
the only way by which criminality of this type can 
permanently be supprest. 

In dealing with both labor and 
capital, with the questions 
affecting both corporations and 
trades unions, there is one mat- 
ter more important to remember 
than aught else, and that is the 
infinite harm done by preachers of mere discontent. 
These are the men who seek to excite a violent 
class hatred against all men of wealth. They seek 
to turn wise and proper movements for the better 
control of corporations and for doing away with 
the abuses connected with wealth, into a campaign 
of hysterical excitement and falsehood in which 
the aim is to inflame to madness the brutal pas- 
sions of mankind. 

The sinister demagogs and foolish visionaries 
who are always eager to undertake such a cam- 
paign of destruction sometimes seek to associate 
themselves with those working for a genuine re- 
form in governmental and social methods, and 
sometimes masquerade as such reformers. In 
reality they are the worst enemies of the cause 
they profess to advocate, just as the purveyors of 
sensational slander in newspaper or mag.azine are 
the worst enemies of all men who are engaged in 
an honest effort to better what is bad In our social 
and governmental conditions. 

To preach hatred of the rich man as such, to 
carry on a campaign of slander and invective 
against him, to seek to mislead and inflame to 
madness honest men whose lives are hard and 
who have not the kind of mental training which 
will permit them to appreciate the danger In the 
doctrines preach<;d — all this is to commit a crime 
against the body politic and to be false to every 
worthy principle and tradition of American na- 
tional life. Moreover, while such preaching and 
such agitation may give a livelihood and a cer- 
tain notoriety to some of those who take part In 
it, and may result in the temporary political suc- 
cess of others, in the long run every such move- 
ment will either fall or else will provoke a violent 
reaction, which will itself result not merely in 
undoing the mischief wrought by the demagog 
and the agitator, but also in undoing the good 
that the honest reformer, the true upholder of 
popular rights, has painfully and laboriously 

Corruption is never so rife as In communities 
where the demagog and the agitator bear full 
sway, because in such communities all moral bands 
become loosened, and hysteria and sensationalism 
replace the spirit of sound judgment and fair deal- 
ing as between man and man. In sheer revolt 
against the squalid anarchy thus produced men are 
sure in the end to turn toward any leader who can 
restore order and then their relief at being free 
from the intolerable burdens of class hatred, vio- 
lence and demagogy is such that they cannot for 
some time be aroused to indignation against mis- 
deeds by men of wealth; so that they permit a new 
growth of the very abuses which were In part re- 
sponsible for the original outbreak. 

The one hope for success for our people lies In 
a resolute and fearless, but sane and cool-headed, 
advance along the path marked out last year by 
this very Congress. There must be a stern refusal 
to be misled Into following either that base crea- 
ture who appeals and panders to the lowest in- 
stincts and passions In order to arouse one set of 
Americans against their fellows, or that other 
creature, equally base but no baser, who in a 
spirit of greed, or to accumulate or add to an al- 
ready huge fortune, seeks to exploit his fellow 
Americans with callous disregard to their welfare 
of soul and body. The man who debauches others 
in order to obtain a high office stands on an evil 
equality of corruption with the man who debauches 
others for financial profit; and when hatred is sown 
the crop which springs up can only be evil. 

The plain people who think — the 

Dimmer mechanics, farmers, merchants, 

j„ workers with head or hand, the 

men to "whom American tradi- 

AKitntors tlons are dear, who love their 

country and try to act decently 

by their neighbors — owe It to themselves to remem- 


ber that the most damaging blow that can be given 
popular government Is to elect an unworthy and sin- 
ister agitator on a platform of violence and hypoc- 
risy. Whenever such an issue Is raised in this coun- 
try nothing can be gained by flinching from it, for 
in such case democracy is Itself on trial, popular 
self-government under republican forms Is itself on 
trial. The triumph of the mob is just as evil a 
thing as the triumph of the plutocracy, and to 
have escaped one danger avails nothing whatever if 
we succumb to the other. 

In the end the honest man, whether rich or poor, 
who earns his own living and tries to deal justly 
by his fellows, has as much to fear from the in- 
sincere and unwortliy demagog, promising much 
and performing nothing, or else performing noth- 
ing but evil, who would set on the mob to plunder 
the rich, as from the crafty corruptionlst, who, 
for his own ends, would permit the common people 
to be exploited by the very wealthy. If we ever 
let this government fall into the hands of men 
of eitlier of these two classes, we shall show our- 
selves false to America's past. Moreover, the dem- 
agog and the corruptionlst often work hand in 
hand. There are at this moment wealthy reaction- 
aries of such obtuse morality that they regard the 
public servant who prosecutes them when they 
violate the la^v, or who seeks to make them bear 
their proper share of the public burdens, as being 
even more objectionable than the violent agitator 
^vho hounds on the mob to plunder the rich. There 
is nothing to choose between such a reactionary 
and such an agitator; fundamentally they are alike 
in their selfish disregard of the rights of others; 
and it is natural that they should join in opposi- 
tion to any movement of which the aim is fearlessly 
to do exact and even justice to all. 

I call your attention to the need ' 
Rnilroad Employ- of passing the bill limiting the \ 
ees' Hours and number of hours- of employment 
vt iti n 1 °^ railroad employees. The 

I<<lgtit-ilour measure is a very moderate one . 
and I can conceive of no serious 
objection to It. Indeed, so far as it is In our power. 
It should be our aim steadily to reduce the number 
of hours of labor, with as a goal the general in- 
troduction of an eight-hour day. There are Indus- 
tries In which it is not possible that the hours of 
labor should be reduced; just as there are commun- 
ities not far enough advanced for such a movement 
to be for their good, or, if in the tropics, so sit- 
uated that there is no analogy between their needs 
and ours in this matter. 

On the Isthmus of Panama, for instance, the con- 
ditions are in every way so different from what 
they are here that an eight-hour day would be 
absurd; just as it is absurd, so far as the istlTmus is 
concerned, where white labor cannot be employed, 
to bother as to whether the necessary work is done 
by alien black men or by alien yellow men. But 
the wageworkers of the United States are of so 
high a grade that alike from the merely industrial 
standpoint and from the civic standpoint It should 
be our object to do what "we can In the direction 
of securing the general observance of an eight-" 
hour day. Until recently the eight-hour law on 
our federal statute books has been very scantily 
observed. Now, however, largely thru the in- 
strumentality of the Bureau of Labor, It Is being 
rigidly enforced, and I shall speedily be able to say 
whether or not there is need of further legislation 
in reference thereto; for our purpose Is to see it 
obeyed in spirit no less than In letter. Half holi- 
days during the summer should be established for 
government employees; it is as desirable for wage- 
■workers who toil with their hands as for salaried 
officials whose labor is mental that there should be 
a reasonable amount of holiday. 

The Congress at its last session 
Labor of Woinen wisely provided for a truant 
„„j court for the District of Co- 

lumbia; a marked step in ad- 
Children vance on the path of properly 

caring for the children. Let me 
again urge that the Congress provide for a thoro 
investigation of the conditions of child labor 
and of the labor of women in the United States. 
More and more our people are growing to recog- 
nize the fact that the questions which are not 
merely of industrial but of social importance out- 
weigh all others; and these two questions most 
emphatically come in the category of those which 
affect in the most far-reaching way the home life 
of the nation. 

The horrors incident to the employment of young 




children In factories or at work anywhere are a 
blot on our civilization. It is true that each state 
must ultimately settle tb« Question in its own way; 
but a thoro offlctal Investigation of the matter, 
with the results published broadcast, would greatly 
help toward arousing the public conscience and 
securing unity of state action in the matter. There 
Is, however, one law on the subject which should 
be enacted immediately, because there Is no need 
for an investigation In reference thereto, and the 
failure to enact it Is discreditable to the national 
government. A drastic and thorogoing child-labor 
law should be enacted for the District of Columbia 
and the territories. 

evitable sacrifice of life may be reduced to a mini- 
mum, but it cannot be completely eliminated. It 
is a great social injustice to compel the employee, 
or rather the family of the killed or disabled vic- 
tim, to bear the entire burden of such an inevitable 

In other words, society shirks its duty by lay- 
ing the whole cost on the victim, whereas the In- 
jury comes from what may be called the legiti- 
mate risks of the trade. Compensation for acci- 
dents or deaths due in any line of Industry to the 
actual conditions under which that Industry is 
carried on, should be paid by that portion of the 
community for the benefit of which the industry 

Find the Man Who Doesn't Want the Tariff Revised. 


Among the excellent laws which 
the Congress passed at the last 
session was an employers' 
liability law. It was a marked 
step in advance to get the 
recognition of employers' lia- 
bility on the statute books, but the law did not go 
far enough. In spite of all precautions exercised 
by employers there are unavoidable accidents and 
even deaths Involved In nearly every line of busi- 
ness connected with the mechanic arts. This In- 

— Chicago Tribune. 

Is carried on — that Is, by those who profit by the 

If the entire trade risk is placed upon the em- 
ployer he win promptly and properly add It to the 
legitimate cost of production and assess it pro- 
portionately upon the consumers of his commodity. 
It is therefore clear to my mind that the law 
should place this entire "risk of a trade" upon the 
employer. Neither the federal law, nor, as far 
as I am Informed, the State laws dealing with the 
question of employers' liability, are sufllciently 
thorogoing. The federal law stiould, of course, 
include employees in navy yards, arsenals and the 



The commission appointed by 
Inveatlg;atloii of the President October 16, 1902, 
Dispute* BetTreen at the request of both the an- 
thracite coal operators and 

Capital und Labor 

miners to inquire into, consider 

and pass upon the questions in 
controversy in connection with the strike in the 
anthracite regions of Pennsylvania and the causes 
out of which the controversy arose, in their re- 
port, findings and award, exprest the belief "that 
the State and Federal governments should provide 
the machinery for what may be called the compul- 
sory Investigation of controversies between em- 
ployers and employees when they arise." This 
expression of belief is deserving of the favorable 
consideration of the Congress and the enactment 
of its provisions Into law. A bill has already been 
introduced to this end. 

Records show that during the twenty years from 
January 1, 1881, to December 31, 1900, there were 
strikes affecting 117,509 establishments, and 6,105,- 
694 employees were thrown out of employment. 
During the same period there were 1,005 lockouts, 
involving nearly 10,000 establishments, throwing 
over one million people out of employment. Those 
strikes and lockouts involved an estimated loss to 
employees of 307 million dollars, and to employers 
143 million dollars, a total of 450 million dollars. 
The public suffered directly and indirectly, prob- 
ably as great additional loss. But the money loss, 
great as it was, did not measure the anguish and 
suffering endured by the wives and children of em- 
ployees whose pay stopt when their work 
stopt, or the disastrous effect of the strike or 
lockout upon the business of employers, or the in- 
crease in the cost of products and the inconven- 
ience and loss to the public. 

Many of these strikes and lockouts would not 
have occurred had the parties to the dispute been 
required to appear before an unprejudiced body rep- 
resenting the nation and, face to face, state the rea- 
sons for their contention. In most instances the 
dispute ■would doubtless be found to be due to a 
misunderstanding by each of the other's rights, 
aggravated by an unwillingness of either party to 
accept as true the statements of the other as to the 
justice or Injustice of the matters In dispute. 

The exercise of a judicial spirit by a disinterested 
body representing the federal government, such as 
would be provided by a commission on conciliation 
and arbitration would tend to create an atmosphere 
of friendliness and conciliation between contending 
parties; and the giving each side an equal oppor- 
tunity to present fully its case in the presence of 
the other would prevent many disputes from devel- 
oping Into serious strikes or lockouts, and, in other 
cases, would enable the commission to persuade 
the opposing parties to come to terms. 

In this age of great corporate and labor combi- 
nations, neither employers nor employees should 
be left completely at the mercy of the stronger 
party to a dispute, regardless of the righteousness 
of their respective claims. The proposed measure 
would be in the line of securing recognition of the 
fact that in many strikes the public has itself an 
interest which can not wisely be disregarded; an 
interest not merely of general convenience, for the 
I question of a just and proper public policy must 
' also be considered. In all legislation of this kind it 
Is well to advance cautiously, testing each step by 
the actual results; the step proposed can surely be 
safely taken, for the decisions of the commission 
would not bind the parties in legal fashion and yet 
would give a chance for public opinion to crystallze 
and thus to exert Its full force for the right. 

It is not wise that the nation 
^Vlthdranal should alienate Its remaining 
f coal lands. I have temporarily 

withdrawn from settlement all 
Coal Lands tj,g lands which the geological 

survey has Indicated as contain- 
ing or in all probability containing, coal. The 
question, however, can be properly settled only 
|by legislation, which In my judgment should pro- 
U vide for the withdrawal of these lands from sale 
lor from entry, save In certain especial circum- 
I stances. The ownership would then remain In 
the United States, which should not, however, at- 
tempt to work them, but permit them to be worked 
by private individuals under a hoyalty system, the 
government keeping such control as to permit 
it to see that no excessive price was charged con- 

It would, of course, be as necessary to super- 
vise the rates charged by the common carriers 
to transport the product as the rates charged by 
those who mine it; and the supervision must ex- 

tend to the conduct of the common carriers, so 
that they shall in no way favor one competitor 
at the expense of another. The withdrawal of 
these coal lands would constitute a policy anal- 
ogous to that which has been followed in with- 
drawing the forest lands from ordinary settle- 
ment. The coal, like the forests, should be treated 
as the property of the public and its disposal 
should be under conditions which would inure 
the benefit of the public as a whole. 



In Interstate 


atlons of any 
state business, 
rate bill, and 
passage of the 

The present Congress has take 
long strides in the direction of 
securing proper supervision and 
control by the national govern- 
ment over corporations engaged 
in interstate business — and the 
enormous majority of corpor- 
size are engaged in inter- 
The passage of the railway 
only to a less degree the 
pure food bill, and the provision 
for increasing and rendering more effective na- 
tional control over the beef-packing industry. 
mark an important advance in the proper direc- 
tion. In the short session it will perhaps be dirfl- 
cult to do much further along this line; and it 
may be best to wait until the laws have been In 
operation for a number of months before endeav- 
oring to increase their scope, because only opera- 
tion will show with exactness their merits and 
their shortcomings and thus give opportunity to 
define what further remedial legislation is needed. 
Yet in my judgment it will in the end be advis- 
able in connection with the packing house Inspec- 
tion law to provide for putting a date on the label 
and for charging the cost of inspection to the 

All these laws have already justified their en- 
actment. The interstate commerce law, for in- 
stance, has rather amusingly falsified the predic- 
tions, both of those who asserted that it would 
ruin the railroads and of those who asserted that 
it did not go far enough and would accomplish 
nothing. During the last five months the railroads 
have shown increased earnings and some of them 
unusual dividends; while during the same period 
the mere taking effect of the law has produced an 
unprecedented, a hitherto unheard of, number of 
voluntary reductions in freights and fares by 
the railroads. Since the founding of the commis- 
sion there has never been a time of equal length 
in which anything like so many reduced tariffs 
have been put into effect. On August 27, for in- 
stance, two days before the new law went into 
effect, the commission received notices of over five 
thousand separate tariffs which represented re- 
ductions from previous rates. 

It must not be silpposed, however, that with the 
passage of these laws it will be possible to stop 
progress along the line of increasing the power 
of the national government over the use of capital 
in interstate commerce. For example, there will 
ultimately be need of enlarging the powers of the 
interstate commerce commission along several dif- 
ferent lines, so as to give it a larger and more 
efficient control over the railroads. 

It cannot be too often repeated that experience 
has conclusively shown the Impossibility of se- 
curing by the actions of nearly half a hundred 
different state legislatures anything but Ineffective 
chaos in the way of dealing within the limits of 
any one state. In some method, whether by a 
national license law or In other fashion, we must 
exercise, and that at an early date, a far more 
complete control than at present over these great 
corporations — a control that will among other 
things prevent the evils of excessive overcapital- 
ization, and that will compel the disclosure by 
each big corporation of its stockholders and of 
its properties and business, whether owned di- 
rectly or thru subsidiary affiliated corporations. 
This "will tend to put a stop to the securing of in- 
ordinate profits by favored individuals at the 
expense whether of the general public, the stock- 
holders or the wageworkers. Our effort should 
be not so much to prevent consolidation as such, 
but so to supervise and control It as to see to it 
that it results in no harm to the people. 

n ) 

The reactionary or ultracon- 
servative apologists for the mis- 
use of wealth assail the effort 
to secure such control as a step 
toward Socialism. As a mat- 
ter of fact. It is these reaction- 
aries and ultraconservatives who are themselves 

Not Soclullsm 
Nor a Step 
Toward It 









TAl'T'H iJllDtR- 

Must Have Been a Great Success, Judging by New York's $3,000,000 Election. 

— Chicago Record-Herald. 




most potent in increasing Socialistic feeling. One 
of the most efficient methods of averting the con- 
sequences of a dangerous agitation, which Is 80 
per cent wrong, is to remedy the 20 per cent 
of evil as to which the agitation is well founded. 
The best way to avert the very undesirable move 
for the governmental ownership of railways Is to 
secure by the government on behalf of the people 
as a whole such adequate control and regulation of 
the great Interstate common carriers as will do 
away with the evils which give rise to the agitation 
against them. So the proper antidote to the dan- 
gerous and wicked agitation against the men of 
wealth as such is to secure by proper legislation 
and executive action the abolition of the grave 
abuses which actually do obtain In connection with 
the business use of wealth under our present sys- 
' tem — or rather no system of failure to exercise 
any adequate control at all. 

Some persons speak as If the exercise of such 
governmental control would do away with the 
freedom of individual Initiative and dwarf Indi- 
vidual effort. This is not a fact. It would be a 
veritable calamity to fail to put a premium upon 
individual Initiative. individual capacity and 
effort; upon the energy, character and foresight 
which It Is so Important to encourage In the indi- 
vidual. But as a matter of fact the deadening and 
degrading effect of pure Socialism, and especially 
of Its extreme form, communism, and the destruc- 
tion of Individual character which they would 
I bring about, are in part achieved by the wholly 
f unregulated competition which results In a single 
I Individual or corporation rising at the expense 

I of all others until his or its rise effectually checks 

II all competition and reduces former competitors 
' to a position of utter Inferiority and subordination. 

In enacting and enforcing such 
The legislation as this Congress al- 

Middle Ground ready has to Its credit, we are 
„ _ ' working on a coherent plan, 

Me saya with the steady endeavor to 

secure the needed reform by the 
joint action of the moderate men, the plain men 
who do not wish anything hysterical or dangerous, 
but who do Intend to deal in resolute common- 
sense fashion with the real and great 
evils of the present system. The reactiona- 
ries and the violent extremists show symptoms 
of joining hands against us. Both assert, for 
Instance, that if logical, we should go to gov- 
ernment ownership of railroads and the like; the 
reactionaries, because on such an issue they think 
the people would stand with them, while the ex- 
tremists care rather to preach discontent and agi- 
tation than to achieve solid results. As a matter 
of fact, our position Is as remote from that of the 
Bourbon reactionary as from that of the imprac- 
ticable or sinister visionary. We hold that the 
government should not conduct the business of the 
nation, but that It should exercise such supervis- 
ion as will insure Its being conducted In the inter- 
est of the nation. Our aim is, so far as may be, 
to secure, for all decent, hardworking men, equal- 
ity of opportunity and equality of burden. 

The actual working of our laws has shown that 
the effort to prohibit all combination, good or bad. 
Is noxious where It is not ineffective. Combina- 
"^tion ot capital like combination of labor is a n'ec- 
"ement of our present industrial system. 
possible completely to prevent it; and 
if it were possible, such complete prevention would 
do damage to the body politic. What we need is 
not vainly to try to prevent all combination, but to 
secure such rigorous and adequate control and 
supervision of the combinations as to prevent their 
Injuring the public, or existing In such form as 
inevitably to threaten injury — for the mere fact 
that a combination has secured practically com- 
plete control of a necessary of life would under 
any circumstances sho'w that such combination 
was to be presumed to be adverse to the public in- 

It is unfortunate that our present laws should 
forbid all combinations. Instead of sharply dis- 
criminating between those comljinatlons which do 
good and those combinations which do evil. Re- 
bates, for instance, are as often due to the pres- 
sure of big shippers (as was shown in the inves- 
tigation of the Standard Oil Company and as has 
been shown since by the investigation of the To- 
bacco and Sugar trusts) as to the initiative of big 
railroads. Often railroads would like to combine 
for the purpose of preventing a big shipper from 
maintaining improper advantages at the expense of 
small shippers and of the general public. Such a 

rfy It is not 

combination. Instead of being forbidden by law, 
should be favored. In other words, it should be 
permitted to railroads to make agreements, pro- 
vided these agreements were sanctioned by the 
Interstate commerce commission and were pub- 

With tliese two conditions com- 

Non- piled with It Is impossible to see 

Enforcement what harm such a combination 

, , could do to the public at large. 

oi i-ans n jg jj puijiij, ^.^ji (q ),ave on 

tlie statute books a law inca- 
pable of full enforcement because both Judges 
and Juries realize that its full enforcement would 
destroy the business of the country; for the re- 
sult is to make decent railroad men violators of 
the law against their will, and to put a premium 
on the behavior of the wilful wrongdoers. Such a 
result In turn tends to throw the decent man and 
the wilful wrongdoer in close association, and in the 
end to drag down the former to the latter's level; 
for the man who becomes a lawbreaker in one way 
unhappily tends to lose all respect for law and 
to be willing to break it in many ways. No more 
scathing condemnation could be visited upon a 
law than is contained In the words of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission when. In commenting 
upon the fact that the numerous Joint traffic asso- 
ciations do technically violate the law, they say: 
"The decision of the United States Supreme Court ] 
In the Trans-Missouri case and the Joint Traffic | 
Association case has produced no practical effect 
upon the railway operations of the country. Such 
associations, in fact, exist now as they did before 
these decisions, and with the same general effect. 
In Justice to all parties, we ought probably to add 
that It is difficult to see how our Interstate rail- 
ways could be operated with due regard to the 
Interest of the shipper and the railway without 
concerted action of the kind afforded thru these 

This means that the law as construed by the 
Supreme Court is such that the business of the 
country can not be conducted without breaking it. 
I recommend that you give careful and early con- 
sideration to this subject, and If you find the 
opinion of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
justified, tiiat you amend the law so as to obviate 
the evil disclosed. 


Income Tax 

The question of taxation Is dif- 
ficult In any country, but It is 
especially difficult in ours with 
its federal system of govern- 
ment. Some taxes should on 
every ground be levied in a 
small district for use In that district. Thus, the 
taxation of real estate is peculiarly one for the 
Immediate locality in which the real estate Is 
found. Again, there is no more legitimate tax for 
any state than a tax on the franchises conferred 
by the state upon street railroads and similar cor- 
porations which operate wholly within the state 
boundaries, sometimes in one and sometimes In 
several municipalities or other minor divisions of 
the state. But there are many kinds of taxes 
which can only be levied by the general govern- 
ment so as to produce the best results, because 
among other reasons, the attempt to impose them 
in one particular state too often results merely In 
driving the corporation or individual affected to 
some other locality or other state. 

The national government has long derived its 
chief revenue from a tariff on imports and from 
an Internal or excise tax. In addition to these, 
there is every reason why, when next our system 
of taxation is revised, the national government 
should Impose a graduated inheritance tax, and, if 
possible, a graduated Income tax. The man of 
great wealth owes a peculiar obligation to the 
state, because he derives special advantages from 
the mere existence of government. Not only 
should he recognize this obligation in tlie way he 
leads his dally life and In th.e way he earns and ■ 
spends his money, but It should also be recognized 
by the way in which he pays for the protection 
the state gives him. 

On the one liand, it is desirable that he should 
assume his full and proper share of the burden of 
taxation; on the other hand, it Is quite as neces- 
sary that In this kind of taxation, where the men 
who vote the tax pay but little of it, there should 
be clear recognition of the danger of Inaugurating 
any such system save in a spirit of entire justice 



and moderation. Whenever we, as a people, under- 
take to remodel our taxation system along the 
lines suggested we must make it clear beyond 
peradventure that our aim is to distribute the 
burden of supporting the government more equi- 
tably than at present; that we intend to treat rich 
man and poor man on a basis of absolute equality, 
and that we regard it as equally fataJ to true 
democracy to do or permit injustice to the one as 
to do or permit injustice to the other. 

I am well aware that such a subject as this 
needs long and careful study in order that the 
people may become familiar with what is proposed 
to be done, may clearly see the necessity of pro- 
ceeding with wisdom and self-restraint, and may 
make up their minds just how far they are willing 
to go in the matter, while only trained legislators 
can work out the project in necessary detail. But 
I feel that in the near future our national legis- 
lators should enact a law providing for a gradu- 
ated Inheritance tax by which a steadily increas- 
ing rate of duty should be put upon all moneys or 
other valuables coming by gift, bequest, or devise 
to any individual or corporation. 

It may be well to make the tax heavy in pro- 
portion as the individual benefited is remote of kin. 
In any event, in my judgment, the pro rata of the 
tax should increase very heavily with the increase 
of the amount left to any one individual after a cer- 
tain point has been reached. It is most desirable 
to encourage thrift and ambition, and a potent 
source of thrift and ambition is the desire on the 
part of the breadwinner to leave his children well 
off. This object can be attained by making the 
tax very small on moderate amounts of property 
left, because the prime object should be to put a 
constantly increasing burden on the inheritance 
of those swolIenfarIun,e5_.-Khicl}_it_is certajnlx-of 
noTSSllHIIFToTTiTscountry to p«r-{>etuate. 
— TK?rB" can be no question of the ethical pro- 
priety of the Government thus determining the 
conditions upon which any gift or inheritance 
should be received. Exactly how far the inherit- 
ance tax would, as an incident, have the effect of 
limiting the transmission by devise or gift of the 
enormous fortunes in question it is not necessary 
at present to discuss. It is wise that progress in 
this direction should be gradual. At first a per- 
manent national inheritance tax. while it might be 
more substantial than any such tax lias hitherto 
been, need not approximate, either in amount or 
in the extent of the increase by graduation, to 
what such a tax should ultimately be. 

This species of tax has again and again been im- 
posed, altho only temporarily, by the national gov- 
ernment. It was first imposed by the act of July 
6. 1797, when the makers of the Constitution were 
alive and at the head of affairs. It was a gradu- 
ated tax; tho small in amount, the rate was in- 
creased with the amount left to any individual, 
exceptions being made in the case of certain close 
kin. A similar tax was again imposed by the 
act of July 1, 1862, a minimum sum of $1000 In 
personal property being excepted from taxation, 
the tax then becoming progressive according to 
the remoteness of kin. The War Revenue Act of 
June 13, 1898, provided for an inheritance tax on 
any sum exceeding the value of $10,000, the rate 
of the tax increasing botli in accordance with the 
amounts left and In accordance with the legatee's 
remoteness of kin. The Supreme Court has held 
that the succession tax Imposed at the time of the 
Civil War was not a direct tax, but an impost or 
excise which was both constitutional and valid. 
More recently the Court. In an opinion delivered 
by Mr. Justice White, which contained an exceed- 
ingly able and elaborate discussion of the. powers 
of the Congress to impose death duties, sustained 
the constitutionality of the inheritance tax feature 
of the War Revenue Act of 1898. 

In Its incidents, and apart from the main purpose 
of raising revenue, an income tax stands on an 
entirely different footing from an inheritance tax, 
because it involves no question of the perpetuation 
of fortunes swollen to an unhealthy size. The 
question is in its essence a question of the proper 
adjustment of burdens to benefits. As the law now 
stands, It is undoubtedly difhcult to devise a na- 
tional income tax which shall be constitutional. 
But whether it is absolutely impossible is another 
question, and if possible it is most certainly desir- 
able. The first purely income tax law was past 
by the Congress In 1861, but the most Important 
law dealing with the subject was that of 1894. 
This the Court held to be unconstitutional. 

The question Is undoubtedly very intricate, deli- 
cate, and troublesome. The decision of the Court 

was only reached by one majority. It is the law . 
of the land, and, of course, is accepted as such, 
and loyally obeyed by all good citizens. Never- 
theless, the hesitation evidently felt by the Court 
as a whole in coming to a conclusion, when con- 
sidered together with the previous decisions 
on the subject, may perhaps indicate the pos- 
sibility of devising a constitutional Income tax law 
which shall substantially accomplish the results 
aimed at. The difflculty of amending the constitu- 
tion is so great that only real necessity can justify 
a resort thereto. E very efro^ ->°]]nnlrt hr mndr In 
d£aUn£_jatllli, this subject, as~wTth_the subjecr of 

th£ CJCQjier^^'nTrBr- by the ■national "government 

oiCfiC-tJifiUise pfTrorporate wealth in Interstate busi- 
ness^_ to devise legislation which without such 
atrtioM shall attain the desired end; but if this fails, 
there will ultimately be no .alternative to a con- 
stitutidiiitl amendment." 


anil IniliiMtrlal 


It would be impossible to over- 
state (tho it Is, of course, diffl- 
cult quantitatively to measure) 
the effect upon a nation's 
growth to greatness of what 
may be called organized patriot- 
ism, which necessarily Includes the substitution of 
a national feeling for mere local pride, with, as a 
resultant, a high ambition for the whole country. 
No country can develop its full strength so long 
as the parts which make up the whole each put 
a feeling of loyalty to the part above the feeling 
of loyalty to the whole. This is true of sections 
and it is just as true of classes. 

The Industrial and agricultural classes must 
work together, capitalists and wageworkers must 
work together, if the best work of which the 
country Is capable is to be done. It is probable 
that a thoroly efficient system of education comes 
next to the influence of patriotism In bringing 
about national success of this kind. Our federal 
form of government, so fruitful of advantage to 
our people in certain ways. In other ways undoubt- 
edly limits our national effectiveness. It Is not 
possible, for instance, for the national government 
to take the lead In technical industrial education, 
to see that the public school system of this country 
develops on all its technical, industrial, scientific, 
and commercial sides. TJii8-j»ual_tiS. left jprlmarjly 
tct,,tlie several_ ^ates. Nevertlieless. the national 
govern ihenFTras control of the schools of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, and it should see that these 
schools promote and encourage tlie fullest develop- 
ment of the scholars In both commercial and in- 
dustrial training. 

The commercial training should in one of its 
branches deal with foreign trade. The industrial 
training is even more important. It should be one 
of our prime objects as a nation, so far as feasible, 
constantly to work toward putting the mechanic, 
the wageworker who works with his hands, on a 
higlier plane of efficacy and reward, so as to In- 
crease his effectiveness in the economic world, and 
the dignity, the remuneration, and the power of his 
position in the social world. Unfortunately, at 
present the effect of some of the work in the 
public schools Is in the exactly opposite direction. 
If boys and girls are trained merely in literary 
accomplishments, to the total exclusion of indus- 
trial, manual, and technical training, the tendency 
is to unfit them tor Industrial work and to make 
them reluctant to go into it, or unfitted to do well 
if they do go into it. This is a tendency which 
should be. strenuously combated. 

Our industrial development depends largely upon 
technical education, including in this term all In- 
dustrial education, from that which fits a man to 
be a good mechanic, a good carpenter, or black- 
smith, to that which fits a man to do the greatest 
engineering feat. The skilled mechanic, the skilled 
workman can best become such by technical indus- 
trial education. The far-reaching usefulness of In- 
stitutes of technology and schools of mines or of 
engineering is no'W universally acknowledged, and 
no less far reaching Is the effect of a good build- 
ing or mechanical trades school, a textile, or 
watchmaking, or engraving school. All such train- 
ing must develop not only manual dexterity but 
industrial Intelligence. In international rivalry 
this country does not have to fear the competition 
of pauper labor so much as It has to fear the 
educated labor of specially trained competitors; 
and we should have the education of the hand, 
eye, and brain which will fit us to meet such com- 

In every possible way we should help the wage- 



worker who toils with his hands and who must 
(we hope in a constantly increasing measure.) also 
toil with his brain. Under the constitution the 
national legislature can do but little of direct im- 
portance for his welfare save where he is engaged 
in work which permits it to act under the inter- 
state commerce clause of the constitution: and this 
is one reason why I so earnestly hope tliat both 
the legislative and judicial branches of the Gov- 
ernment will construe this clause of the constitu- 
tion in the broadest possible manner. We can. 
however, in such a matter as industrial training, 
in such a matter as child labor and factory laws, 
set an example to the states by enacting the most 
advanced legislation that can wisely be enacted 
for the District of Columbia, 

The only other persons whose 
Welfare of welfare is as vital to the wel- 
f;n-e of the whole country as is 
*"^ the welfare of the wageworkers 

AKrlcuItiiriitt are the tillers of the soil, the 
farmers. It is a mere truism to 
say that no growth of cities, no wealth, no indus- 
trial development can atone for any falling oft In 
the character and standing of the farming popu- 
lation. During the last few decades this fact has 
been recognized with ever-increasing clearness. 

There is no longer any failure to realize that 
farming, at least in certain branches, must become 
a technical and scientific profession. This means 
that there must be open to farmers the chance for 
technical and scientific training, not theoretical 
merely, but of the most severely practical type. 
The farmer represents a peculiarly high type of 
American citizenship, and he must have the same 
chance to rise and develop as other American 
citizens have. Moreover, it is exactly as true of 
the farmer as it is of the business man and the 
wageworker, that the ultimate success of the 
nation of which he forms a part must be founded 
not alone on material prosperity, but upon high 
moral, mental, and physical development. Tills 
education of the farmer — self-educated by prefer- 
ence, but also education from the outside, as with 
all other men — Is peculiarly necessary here In the 
United States where the frontier conditions even in 
tlie newest states have now nearly vanished, where 
there must l>e a substitution of a more intensive 
system of cultivation for the old wasteful farm 
management, and where there must be a better 
business organization among the farmers them- 

Several factors must co-operate in the improve- 
ment of the farmer's condition. He must have the 
chance to be educated in the widest possible sense 
■ — in the sense whicli keeps ever in view the inti- 
mate relationship between the theory of education 
and the facts of life. In all education we should 
widen our alms. It is a good thing to produce a 
certain number of trained scholars and students; 
but the education superintended by the state must 
seek rather to produce a hundred good citizens 
than merely one scholar, and It must be turned 
now and then from the class book to the study of 
the great book of Nature itself. This is especially 
true of the farmer, as has been pointed out again 
and again by all observers most competent to pass 
practical judgment on the problems of our country 

All students now realize that education must 
seek to train the executive powers of young people 
and to confer more real significance upon the 
phrase, "dignity of labor," and to prepare the 
pupils so that in addition to each developing in 
the highest degree his individual capacity for work 
they may together help create a right public opin- 
ion and show in many ways social and co-operative 
spirit. Organization has become necessary in the 
business worla, and it has accomplished much for 
good in the world of labor. It is no less necessary 
for farmers. Such a movement as the Grange 
movement is good in itself and is capable of a 
well-nigh infinite further extension for good so 
long as it is kept to its own legitimate business. 
The benefits to be derived by the association of 
farmers for mutual advantage are partly economic 
and partly sociological. 

Moreover, while in the long run voluntary effort 
will prove more efficacious than government assist- 
ance, while the farmers must primarily do most 
for themselves, yet the Government can also do 
much. The Department of Agriculture has broken 
new ground in many directions, and year by year 
it finds how it can improve its methods and de- 
velop fresh usefulness. 

Its constant effort is to give the governmental 
assistance In the most effective way; that is, 
through associations of farmers. It is also striv- 
ing to co-ordinate Its work witl^ the agricultural 
departments of the several states, and so far as its 
own work is educational, to co-ordinate it with the 
work of other educational authorities. Agricul- 
tural education is necessarily based upon general 
education, but our agricultural educational insti- 
tutions are wisely specializing themselves, making 
tlieir courses relate to the actual teaching of the 
agricultural and kindred sciences to young country 
people or young city people who wish to live in 
the country. 

Great progress has already been made among 
farmers by the creation of farmers' institutes, of 
dairy associations, of breeders' associations, horti- 
cultural associations and the like. A striking ex- 
ample of how the Government and the farmers can 
co-operate is shown in connection with the menace 
offered to the cotton growers of the Southern 
states by the advance of the boll weevil. The 
Department is doing all it can to organize the 
farmers in the threatened districts, just as it has 
been doing all it can to organize them in aid of its 
work to eradicate the cattle fever tick in the 
South. The Department can and will co-operate 
with all such associations, and it must have their^ 
help if its own work is to be done in the most 
efficient style. 

Much is now being done for the 

I»ri.«erviifl.>ii -"'ates of the Rocky Mountains 
PreHeriiiti.m .^^^ ^^^^^ plains thru the 

of the development of the national 

Kori'Mts policy of irrigation and forest 

preservation. No government 
policy for the betterment of our internal conditions 
has been more fruitful of good than this. The 
forests of the White Mountains and southern Ap- 
palachian regions should also be preserved; and 
they can not be unless the people of the states in 
which they lie, thru their representatives in the 
Congress, secure vigorous action by the national 

I invite the attention of the Congress to the esti- 
mate of the Secretary of War for an appropriation 
to enable him to begin the preliminary work for 
the constructon of a memorial amphitheater at Ar- 
lington. The Grand Army of the Republic in its 
national encampment has urged the erection of 
such an amphitheater as necessary for the proper 
observance of Memorial Day and as a fitting monu- 
ment to the soldier and sailor dead buried there. 
In this I heartily concur and commend the matter 
to the favorable consideration of the Congress. 



I am well aware of how diffi- 
cult it is to pass a constitu- 
tional amendment. Neverthe- 
less, in my Judgment the whole 
question of marriage and di- 
vorce should be relegated to 
the authority of the National Congress. At present 
the wide differences in the laws of the different 
states on this subject result in scandals and abuses, 
and surely there is nothing so vitally essential to 
the welfare of the nation, nothing around which 
the nation should so bend Itself to throw every 
safeguard, as the home life of the average citizen. 
The change would be good from every stand- 
point. In particular It would be good because it 
would confer on the Congress the power at once 
to deal radically and efficiently with polygamy, 
and this should be done whether or not marriage 
and divorce are dealt with. 

It is neither safe nor proper to leave the ques- 
tion of polygamy to be dealt with by the several 
states. Power to deal with it should be conferred 
on the national government. 

Evil In 



When home ties are loosened, 
when men and women cease to 
regard a worthy family life, 
with all its duties fully per- 
formed and all Its responsibil- 
ities lived up to, as the life best 
worth living, then evil days for the commonwealth 
are at hand. 

There are regions in our land and classes of our 
population where tile birth rate has sunk below 
the death rate. Surely it should need no demon- 
stration to show that wilful sterility is, from the 
standpoint of the nation, from the standpoint of 




— Indianapolis News. 



the human race, the one sin for which the penaity 
is national death, race death, a sin for which there 
Is no atonement, a sin which is the more dreadful 
exactly in proportion as the men and women guilty 
thereof are in other respects, in character and 
bodily and mental powers, those whom for the 
sake of the state it would be well to see the 
fathers and mothers of many healthy children, well 
brought up in homes made happy by their presence. 
No man, no woman can shirk the primary duties 
of life, whether for love of ease and pleasure or 
for any other cause, and retain his or her self- 

Let me once again call the at- 
Govemuient tentlon of the Congress to two 

subjects concerning which I 

Ala to have frequently before com- 

Shlpiiine municated with them. One is 

the question of developing 
American shipping. I trust that a law embodying 
in substance tlie views, or a major part of the 
views, expressed in the report on this subject laid 
before the House at its last session will be past. 
I am well aware that in former years objection- 
able measures have been proposed in reference to 
the encouragement of American shipping; but it 
seems to me that the proposed measure is as nearly 
unobjectionable as any can be. It will, of course, 
benefit primarily our seaboard states, such as 
Maine, Louisiana, and Washington; but what bene- 
fits part of our people in the end benefits all, just 
as government aid to irrigation and forestry in the 
West is really of benefit, not only to the Rocky 
Mountain states, but to all our country. If it prove 
impracticable to enact a law for the encourage- 
ment of shipping generally, then at least provision 
should be made for better communication with 
South America, notably for fast mail lines to the 
chief South American ports. It is discreditable 
to us that our business people, for lack of direct 
communication in the shape of lines of steamers 
with South America, should in that great sister con- 
tinent be at a disadvantage compared to the busi- 
ness people of Europe. 



I especially call your attention 
to the second subject, the condi- 
tion of our currency laws. The 
National Bank Act has ably 
served a great purpose in aid- 
ing the enormous business 
development of the country; and within ten years 
there has been an increase in circulation- per capita 
from $21.41 to $33.08. For several years evidence 
has been accumulating that additional legislation 
is needed. The recurrence of each crop season 
emphasizes the defects of the present laws. There 
must soon be a revision of them, because to leave 
them as they are means to incur liability of busi- 
ness disaster. Since your body adjourned there has 
been a fluctuation in the interest on call money 
from 2 per cent to 30 per cent, and the fluctuation 
"was even greater during the preceding six months. 
The Secretary of the Treasury had to step in and 
by wise action put a stop to the most violent period 
of oscillation. Even worse than such fluctuation 
is the advance In commercial rates and the uncer- 
tainty felt in the sufficiency of credit even at high 
rates. All commercial interests suffer during each 
crop period. Excessive rates for call money in 
New York attract money from the interior banks 
into the speculative field; this depletes the fund 
that would otherwise be available for commercial 
uses, and the commercial borrowers are forced to 
pay abnormal rates, so that each fall a tax. In 
the shape of increased interest charges, is placed 
on the whole commerce of the country. 

The mere statement of these facts shows that 
our present sy.stem is seriously defective. There is 
need of a change. Unfortunately, however, many 
of the proposed changes must be ruled from con- 
sideration because they are complicated, are not 
easy of comprehension, and tend to disturb exist- 
ing rights and interests. We must also rule out 
any plan which would materially impair the value 
of the United States two per cent bonds now 
pledged to secure circulation, the issue of which 
was made under conditions peculiarly creditable 
to the Treasury. I do not press any. especial plan. 
Various plans have recently been proposed by ex- 
pert committees of bankers. Among the plans 
which are possibly feasible and which certainly 
should receive your consideration is that repeat- 
edly brought to your attention by the present Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, the essential features of 

which have been approved by many prominent 
bankers and business men. According to this plan, 
national banks should be permitted to issue a speci- 
fied proportion of their capital in notes of a 
given kind, the issue to be taxed at so high a rate 
as to drive the notes back when not wanted in 
legitimate trade. This plan would not permit the 
issue of currency to give banks additional profits, 
but to meet the emergency presented by times of 

I do not say that this is the right system. I only 
advance it to emphasize my belief that there is 
need for the adoption of some system which shall 
be automatic and open to all sound banks, so as 
to avoid all possibility of discrimination and favor- 
itism. Such a plan would tend to prevent the 
spasms of high money and speculation which now 
obtain in the New York market; for at present 
there is too much currency at certain seasons of 
the year, and its accumulation at New York tempts 
bankers to lend it at low rates for speculative 
purposes, whereas at other times when the crops 
are being moved there is urgent need for a large 
but temporary increase in the currency supply. It 
must never be forgotten that this question con- 
cerns business men generally quite as much as 
bankers. Especially is this true of stockmen, 
farmers, and business men in the West, for at pres- 
ent at certain seasons of the year the difference in 
interest rates between the East and the West is 
from six to ten per cent, whereas in Canada the 
corresponding difference is V>ut two per cent. Any 
plan must, of course, guard the interests of West- 
ern and Southern bankers as carefully as it guards 
the interests of New York or Chicago bankers, and 
must be drawn from the standpoints of the f.armer 
and the merchant no less than from the sttnd- 
points of the city banker and the country banker. 

The law should be amended so as specifically to 
provide that the funds derived from customs d'lties 
may be treated by the Secretary of the Trc isury 
as he treats funds obtained under the InternEtl rev- 
enue laws. There should be a considerable in- 
crease in bills of small denominations. Permission 
should be given banks, if necessary under settled 
restrictions, to retire their circuiatioij to a larger 
amount than $3,000,000 a month. 

I most earnestly hope that the 
Low Tariff '^'" '° provide a lower tariff 

for or else absolute free trade 

'**** in Philippine products v^rlll be- 

PhilippineH come a law. No harm will come 

to any American industry, and, 
while there will he some small but real material 
benefit to the Filipinos, the main benefit will come 
by the showing made as to pur purpose to do all 
in our power for their welfare. So far our action in 
the Philippines has been abundantly Justified, not 
mainly and. indeed, not primarily because of the 
added dignity it has given us as a nation by prov- 
ing that we are capable honorably and efficiently 
to bear the international burdens which a mighty 
people should bear, but even more because of the 
immense benefit that has come to the people of the 
Philippine Islands. 

In these islands we are steadily introducing both 
liberty and order to a greater degree than their 
people have ever before known. We have secured 
justice. We have provided an efficient police 
force and have put down ladronism. Only in the 
islands of Leyte and Samar is the authority of 
our government resisted, and this by wild moun- 
tain tribes under the superstitious inspiration of 
fakirs and pseudo-religious leaders. We are con- 
stantly increasing the measure of liberty accorded 
the islanders, and next spring, if the conditions 
warrant, we shall take a great stride forward in 
testing their capacity for self-government by sum- 
moning the first Filipino legislative assembly; and 
the way in which they stand this test will largely 
determine whether the self-government thus 
granted will be increased or decreased; for if we 
liave erred at all in the Philippines it has been in 
proceeding too rapidly in the direction of granting 
a large measure of self-government. We are build- 
ing roads. We have, for the immeasurable good 
of the people, arranged for the building of rail- 
roads. Let us also see to it that they are given 
free access to our markets. This nation owes no 
more imperative duty to itself and mankind than 
the duty of managing the affairs of all the islands 
under the American flag — the Philippines, Porto 
Rico, and Hawaii — so as to make it evident that 
it is in every way to their advantage that the 
flag should fly over them. 



American citizenship should be 
KeforniH conferred on the citizens of 

j^p Porto Rico. The harbor of San 

Juan in Porto Rico should be 
Other Islands dredged and improved. The ex- 
penses of the Federal court of 
Porto Rico should be met from the Federal treas- 
ury. The administration of the affairs of Porto 
Rico, together with those of the Philippines. 
Hawaii, and our other insular posse.ssions, should 
all be directed under one executive department, by 
preference the Department of State or the Depart- 
ment of War. 

The needs of Hawaii are peculiar. Every aid 
should be given the islands, and our efforts should 
be unceasing to develop them along the lines of a 
community of small freeholders, not of great plant- 
ers with coolie-tilled estates. Situated as this ter- 
ritory Is, in the middle of the Pacific, there are 
duties imposed upon this small community which 
do not fall in like degree or manner upon any 
other American community. This warrants our 
treating it differently from the way in which we 
treat territories contiguous to or surrounded by 
sister territories or other states, and Justifies the 
setting aside of a portion of our revenues to be 
expended for educational and Internal improve- 
ments therein. Hawaii is now making an effort 
to secure immigration fit in the end to assume the 
duties and burdens of full American citizenship, 
and whenever the leaders in the various Industries 
of those islands finally adopt our Ideals and hear- 
tily join our administration in endeavoring to de- 
velop a middle class of substantial citizens, a way 
will then be found to deal with the commercial 
and industrial problems which now appear to them 
so serious. The best Americanism is that which 
aims for stability and permanency of prosperous 
citizenship, rather than immediate returns on large 
masses of capital. 

Alaska's needs have been par- 
tially met, but there must be a 
Booms Alaska complete reorganization of the 
Rxposltion goverrfmental system, as I have 

before Indicated to you. I ask 
your special attention to this. 
Our fellow citizens who dwell on the shores of 
Puget Sound with characteristic energy are ar- 
ranging to hold in Seattle the Alaskan-Yukon Pa- 
cific Exposition. Its special aims Include the up- 
building of Alaska and the development of 
American commerce on the Pacific Ocean. This 
exposition. In its purposes and scope, should appeal 
not only to the people of the Pacific Slope, but to 
the people of the United States at large. Alaska 
since It was bought has yielded to the Government 
eleven millions of dollars of revenue, and has pro- 
duced nearly three hundred millions of dollars in 
gold, furs, and fish. When properly developed. It 
will become in large degree a land of homes. The 
countries bordering the Pacific Ocean have a popu- 
lation more numerous than that of all the coun- 
tries of Europe; their annual foreign commerce 
amounts to over three billions of dollars, of which 
the share of the United States is some seven hun- 
dred millions of dollars. If this trade were thor- 
oly understood and pushed by our manufactur- 
ers and producers, the industries not only of the 
Pacific Slope but of all our country, and partic- 
ularly of our cotton-growing states, would be 
greatly benefited. Of course. In order to get these 
benefits we must treat fairly the countries with 
which "we trade. 

It Is a mistake, and It betrays 
a spirit of foolish cynicism, to 
International maintain that all International 
Morality governmental action is, and 

must ever be, based upon mere 
selfishness, and that to advance 
ethical reasons for such action Is always a sign of 
hypocrisy. This Is no more necessarily true of the 
action of governments than of the actions of indi- 
viduals. It Is a sure sign of a base nature always 
to ascribe base motives for the action of others. 
Unquestionably no nation can afford to disregard 
proper considerations of self-interest, any more 
than a private individual can do so. But it is 
equally true that the average private Individual in 
any really decent community does many actions 
with reference to other men in which he is guided 
not by self-interest but by public spirit, by regard 
for the rights of others, by a disinterested pur- 
pose to do good to others, and to raise the tone 

of the community as a whole. Similarly a really 
great nation must often act, and as a matter of 
fact often does act, toward other nations in a spirit 
not in the least of mere self-interest, but paying 
heed chiefly to ethical reasons; and as the cen- 
turies go by this disinterestedness in international 
action, this tendency of the individuals comprising 
a nation to require that nation to act with Justice 
toward Its neighbors steadily grows and 

It is neither wise nor right for a nation to dis- 
regard its own needs, and it is foolish — and maybe 
wicked — to think that other nations will disregard 
theirs. But It Is wicked for a nation only to regard 
its own Interest, and foolish to believe that such 
is the sole motive that actuates any other nation. 
It_ should be our steady aim to raise the ethical 
standard of national action Just as we strive to 
raise the ethical standard of individual action. 

Not only must we treat all nations fairly, but 
we must treat with Justice and good will all im- 
migrants who come here under the law. Whether 
they are Catholic or Protestant, Jew or Gentile; 
whether they come from England or Germany, 
Russia, Japan, or Italy, matters nothing. All we 
have a right to question is the man's conduct. If 
he Is honest and upright In his dealings with his 
neighbor and with the state, then he Is entitled 
to respect and good treatment. Especially do we 
need to remember our duty to the stranger within 
our gates. It is the sure mark of a low civilization, 
a low morality, to abuse or discriminate against 
or In any way humiliate such stranger who has 
come here lawfully and who is conducting himself 
properly. To remember this Is incumbent on every 
American citizen, and it is, of course, peculiarly 
incumbent on every government ofHcial, whether 
of the nation or of the several states. 

Good W^ords 



I am prompted to say this by 
the attitude of hostility here 
and there assumed toward the 
Japanese in this country. This 
hostility is sporadic and Is lim- 
ited to a very few places. Never- 
theless, it is most discreditable to us as a people, 
and it may be fraught "with the gravest conse- 
quences to the nation. The friendship between 
the United States and Japan has been continuous 
since the time, over half a century ago, when Com- 
modore Perry, by his expedition to Japan, first 
opened the Islands to western civilization. Since 
then the growth of Japan has been literally as- 
tounding. There is not only nothing to parallel 
It. but nothing to approach It in the history of 
civilized mankind. Japan has a glorious and an- 
cient past. Her civilization Is older than that of 
the nations of northern Europe — the nations from 
whom the people of the United States have chiefly 
sprung. But fifty years ago Japan's development 
was still that of the Middle Ages. During that 
fifty years the progress of the country in every 
■walk of life has been a marvel to mankind, and 
she now stands as one of the greatest of civilized 
nations: great in the arts of war and in the arts 
of peace; great in military. In Industrial, in artistic 
development and achievement. 

Japanese soldiers and sailors have shoTvn them- 
selves equal in combat to any of whom history 
makes note. She has produced great generals and 
mighty admirals; her fighting men, afloat and 
ashore, show all the heroic courage, the unques- 
tioning, unfaltering loyalty, the splendid Indiffer- 
ence to hardship and death, which marked the 
Loyal Ronins; and they show also that they possess 
the highest Ideal of patriotism. Japanese artists 
of every kind see their products eagerly sought for 
in all lands. 

The Industrial and commercial development of 
Japan has been phenomenal — greater than that of 
any other country during the same period. At 
the same time the advance In science and phil- 
osophy is no less marked. The admirable manage- 
ment of the Japanese Red Cross during the late 
war, the efficiency and humanity of the Japanese 
officials, nurses, and doctors won the respectful 
admiration of all acquainted with the facts. 
Through the Red Cross the Japanese people sent 
over $100,000 to the sufferers of San Francisco, 
and the gift was accepted with gratitude by our 

The courtesy of the Japanese, nationally and in- 
dividually, has become proverbial. To no other 
country has there been such an increasing num- 
ber of visitors from this land as to Japan. In 
return, Japanese have come here In great numbers. 




They are welcome, socially and intellectually, in all 
our colleges and institutions o£ higher learning, in 
all our professional and social bodies. The Japan- 
ese have won in a single generation the right to 
stand abreast of the foremost and most enlight- 
ened peoples of Europe and America; they have 
won on their own merits and by their own exer- 
tions the right to treatment on a basis of full and 
frank equality. The overwhelming mass of our 
people cherish a lively regard and respect for the 
people of Japan, and in almost every quarter of 
the Union the stranger from Japan is treated as he 
deserves; that is, he is treated as the stranger 
from any part of civilized Europe is and deserves 
to be treated. But here and there a most unworthy 
feeling has manifested itself toward the Japanese 
• — the feeling that has been shown in shutting them 
out from the common schools in San Francisco, and 
in mutterings against them in one or two other 
places, because of their efficiency as workers. To 
shut them out from the public schools is a wicked 
absurdity, when there are no first-class colleges in 
the land, including the universities and colleges 
of California, which do not gladly welcome Japan- 
ese students and on which Japanese students do 
not reflect credit, 

"We have as much to learn from 

Asks for Japan as Japan has to learn 

„ ,_ from us, and no nation is fit to 

teach unless it is also willing 
Treatment tg learn. Thruout Japan 

Americans are well treated, and 
any failure on the part of Americans at home to 
treat the Japanese with a like courtesy and con- 
sideration is by just so much a confession of in- 
feriority in our civilization. 

Our nation fronts on the Pacific, just as it fronts 
on the Atlantic. We hope to play a constantly 
growing part in the great ocean of the Orient. 
We wish, as we ought to wish, for a great commer- 
cial development in our dealings with Asia, and it 
is out of the question that we should permanently 
have such developments unless we freely and 
gladly extend to other nations the same measure 
of justice and good treatment which we expect to 
receive in return. It is only a very small body of 
our citizens that act badly. Where the Federal 
Government has power it will deal summarily with 
any such. Where the several states have power I 
earnestly ask that they also deal wisely and 
promptly with such conduct, or else this small 
body of wrongdoers may bring shame upon the 
great mass of their innocent and right-thinking 

fellows that is, upon our nation as a whole. Good 

manners should be an international no less than 
an individual attribute. I ask fair treatment for 
the Japanese as I would ask fair treatment for 
Germans or Englishmen. Frenchmen, Russians, or 
Italians I ask it as due to humanity and civiliza- 
tion, I ask it as due to ourselves because we 
must act uprightly toward all men. 

I recommend to the Congress 
that an act be passed specifi- 
cally providing for the natural- 
ization of Japanese who come 
here intending to become Amer- 
ican citizens. 
One of the great embarrassments attending the 
performance of our international obligations is the 
fact that the statutes of the United States are 
entirely inadequate. They fail to give to the na- 
tional government sufficiently ample power, 
through United States courts and by the use of the 
army and navy, to protect aliens in the rights 
secured to them under solemn treaties which are 
the law of the land. I therefore earnestly recom- 
mend that the criminal and civil statutes of the 
United States be so amended and added to as to 
enable the President, acting for the United States 
Government, which is responsible in our interna- 
tional relations, to enforce the rights of aliens 
under treaties. Even as the law now is something 
can be done bv the Federal Government toward 
this end, and in the matter now before me affect- 
ing the Japanese everything that it is in my power 
to do will be done, and all of the forces, military 
and civil, of the United States which I may law- 
fully employ will be so employed. 

There should, however, be no 

UplioIdiiiB particle of doubt as to the 

power of the national govern- 

" ment completely to perform and 

ObllKatlonn enforce its own obligations to 

other nations. The mob of a 

single city may at any time perform acts of law- 




less violence against some class of foreigners 
which would plunge us into war. That city by itself 
would be powerless to make defense against the 
foreign power thus assaulted, and if Independent 
of this Government it would never venture to per- 
form or permit the performance of the acts com- 
plained of. 

The entire power and the "whole duty to protect 
the offending city or the offending community lies 
in the hands of the United States Government. It 
is unthinkable that we should continue a policy 
under which a given locality may be allowed tO' 
commit a crime against a friendly nation, and the 
United States Government limited, not to prevent- 
ing the commission of the crime, but, in the last 
resort, to defending the people who have com- 
mitted it against the consequences of their own 

Last August an insurrection 
Intervfntiun broke out in Cuba which, it 
to Aid speedily grew evident, the 

existing Cuban government was 
Cuba powerless to quell. This Gov- 

ernment was repeatedly asked 
by the then Cuban government to intervene, and 
finally was notified by the President of Cuba that 
he intended to resign; that his decision was irre- 
vocable; that none of the other constitutional offi- 
cers would consent to carry on the government, 
and that he was powerless to maintain order. It 
was evident that chaos was impending, and there 
was every probability that if steps were not imme- 
diately taken by this Government to try to re- 
store order the representatives of various Euro- 
pean nations in the island would apply to their 
respective governments for armed intervention in 
order to protect the lives and property of their 
citizens. Thanks to the preparedness of our navy, 
I was able immediately to send enough ships to 
Cuba to prevent the situation from becoming hope- 
less, and I furthermore dispatched to Cuba the Sec- 
retary of War and the Assistant Secretary of State 
in order that they might grapple with the situation 
on the ground. All efforts to secure an agreement 
between the contending factions by which they 
should themselves come to an amicable under- 
standing and settle upon some modus Vivendi — 
some provisional government of their own — failed. 
Finally the president of the republic resigned. The 
quorum of Congress assembled failed by deliberate 
purpose of its members, so that there was no power 
to act on his resignation, and the government came 
to a halt. 

In accordance with the so-called Piatt amend- 
ment, which was embodied in the constitution of 
Cuba, I thereupon proclaimed a provisional gov- 
ernment for the island, the Secretary of War act- 
ing as provisional governor until he could be re- 
placed by Mr. Magoon, the late minister to 
Panama and governor of tlie canal zone on the 
Isthmus. Troops were sent to support them and to 
relieve the navy, the expedition being handled with 
most satisfactory speed and efficiency. The insur- 
gent chiefs immediately agreed that their troops 
should lay down their arms and disband, and the 
agreement was carried out. 

The provisional government has left the per- 
sonnel of the old government and the old laws, so 
far as might be. unchanged, and will thus admin- 
ister the island for a few months until tranquillity 
can be restored, a new election properly held, and 
a new government inaugurated. Peace has come 
to the island, and the harvesting of the sugar-cane 
crop, the great crop of the island, is about to pro- 

When the election has been held and the new 
government inaugurated in peaceful and orderly 
fashion the provisional government will come to an 

I take this opportunity of expressing upon behalf 
of the American people, with all possible solem- 
nity, our most earnest hope that the people of 
Cuba will realize the imperative need of preserv- 
ing justice and keeping order in the island. The 
United States wishes nothing of Cuba except that 
it shall prosper morally and materially, and wishes 
nothing of the Cubans save that they shall be able 
to preserve order among themselves and therefore . 
to preserve their independence. If the elections 
become a farce, and if the insurrectionary habit 
becomes confirmed in the Island, it is absolutely 
out of the question that the island should continue 
independent; and the United States, which has 
assumed the sponsorship before the civilized world 
for Cuba's career as a nation, would again have to 



Intervene and to see that the government was man- 
aged in such orderly fashion as to secure the safety 
of life and property. The path to be trodden by 
those who exercise self-government Is always hard, 
and we should have every charity and patience 
with the Cubans as they tread this dlfflcult path. I 
have the utmost sympathy with, and regard for, 
them, but I must earnestly adjure them solemnly 
to weigh their responsibilities and to see that 
when their new government Is started it shall run 
smoothly, and with freedom from flagrant denial 
of right on the one hand and from insurrectionary 
disturbances on the other. 



in Rio 

The second international con- 
ference of American republics, 
held In Mexico in the years 
1901-02, provided for the holding 
of the third conference within 
five years, and committed the 
fixing of the time and place and the arrangements 
tor the conference to the governing board of the 
Bureau of American Republics, composed of the 
representatives of all the American nations in 
Washington. That board discharged the duty im- 
posed upon it with marked fidelity and painstaking 
care, and upon the courteous invitation of the 
United States of Brazil, the conference was held 
at Rio de Janeiro, continuing from the 23d of 
July to the 29th of August last. Many subjects 
of common Interest to all the American nations 
were discussed by the conference, and the con- 
clusions reached embodied in a series of resolu- 
tions and proposed conventions, will be laid before 
you upon the coming in of the final report of the 
American delegates. They contain many matters 
of importance relating to the extension of trade, 
the Increase of communication, the smoothing 
away of barriers to free intercourse, and the pro- 
motion of a better knowledge and good understand- 
ing between the different countries represented. 
The meetings of the conference were harmonious 
and the conclusions were reached with substantial 
unanimity. , ^ , 

It is interesting to observe that in the success- 
ive conferences which have been held the repre- 
sentatives of the different American nations have 
been learning to work together effectively, for 
while the first conference in Washington In 1889. 
■ind the second conference in Mexico In 1901-2. oc- 
cupied many months, with much time wasted in an 
unregulated and fruitless discussion, the third con- 
ference at Rio exhibited much of the facility in the 
practical dispatch of business which characterizes 
permanent deliberative bodies, and completed its 
labors within the period of six weeks originally 
allotted for its sessions. 

Quite apart from the specific value of the con- 
clusions reached by the conference the example 
of the representatives of all the American nations 
engaging In harmonious and kindly consideration 
and discussion of subjects of common interest is 
itself of great and substantial value for the promo- 
tion of reasonable and considerate treatment of 
all international questions. The thanks of this 
country are due to the government of Brazil and 
to the people of Rio de Janeiro for the generous 
hospitality with which our delegates, in conimon 
with the others, were received, entertained and fa- 
cilitated in their work. 


Sontli American 

Incidentally to the meeting of 
the conference, the Secretary of 
State visited the City of Rio 
de Janeiro and was cordially 
received by the conference, of 
which he was made an hon- 
orary president. The announcement of his inten- 
tion to make this visit was followed by niost cour- 
teous and urgent invitations from nearly all the 
countries of South America to visit them as the 
guest of their governments. It was deemed that 
by the acceptance of these invitations we might 
appropriately express the real respect and friend- 
ship in which we hold our sister republics of the 
southern continent, and the secretary, accordingly, 
visited Brazil. Uruguay. Argentina ChUe, Peru, 
Panama, and Colombia. He refrained from visiting 
Paraguay. Bolivia, and Ecuador only because the 
distance of their capitals from the seaboard made 
It impracticable with the time at his disposal. He 
carried with him a message of peace a"'^ friend- 
ship, and of strong desire for good understanding 
and mutual helpfulness; and he ^^s everywhere 
received In the spirit of his message. The members 
of government, the press, the learned professions, 

the men of business and the great masses of the 
people united everywhere In emphatic response to 
his friendly expressions and in doing honor to the 
country and cause which he represented. 

In many parts of South America 
False Ideas there has been much misunder- 
Are standing of the attitude and 

«k.«...H purposes of the United States to- 

snaiierea ^^rd the other American repub- 

, . .. lies. An Idea had become prev- 

a ent that our assertion of the Monroe doctrine Im- 
plied, or carried with it, an assumption of superior- 
ity, and of a right to exercise some kind of pro- 
tectorate over the countries to whose territory 
that doctrine applies. Nothing could be farther 
from the truth. Yet that impression continued to 
be a serious barrier to good understanding to 
friendly intercourse, to the Introduction of Amer- 
ican capital and the extension of American trade 
The Impression was so widespread that apparently 
it could not be reached by any ordinary means. 

It was part of Secretary Root's mission to dispel ' 
this unfounded impression, and there Is just cause 
to believe that he has succeeded. In an address 
to the third conference at Rio on the 31st of July 
— an address of such note that I send it in, together 
with this message — he said: 

"We wish for no victories but those of peace; for 
no territory except our own; for no sovereignty 
except the sovereignty over ourselves. We deem , 
the Independence and equal rights of the smallest 
and weakest member of the family of nations en- 
titled to as much respect as those of the greatest 
empire, and we deem the observance of that re- 
spect the chief guaranty of the weak against the 
oppression of the strong. 

"We neither claim nor desire any rights or priv- 
ileges or powers that we do not freely concede to 
every American republic. We wish to Increase our 
prosperity, to extend our trade, to grow in wealth, 
in wisdom, and in spirit, but our conception of the 
true way to accomplish this is not to pull down 
others and profit by their ruin, but to help all 
friends to a common prosperity and a common 
growth, that we may all become greater and 
stronger together. Within a few months for the 
first time the recognized possessors of every foot 
of soil upon the American continents can be and I 
hope will be represented with the acknowledged 
rights of equal sovereign states in the great world 
congress at The Hague. This will be the world's 
formal and final acceptance of the declaration that 
no part of the American continents Is to be deemed 
subject to colonization. Let us pledge ourselves 
to aid each other in the full performance of the 
duty to humanity which that accepted declaration 
implies, so that in time the weakest and most 
unfortunate of our republics may come to march 
with equal step by the side of the stronger and 
more fortunate. Let us help each other to show 
that for all the races of men the liberty for which 
we have fought and labored is the twin sister of 
justice and peace. Let us unite in creating and 
maintaining and making effective an ail-American 
public opinion, whose power shall influence inter- 
national conduct and prevent international wrong, 
and narrow the causes of war, and forever pre- 
serve our free lands from the burden of such arma- 
ments as are massed behind the frontiers of Eu- 
rope, and bring us ever nearer to the perfection 
of ordered liberty. So shall come security and 
prosperity, production and trade, wealth, learning, 
the arts, and happiness for us all." 

These words appear to have been received with 
acclaim in every part of South America. They 
have my hearty approval, as I am sure they will 
have yours, and I cannot be wrong in the con- 
viction that they correctly represent the sen- 
timents of the whole American people. I cannot 
better characterize the true attitude of the United 
States in its assertion of the Monroe doctrine than 
In the w^ords of the distinguished former minister 
of foreign affairs of Argentina, Dr. Drago. in his 
speech welcoming Mr. Root at Buenos Ayres. He 
spoke of — 

"The traditional policy of the United States 
(which) without accentuating superiority or seek- 
ing preponderance, condemned the oppression of the 
nations of this part of the world and the control of 
their destinies by the great powers of Europe." 

It Is gratifying to know that in the great City 
of Buenos Ayres, upon the arches which spanned 
the streets, entwined with Argentine and American 
flags for the reception of our repre.sentative. there 
were emblazoned not only the names of Washlne- 
ton and Jefferson and Marshall, but also. In appre- 



dative recognition of tlieir services to the cause of 
South American independence, the names of James 
Monroe. John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and Rich- 
ard Rush. We take especial pleasure in the grace- 
ful courtesy of the government of Brazil, which 
has given to the beautiful and stately building first 
used (or the meeting of the conference the name 
of "Palacio Monroe." Our grateful acknowledge- 
ments are due to the governments and the people 
of all the countries visited by the Secretary of 
State for the courtesy, the friendship, and the 
honor shown to our country in their generous hos- 
pitality to him. 

In my message to you on the 5th 
„ , of December, 1905, I called your 

C'OinpiiiDnry attention to the embarrassment 
Debt that might be caused to this 

Collection government by the assertion by 

foreign nations of the right to 
collect by force of arms contract 
debts due by American republics to citizens of the 
, collecting nation, and to the danger that the proc- 
ess of compulsory collection might result in the 
occupation of territory tending to become perma- 
nent. I then said: 

"Our own government has always refused to 
enforce such contractual obligation on behalf of its 
citizens by an appeal to arms. It is much to be 
wished that all foreign governments would take 
the same view." 

This subject was one of the topics of considera- 
tion at the conference at Rio and a resolution was 
adopted by that conference recommending to the 
respective governments represented "to consider 
the advisability of asking the second peace con- 
ference at The Hague to examine the question of 
the compulsory collection of public debts, and in 
general, means tending to diminish among nations 
conflicts of purely pecuniary origin." 

This resolution was supported by the representa- 
tives of the United States in accordance with the 
following instructions: 

"It has long been the established policy of the 
United States not to use its armed forces for the 
collection of ordinary contract debts due to its 
citizens by other governments. We have not con- 
sidered the use of force for such a purpose consist- 
ent with that respect for the Independent sover- 
eignty of other members of tlie family of nations, 
which is the most important principle of inter- 
national law and the chief protection of weak 
nations against the oppression of the strong. It 
seems to us that the practice is injurious in Its 
general effect upon the relations of nations and 
upon the welfare of weak and disordered states, 
■whose development ought to be encouraged in the 
Interests of civilization; that it offers frequent 
temptation to bullying and oppression and to un- 
necessary and unjustifiable warfare. We regret 
that other powers, whose opinions and sense of 
justice we esteem highly, have at times taken a 
different view and have permitted themselves, 
tho we believe, with reluctance, to collect such 
debts by force. It is doubtless true that the non- 
payment of public debts may be accompanied by 
such circumstances of fraud and wrongdoing or 
violation of treaties as to justify the use of force. 

"This government would be glad to see an in- 
ternational consideration of the subject which shall 
discriminate between such cases and the simple 
nonperformance of a contract with a private per- 
son, and a resolution in favor of reliance upon 
peaceful means in cases of the latter class. 

"It is not felt, howeer, that the conference at 
Rio should undertake to make such a discrimina- 
tion or to resolve upon such a rule. Most of the 
American countries are still debtor nations, while 
the countries of Europe are the creditors. If the 
Rio conference, therefore, were to take such action 
It would have the appearance of a meeting of 
debtors resolving how their creditors should act, 
and this would not inspire respect. The true 
course is indicated by the terms of the program, 
Tvhich proposes to request the second Hague con- 
ference, where both creditors and debtors will be 
assembled, to consider the subject." 

Last June trouble which had ex- 
isted for some time between the 
republics of Salvador, Guate- 
mala and Honduras culminated 
in war "which threatened to be 
ruinous to the countries involved 
and very destructive to the commercial Interests of 
Americans, Mexicans and other foreigners who are 
taking an important part in the development of 


these countries. The thoroly good understand- 
ing which exists between the United States and 
Mexico enabled this government and that of Mex- 
ico to unite in effective mediation between the 
warring republics — which mediation resulted, not 
without long-continued and patient effort. In bring- 
ing about a meeting of the representatives of the 
hostile powers on board a United States war ship 
as neutral territory, and peace was there concluded: 
a peace which resulted in the saving of thousands 
of lives and in the prevention of an Incalculable 
amount of misery and the destruction of property 
and of the means of livelihood. The Rio conference 
passed the following resolution in reference to 
this action: 

"That the third international American confer- 
ence shall address to the Presidents of the United 
States of America and of the United States of Mex- 
ico, a note In which the conference which is being 
held at Rio expresses its satisfaction at the happy 
results of their mediation for the celebration of 
peace between the republics of Guatemala, Hondu- 
ras, and Salvador." 

This affords an excellent exam- 

Kxerta Ple of one way in which the in- 

„ . fiuence of the United States can 

properly be exercised for the 
Influence benefit of the peoples of the 

western hemisphere; that Is, by 
action taken in concert with other American re- 
publics and therefore free from those suspicions 
and prejudices which might attach if the action 
were taken by one alone. In this way it is possible 
to exercise a powerful influence toward the substi- 
tution of considerate action in the spirit of Justice 
for the insurrectionary or international violence 
which has hitherto been so great a hindrance to 
the development of many of our neighbors. Re- 
peated examples of united action by several or 
many American republics in favor of peace, by urg- 
ing cool and reasonable, instead of excited and bel- 
ligerent, treatment of international controversy, 
cannot fail to promote the growth of a general 
public opinion among the American nations which 
will elevate the standards of international action, 
strengthen the sense of international duty among 
governments, and tell In favor of the peace of 
mankind. „ , 

I have Just returned from a trip to Panama and 
shall report to you at length later on the whole 
subject of the Panama Canal. 

The Algeclras convention, which 
Convention was signed by the United States 

- as well as by most of the powers 

"' of Europe, supersedes the pre- 

AlKeclriiN vlous convention of 1880. which 

was also signed both by the 
United States and a majority of the European pow- 
ers This treaty confers- upon us equal com- 
mercial rights with all European countries 
and does not entail a single obligation of 
any kind upon us, and I earnestly hope it 
may be speedily ratified. To refuse to rat- 
ify it would merely mean that we forfeited our 
commercial rights in Morocco and would not 
achieve another object of any kind. In the event 
of such refusal we would be left for the first time 
in 120 years without any commercial treaty with 
Morocco: and this at a time when we are every- 
where seeking new markets and outlets tor trade. 

The destruction of the Pribilof 
BarbaroiiM Islands fur seals by pelagic 

i>»i«<rio sealing still continues. The 

" herd which according to the sur- 

Seallng veys made in 1874 by direction 

of the Congress, numbered 
4,700,000, and which, according to the survey of 
both American and Canadian commissioners in 
1891, amounted to 1,000,000, has now been reduced 
to about 180,000. This result has been brought 
about by Canadian and some other sealing vessels 
killing the female seals while in the water during 
their annual pilgrimage to and from the South, 
or in search of food. As a rule the female seal 
when killed is pregnant, and also has an un- 
weaned pup on land, so that, for each skin taken 
by pelagic sealing, as a rule, three lives are de- 
stroyed — the mother, the unborn offspring, and the 
nursing pup, which is left to starve to death. 

No damage whatever is done to the herd by the 
carefully regulated killing on land; the custom 



of pelagic sealing is solely responsible lor all of 
the present evil, and is alike Indefensible from the 
economic standpoint and from the standpoint of 

In 1896 over 16,000 young seals were found dead 
from starvation on the Pribilof Islands, In 1897 
it was estimated that since pelagic sealing began 
upward of 400,000 adult female seals had been 
killed at sea, and over 300,000 young seals had 
died of starvation as the result. The revolting 
barbarity of such a practice, as well as the waste- 
ful destruction which it Involves, needs no demon- 
stration and Is its own condemnation. The Ber- 
ing Sea tribunal, which sat in Paris in 1893 and 
which decided against the claims of the United 
States to exclusive jurisdiction in the waters of 
Bering Sea and to a property right in the fur 
seals when outside of the three-mile limit, deter- 
mined also upon certain regulations which the 
tribunal considered sufficient for the proper pro- 
tection and preservation of the fur seal in, or 
habitually resorting to, the Bering Sea. The tri- 
bunal by its regulations established a close season, 
from the 1st of May to the 31st of July, and ex- 
cluded all killing in the waters within sixty miles 
around the Pribilof Islands. 

They also provided that the reg- 

ReKnlntioDH ulations which they had deter- 

Are mined upon, with a view to the 

._„j„ , protection and preservation of 

inatleqnate ^^le seals, should be submitted 
every five years to new exam- 
inations, so as to enable both Interested govern- 
ments to consider whether, in the light of past 
experience, there was occasion for any modification 

The regulations have proved plainly inadequate 
to accomplish the object of protection and pres- 
ervation of the fur seals, and for a long time this 
government has been trying in vain to secure from 
Great Britain such revision and modification of the 
regulations as were contemplated and provided 
for by the award of the tribunal of Paris. 

The process of destruction has been accelerated 
during recent years by the appearance of a number 
of Japanese vessels engaged in pelagic sealing. 
As these vessels have not been bound even by the 
Inadequate limitations prescribed by the tribunal 
of Paris, they have paid no attention either to the 
close season or to the sixty-mile limit imposed 
upon the Canadians, and have prosecuted their 
work up to the very islands themselves. On July 
16 and 17 the crews from several Japanese vessels 
made raids upon the island of St. Paul, and before 
they were beaten off by the very meager and in- 
sufficiently armed guard they succeeded in killing 
several hundred seals and carrying olT the skins 
of most of them. Nearly all the seals killed were 
females and the work was done with frightful bar- 
barity. Many of the seals appear to have been 
skinned alive and many were found half skinned 
and still alive. 

The raids were repelled only by the use of fire- 
arms, and five of the raiders were killed, two were 
wounded, and twelve captured. Including the two 
wounded. Those captured have since been tried 
and sentenced to imprisonment. An attack of this 
kind had been wholly unlocked for. but such pro- 
visions of vessels, arms, and ammunition ■will now 
be made that its repetition will not be found profit- 

Suitable representations regarding the Incident 
have been made to the government of Japan, and 
we are assured that all practicable measures will 
be taken by that country to prevent any recurrence 
of the outrage. On our part the guard on the 
Island will be increased and better equipped and 
organized, and a better revenue-cutter patrol ser- 
vice about the islands will be established. Next 
season a United States war vessel will also be sent 

We have not relaxed our efforts to secure an 
agreement with Great Britain for adequate pro- 
tection of the seal herd, and negotiations with 
Japan for the same purpose are in progress. 

The laws for the protection of the seals within 
the jurisdiction of the United States need revision 
and amendment. Only the islands of St. Paul and 
St. George are now. In terms. Included In the gov- 
ernment reservation, and the other islands are also 
to be included. 

The landing of aliens as well as 
Outline citizens upon the islands, with- 

, out a permit from the Depart- 

ment of Commerce and Labor, 
New Rules jq^ any purpose except in case 
of stress of weather or for wa- 
ter, should be prohibited under adequate penalties. 

The approach of vessels for the excepted purposes 
should be regulated. The authority of the govern- 
ment agents on the islands should be enlarged, and 
the chief agent should have the powers of a com- 
mitting magistrate. The entrance of a vessel into 
the territorial waters surrounding the islands with 
intent to take seals should be made a criminal 
offense and cause of forfeiture. Authority for 
seizures In such cases should be given and the 
presence on any such vessels of seals or sealskins, 
or the paraphernalia for taking them, should be 
made prima facie evidence of such Intent. I rec- 
ommend what legislation is needed to accomplish 
these ends, and I commend to your attention the 
report of Mr. Sims, of the Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, on this subject. 

In case we are compelled to abandon the hope of 
making arrangements with other governments to 
put. an end to the hideous cruelty now Incident to 
pelagic sealing. It will be a question for your 
serious consideration how far we should continue 
to protect and maintain the seal herd on land with 
the result of continuing such a practice, and 
whether it is not better to end the practice by ex- 
terminating the herd ourselves in the most humane 
way possible. 

In my last message I advised 
Seeond y" that the Emperor of Russia 

Hnirii^ had taken the Initiative in 

niibue bringing about a second peace 

Conference conference at The Hague. Under 
the guidance of Russia the ar- 
rangement of the preliminaries for such a confer- 
ence have been progressing during the past year. 
Progress has necessarily been slow, owing to the 
great number of countries to be consulted upon 
every question that has arisen. It is a matter of 
satisfaction that all of the American republics 
have now, for the first time, been invited to join 
in the proposed conference. 

The close connection between the subjects to be 
taken up by the Red Cross Conference held at 
Geneva last summer, and the subjects which natu- 
rally would come before The Hague conference 
made it apparent that It was desirable to have the 
work of the Red Cross conference completed and 
considered by the different powers before the meet- 
ing at The Hague. The Red Cross conference 
ended its labors on the 6th day of July, and the 
revised and amended convention, which "was signed 
by the American delegates, will be promptly laid 
before the Senate. 

By the special and highly appreciated courtesy 
of the governments of Russia and the Netherlands 
a proposal to call The Hague conference together 
at a time which would conflict with the conference 
of the American republics at Rio de Janeiro in 
August was laid aside. No other date has yet been 
suggested. A tentative program for the conference 
has been proposed by the government of Russia, 
and the subjects %vhlch it enumerates are undergo- 
ing careful examination and consideration in prep- 
aration for the conference. 

It must be kept In mind that 
HtshteouHneaM war Is not merely justifiable, but 
, Imperative, upon honorable 

men, upon an honorable nation. 
Pence where peace can only be ob- 

tained by the sacrifice of con- 
scientious conviction or of national welfare. Peace 
is normally a great good, and normally it coin- 
cides with righteousness, but it Is righteous- 
ness and not peace, which should ' bind the 
consciences of a nation as it should bind the 
conscience of an Individual, and neither a na- 
tion nor an individual can surrender conscience to 
another's keeping. Neither can a nation, which 
is an entity, and which does not die as individuals 
die, refrain from taking thought for the interest 
of the generations that are to come, no less than 
for the Interest of the generations of to-day, and 
no public men have a right, whether from short- 
sightedness, from selfish indifference, or from sen- 
timentality, to sacrifice national Interests which 
are vital in character. A just war is. In the long 
run, far better for a nation's soul than the most 
prosperous peace obtained by acquiescence In 
wrong or Injustice. Moreover, though it is criminal 
for a nation not to prepare for war, so that it may 
escape the dreadful consequences of being defeated 
in war, yet it must always be remembered that 
even to be defeated in war may be far better than 
not to have fought at all. As has been well and 
finely said, a beaten nation is not necessarily a 
dis'graced nation, but the nation or man Is dis- 
graced if the obligation to defend right is shirked. 
We should, as a nation, do everything in our 



power for the cause of honorable peace. It is 
morally as Indefensible for a nation to commit a 
wrong upon another nation, strong or weak, as 
for an individual thus to wrong his fellows. We 
should do all in our power to hasten the day when 
there shall be peace among the nations — a peace 
based upon Justice and not upon cowardly submis- 
sion to wrong. We can accomplish a good deal in 
this direction, but we cannot accomplish everything, 
and the penalty of attempting to do too much would 
almost inevitably be to do worse than nothing; for 
it must be remembered that fantastic extremists 
are not in reality leaders of the causes which they 
espouse, but are ordinarily those who do most to 
hamper the real leaders of the cause and to dam- 
age the cause itself. As yet there is no likelihood 
of establishing any kind of international power, 
of whatever sort, which can effectively check 
wrongdoing, and in these circumstances it would 
be both a foolish and an evil thing for a great 
and free nation to deprive itself of the power to 
protect its own rights, and even In exceptional 
cases to stand up for the rights of others. Nothing 
would more promote iniquity, nothing would fur- 
ther defer the reign upon earth of peace and right- 
eousness, than for the free and enlightened people 
which, though with much stumbling and many 
shortcomings, nevertheless strive toward justice, 
deliberately to render themselves powerless while 
leaving every despotism and barbarism armed and 
able to work their wicked will. The chance for 
the settlement of disputes peacefully, by arbitra- 
tion, now depends mainly upon the possession by 
the nations that mean to do right of sufficient 
armed strength to make their purpose effective. 

The United States navy is the 
Jfnvy surest guarantor of peace which 

r'iini-<.nt».> 'h'^ country possesses. It is 
uunrnniee earnestly to be wished that we 
o( Peace would profit by the teachings of 

history in this matter. A strong 
and wise people ^vill study its own failures no less 
than its triumphs, for there is wisdom to be learned 
from the study of both, of the mistake as well as 
of the success. For this purpose notliing could be 
more instructive than a rational study of the War 
of 1812. as it is told, for instance, by Captain Ma- 
han. There was only one way in which that war 
could have been avoided. If, during the preceding 
t'welve years, a navy relatively as strong as that 
which this country now has had been built up, and 
an army provided relatively as good as that which 
the country now has, there never would have been 
the slightest necessity of fighting the war; and 
if the necessity had arisen the war w^ould, under 
such circumstances, have ended with our speedy 
and overwhelming triumph; but our people during 
those twelve years refused to make any prepara- 
tions whatever regarding either the army or the 
navy. They saved a million or two of dollars by 
so doing; and in mere money paid a hundred fold 
for each million they thus saved during the three 
years of war which followed — a war which brought 
untold suffering upon our people, which at one 
time threatened the gravest national disaster, and 
which, in spite of the necessity of waging it, 
resulted merely in what was in effect a drawn 
battle, while the balance of defeat and triumph 
was almost even, 

I do not ask that we continue to increase our 
navy, I ask merely that it be maintained at its 
present strength; and this can be done only if we 
replace the obsolete and outworn ships by new 
and good ones, the equals of any afloat in any 
navy. To stop building ships for one year means 
that for that year the navy goes back instead of 
forward. The old battle-ship Texas, for instance, 
would now be of little service in a stand-up fight 
with a powerful adversary. The old double-turret 
monitors have outworn tlieir usefulness, while it 
was a waste of money to build the modern single- 
turret monitors. All of these ships should be 
replaced by others; and this can be done by a well- 
settled program of providing for the building each 
year of at least one first-class battle ship equal 
in size and speed to any that any nation is at the 
same time building; the armament presumably to 
consist of as large a number as possible of very 
heavy guns of one caliber, together with smaller 
guns to repel torpedo attack; while there should 
be heavy armor, turbine engines, and, in short, 
every modern device. Of course, from time" to 
time cruisers, colliers, torpedo-boat destroyers, or 
torpedo boats, will have to be built also. All this. 

be it remembered, would not increase our navy 
but would merely keep it at its present strength' 
Equally, of course, the ships will be absolutely use- 
less if the men aboard them are not so trained 
that they can get the best possible service out of 
the formidable but delicate and complicated mech- 
anisms intrusted to their care. 

The marksmanship of our men 
Great has so improved during the last 

In Ave years that I deem it within 

„ , ^, bounds to say that the navy is 

Markomanxhlp more than twice as efficient, ship 
for ship, as half a decade ago. 
The navy can only attain proper efficiency if 
enough officers and men are provided, and if these 
officers and men are given the chance (and re- 
quired to take advantage of it) to stay continually 
at sea and to exercise the fleets singly and above 
all in squadron, the exercise to be of every kind 
and to include unceasing practice at the guns, con- 
ducted under conditions that will test marksman- 
ship in time of war. 

In both the army and the navy there is urgent 
need that everything possible should be done to 
maintain the highest standard for the personnel, 
alike as regards the officers and the enlisted men. 
I do not believe that in any service there is a finer 
body of enlisted men and of junior officers than 
we have in both the army and the navy, including 
the marine corps. All possible encouragement to 
the enlisted men should be given, in pay and other- 
wise, and everything practicable should be done to 
render the service attractive to men of the right 
type. They should be held to the strictest dis- 
charge of their duty, and in them a spirit should 
be encouraged which demands not the mere per- 
formance of duty, but the performance of far more 
than duty, if it conduces to the honor and the 
interest of the American nation; and in return the 
amplest consideration should be theirs. 

West Point and Annapolis al- 

Calla for ready turn out excellent officers. 

. , . ^ We do not need to have these 

fisntins schools made more scholastic. On 

Men the contrary, we should never 

lose siglit of the fact that the 

aim of each school is to turn out a man who shall 

be, above everything else, a fighting man. In the 

army, in particular, it is not necessary that either 

the cavalry or infantry officer should have special 

mathematical ability. Probably in both schools 

the best part of the education is the liigh standard 

of character and of professional morale which it 


But in both services there is urgent need for 
the establishment of a principle of selection which 
will eliminate men after a certain age if they 
can not be promoted from the subordinate ranks, 
and which will bring into the higher ranks fewer 
men, and these at an earlier age. This principle of 
selection will be objected to by good men of medi- 
ocre capacity who are fitted to do well while 
young in the lower positions, but who are not 
fitted to do well when at an advanced age 
they come into positions of command and of 
great responsibility. But the desire of these 
men to be promoted to positions which they are 
not competent to fill should not weigh against the 
interests of the navy and the country. At present 
our men, especially In the navy, are kept far too 
long in the junior grades, and then, at much too 
advanced an age, are put quickly through the 
senior grades, often not attaining to these senior 
grades until they are too old to be of real use 
in them; and if they are of real use, being put 
through them so quickly that little benefit to the 
navy comes from their having been in them at all. 

The navy has one great advan- 
Advantage tage over the army in the fact 

( jl,^ that the officers of high rank 

are actually trained in the con- 
Navy tinual performance of their du- 
ties; that is. in the management 
of the battle ships and armored cruisers gathered 
into fleets. This is not true of the army officers, 
who rarely have corresponding chances to exercise 
command over troops under service conditions. 
The conduct of the Spanish War showed the la- 
mentable loss of life, the useless extravagance, 



and the InefBciency certain to result if. during 
peace, tiie high officials of the War and Navy De- 
partments are praised and rewarded only If they 
save money at no matter what cost to the "efficiency 
of the service, and if the higher officers are given 
no chance whatever to exercise and practice com- 
mand. For years prior to the Spanish War the 
secretaries of war were praised chleflv if they prac- 
ticed economy; which economy, especially In con- 
nection with the quartermaster, commissary, and 
medical departments, was directly responsible for 
most of the mismanagement that occurred in the 
war itself — and parenthetically be it observed that 
the very people who clamored for the misdirected 
economy in the first place were foremost to de- 
nounce the mismanagement, loss, and suffering 
which were primarily due to this same misdirected 
economy and to the lack of preparation it Involved. 
There should soon be an Increase in the number of 
men for our coast defenses; these men should be of 
the right type and properly trained; and there 
should therefore be an increase of pay for certain 
grades, especially in the coast artillery. 

for .\riny 

Money should be appropriated 
to permit troops to be massed 
in body and exercised in ma- 
neuvers, particularly In march- 
ing. Such exercise during the 
summer Just past has been of 
incalculable benefit to the army, and should under 
no circumstances be discontinued. If. on these 
practice marches and In these maneuvers, elderly 
officers prove unable to bear the strain, they should 
be retired at once, for the fact is conclusive as to 
their unfitness for war; that is. for the only pur- 
pose because of which they should be allowed to 
stay In the service. It Is a real misfortune to have 
scores of small company or regimental posts scat- 
tered thruout the country; the army should 
be gathered In a few brigade or division posts, 
and the generals should be practiced In handling 
men in masses. Neglect to provide for all this 
means to Incur the risk of future disaster and 

The readiness and efficiency of both the army 
and navy in dealing with the recent sudden crisis 
in Cuba illustrate afresh their value to the nation. 
This readiness and efficiency would have been very 
much less had it not been for the existence of the 

general staff In the army and the general board 
in the navy; both are essential to the proper devel- 
opment and use of our military forces afloat and 
ashore. The troops that were sent to Cuba were 
handled flawlessly. It was the swiftest mobiliza- 
tion and dispatch of troops over sea ever accom- 
plished by our government. The expedition landed 
completely equipped and ready for Immediate ser- 
vice, several of its organizations hardly remain- 
ing In Havana over night before splitting up into 
detachments and going to their several posts. It 
was a fine demonstration of the value and effi- 
ciency of the general staff. 

Well Met 

Similarly, it was owing In large 
part to the general board that 
the navy was able at the outset 
to meet the Cuban crisis with 
such instant efficiency; ship af- 
ter ship appearing on the short- 
est notice at any threatened point, while tlie Ma- 
rine Corps in particular performed indispensable 

The army and navy war colleges are of incalcu- 
lable value to the two services, and they co-oper- 
ate with constantly increasing efficiency and Im- 

The Congress has most wisely provided for a 
national board for the promotion of rifle practice. 
Excellent results have already come from this law. 
but it does not go far enough. Our regular army 
is so small that In any great war we should have 
to trust mainly to volunteers; and In such event 
these volunteers should already know how to 
shoot; for If a soldier has the fighting edge, and 
ability to take care of himself In the open, his 
efficiency on the line of battle is almost directly 
proportionate to excellence in marksmanship. We 
should establish shooting galleries in all the large 
public and military schools, should maintain na- 
tional target ranges in different parts of the 
country, and should in every way encourage the 
formation of rifle clubs thruout all parts of the 
land. The little republic of Switzerland offers us 
an excellent example In all matters connected with 
building up an efficient citizen soldiery. 

The White House, December 3, 1906. 



Skating Feature in a Recent Musical Comedy. 

-New York World. 



WHILE such dramatists as Bernard 
Shaw are calling the attention of the 
v.orld to the fact that any comprehensive 
social reformation is probably impossible 
vdthout the framing of some new religioiis 
principles that shall touch the deeper im- 
pulses of human nature, the sphere of the 
drama itself progresses steadily toward an 
apparently parallel conviction. Surfeited 
with the flippant and having passed pretty 
well thru what might be called its 
"Romance" period of experiment and quest, 
the stage begins to settle down into a serious 
effort to reflect the spirit of its own times. 
And the times, indeed, afford an abun- 
dance of material, intense, graphic, absorbing 

as one may readily observe by running thru 
the alternating human incidents and dra- 
matic criticisms which follow herewith : 


Charles Klein Uses Them in a Successor to 
Lion and the Mouse." 


Charles Klein, for example, who made a 
brilliant success with his dramatization of 
the modern business man in the play called 
'The Lion and the Mouse," has essayed 
another portrayal which deals intimately 
with characters and situations thoroly 
familiar to the popular mind of the day. 
Said Alan Dale in the New York American : 



Labor and Capital made to assume the sweet 
juxtaposition of Montague and Capulet — the 
leader of men as the Romeo and the sweet capi- 
talistic girl as the Juliet— give to Mr. Charles 
Klein's "Daughters of Men," at the Astor The- 
ater, a somewhat ponderous significance. Fo.- 
you find yourself so moiled and broiled with fed- 
erated companies, federated brotherhoods, 
skilled mechanics, interstate combinations. Wall 
Street, the money market, and the branches of 
labor, that it is hard work to keep a tab on 
such mere triviality as the tender passion. You 
feel that you are munching editorials, inhaling 
tracts, making a dash into the science of polit- 
ical economy, sniffing at economics, and doing 
dozens of very worthy things. But they are 
the worthy things you generally get done before 
you go to the theater. 

Oh, the illusion of the playhouse, with its ro- 
mance and its lift from the too serious topics of 
the hour! At the Astor Theater last night one 
realized in "The Daughters of Men" that Mr. 
Klein said many extremely good things; that his 
political views appeared to have been studied ; 
that he took a logical view of labor and a logical 
view of capital ; that the heroic Stedman, accused 
of being a freethinker and an agitator, had the 
elements of all correct stage heroes ; that the shim- 
mering blonde thing in pale blue whom he loved 
and who went to his rooms at dead of night (as 
per usual) to ask him to call off the strike and 
save her family from ruin was, after all, an 
attractive heroine. 

Still one could not disentangle the love theme 
of the twain from the political ragout in which 
it wallowed. It was like looking for a love story 
in the Congressional Record or the Telephone 
Book. It was culling sweet romance in a diction- 
ary, or scenting poesy in a gazetteer. In fact, 
it was an arduous though not wholly impossible 
task. The sincerity of the play itself told con- 
siderably in its favor. Sincerity in the drama 
has a great charm of its own. Those who de- 
clined to invest Mr. Klein's political play with 
as much human interest as it may have possessed 
must at any rate admit its sincerity. That sin- 
cerity never let up for one moment. 

Stedman, the labor hero, was sincere in every- 
thing he said and did. Sincerity oozed through 
his fine white teeth. He was sincere to his 
cause, sincere to his girl, sincere to his friends, 
sincere to his enemies. So was the shimmering 
She in pale blue. I'm sorry to say that one 
longed for just one touch of insincerity in the 
feminine element of the play. Yes, one longed 
for it. 

Then there was the creature of impulse, born 
in anarchy and exuding all sorts of sweet, un- 
girlish sentiments. She, too, was sincere. Pos- 
sibly she has her prototype in this city — probably 
you could name that prototype — but it was not 
in her sincerity that she convinced last night. 
Louise, in the comedy moments that followed her 
first entrance, was delightful. She was the kind- 
est thing that happened in "The Daughters of 
Men." Then the sincerity got in and did its 

fell work. Louise hurled denunciations, exhaled 
vituperation, and sank to the level of her asso- 

A curious play, "The Daughters of Men." 
Not for an instant is it trashy or inconsequent; 
not for a moment is it light or flippant. It is 
dealing all the time with truths, and vital truths. 
It is saying things that right-minded people say 
and think. But — unfortunately — right-minded 
people do not always say and think them when 
they are viewing a drama. Mr. Klein's play is 
too good, too thoughtful, too missionary, too un- 
relenting in its object, to preachy and too deter- 
mined to impress us into the right way of life. 
It is an extremely worthy defect — if any defect 
may be called worthy. 


Broadhurst's "The Man of the Hour" Deals 

Entertainingly with City Affairs. 
Another play, similar in personnel and 
purport .to that of Mr. Klein's, is described 
in the New York Times as follows : 

A youthful mayor who can not be bribed or 
intimidated, a financier who wants to get control 
of a street railway franchise in perpetuity, and a 
pair of political bosses who are at odds with 
each other and who are fighting to gain suprem- 
acy in their organization — these are the chief 
characters in George Broadhurst's play, "The 
Man of the Hour," which was seen for the first 
time at the Savoy Theater. 

Given the further fact that the young mayor 
loves the financier's niece, that his opposition to 
the railway deal will involve her fortune, which 
has been invested in the stock, and any one may 
easily get at the heart of what it required four 
acts to adjust. Less time might have been ex- 
pended in solving the issues. But in justice to 
Mr. Broadhurst it must be said that a good deal 
of very fair enjoyment would have been sacri- 
ficed thereby. 

"The Man of the Hour" is virile melodrama. 
It is best in its scenes of political juggling, but 
there is a vein of good fun, and occasionally of 
the genuine humor of character contrast running 
pleasantly through the whole. It contains three 
or four highly amusing figures, and has three or 
four situations that are theatrically intense. 
And though one may have guessed for a moment 
at the outset that the financier's private secre- 
tary, who is eventually to betray him into the 
hands of his enemies, is none other than the son 
of the man whom he (the financier) ruined so 
many years before, so much will have happened 
before that denouement comes that the point 
will be made with nearly as much effectiveness 
as if it had not all been skilfully planned for 
in advance. 

As a matter of fact, there is a good deal of 
ingenuity exhibited in Mr. Broadhurst's play, 
skill in composition and in arrangement. He di.s- 



plays constructive cleverness, and he has written 
some excellent natural dialogue. And several 
capital actors play the principal character roles 
and lend the value of excellent service to the 
play. Of its kind, it is the most entertaining 
seen in several seasons. 


Man's Attack on Woman's Good Name Causes 
Murder and Three Suicides. 
While such dramatists as the above are 
reaching the public ear and eye with the 
plays of intimate human passion, there Ijap- 
pens such tragedy as the following in real 
life. The item is from the Chicago Record- 

Owosso, Mich. — The slighting words of one 
man concerning the honor of a neighbor's wife 
have cost the lives of four persons in West Haven 
township within the last five days. Mrs. Burt 
A. Seeley, the woman of whom the words were 
spoken, and her husband, who was suspected of 
the murder of Edwin Edgar, the woman 's ac- 
cuser, committed suicide last night. Edgar was 
murdered last Wednesday. Mrs. Melvin Haugh- 
ton was the fourth victim. Her mind became 
unsettled by the strain of Edgar's murder, and 
Thursday she drank acid. 

The bodies of Seeley and his wife were found 
in bed this morning. The husband's arm was' 
about his wife. A bottle of strychnine, from 
which they had taken large quantities, was on 
a stand by the bed. Pinned to the cover of the 
stand were these notes : 

"To-night, to-night is our last. Don't blame 
Dewev. Good-by, good-bv, mother. 

"B. A. Seeley." 

"Good-by, father, mother, and everybody; 
Burt and I have taken poison. Take our things 
and do as you have a mind to with them, and 
above all things don't put any blame on Dewey's 
shoulders or anyone else. We alone E^re respon- 
sible. Your daughter, 


Dewey is Burt Seeley 's brother. 

Seeley and Edgar lived within a quarter of 
a mile of each other from childhood, attending 
the same country school and settling down on 
farms on the same road. As they grew up, their 
pathways drew apart. Edgar had the reputation 
of being a model young man, while Seeley was 

The first open quarrel between the two oc- 
curred one Sunday late in September, when they 
met in the woods. Seeley declared his mother 
had said Edgar was making threats to "do him 

"Then your mother is a liar," Edgar replied. 

The altercation grew. Then Edgar one day 
made the remark which is believed to have caused 

his death. To another man he asserted that Mrs. 
Seeley was unfaithful to her husband. 

The story reached the ears of Seeley and his 
wife. Both were infuriated, and it is believed 
by many that Mrs. Seeley urged her husband, 
whom she seems to have dominated in all his acts, 
that he avenge the attack upon her name. Edgar 
was ambushed at night on a lonely road and 
shot to death. 

At first the police were at a loss to solve the 
murder mystery. Then they learned of the old 
enmity between Seeley and Edgar. Seeley and 
his wife were summoned to appear at the in- 
quest. The inquiry was set for an early day. 
Circumstantial evidence, so strong that 
Seeley apparently believed he could not escape, 
was uncovered. 

It was then the determination of the man and 
wife to end their lives and the woman's control 
over her husband was apparent. The note written 
by her is in firm, clear writing. Seeley 's hand- 
writing is wavering and betrays the agitation 
under which he was laboring. From the condi- 
tion of the stomachs of the man and wife, too, 
it was apparent that Seeley had eaten no supper, 
while the woman, calm and determined, to the 
last, had had a substantial meal. 


Paris Society Finds a New Sensation Keener 
Than Count Boni's. 

In France, where life has never been lack- 
ing in food for the dramatic imagination, 
there is such an incident as the following to 
recall the Castellane case and to encourage 
the playwright toward the composition of a 
v/ork that will adequately portray both the 
satire and the pathos of the foreign- 
American marriages. Said the New York 
American : 

Paris. — Rivalling the widespread interest dis- 
played by the gay set of Paris in the Count 
Boni de Castellane divorce proceedings is that 
in the coming hearing of the Le Bargy divorce 
case. The rush of applications for seats in the 
court is unprecedented. Madame Le Bargy has 
been thrust before the public not only as an 
actress of great talent, but also for the attention 
which she received from the son of Casimer- 
Perier, a former president of the republic. It 
is concerning this affair that the suit has come 

Madame Simone Le Bargy, wife of the cele- 
brated actor, was at the height of her histrionic 
success in June as the heroine of Bernstein 's 
"La Rafale," when the production came to a 
sudden end. The star and her impetuous young 
admirer of twenty-three had fled to London, 
away from her husband, who is the idol of the 
French matinee. The Ex-president followed to 




The way a franc looked to Boni when he was 
in close touch with the Gould cash box. (Arrow 
shows franc.) 


The way a franc looks to Boni since the en- 
tente cordiale between himself and the cash box 
has been disturbed. (Arrow shows Boni.) 

— Chicago Tribune. 

entreat his son to return to France and became 
himself enamored of the charms of the beauty. 
The injured husband sought in vain to win her 
back, and got the answer from her, "It matters 
little whom one lives with. Life is boring any- 
way. ' ' 

Admission to French divorce trials is by in- 
vitation only, the lawyers and judges giving out 
the tickets. In this instance there will be far 
too few cards to go around. Casimer-Perier was 
the richest and, after Carnot, the most distin- 
guished and polished of French presidents. 


Indianapolis Jewish Preacher Approves the 
Dramatic Satire of Shaw. 
That Bernard Shaw was not entirely apart 
from the thought of his times is suggested 

iri the following from the Chicago Inter- 
Ocean : 

Cleveland, Ohio. — In a sermon on "Shifting 
Standards of Morality" at the Wilson Avenue 
Temple, Rabbi N. Feurliclit of Indianapolis de- 
clared that the Shaw comedy, "Man and Super- 
man," is an incisive indictment against moral 
standards of the time. He said that it was folly 
to plead not guilty to the charges the play makes 
as too many of them are true. 

As an illustration of what is termed that staid 
and sometimes cowardly morality of the day, at 
which Shaw takes a fling in his play. Rabbi Feur- 
licht cited the case of Maxim Gorky, Russian 
novelist, who was given so chilly a reception in 
America when the claim was made by a hotel- 
keeper that his companion was not his legal wife. 

"He came upon a special errand, a great polit- 
ical and humanitarian mission," said Rabbi 



Feurlicht. "We welcomed him with loud ac- 

"The aristocracy of wealth and culture of the 
land admired and fawned upon him. Newspapers 
exalted and praised him. But suddenly all this 
ceased. A hotel-keeper in New York, representa- 
tive and guardian of our twentieth century mo- 
rality, refused to receive the novelist. His com- 
panion, it was said, was not his legal wife. All 
at onee the great emissary of freedom was 
dropped as an unclean thing into the gutter. 
Praise was turned into abuse ; admiration into 
vituperation. Society which had fondled him 
closed the doors upon him. 

"Maxim Gorky had been wedded, but the 
couple disagreed. A divorce was impossible in 
Russia, so each lived apart and each remarried, 
his wife even before he. Gorky selected as his 
wife one of the most reputable and brilliant 
women of Russia. 

"We, apparently a just and reasonable people, 
were eager to show our respectability. To do 
so we sacrificed the two eternal principles of 
righteousness and justice — righteousness in that 
we failed to search for the truth, and justice in 
that we neglected a transcendent opportunity 
to rescue a suffering people from aristocratic 

"It is just that sort of conduct against which 
'Man and Superman' is aimed. Because of our 
conventional standards we are all more or less 
prudes. ' ' 


"Sick Doctor Is Most Tragic Thing in World," 
Says Playwright. 

If there was a time in England when the 
honored practices of the medical profession 
were made the butt of keen sarcasm by 
Charles Reade, it is not inconceivable, from 
the following item from the Chicago Inter- 
Ocean, that a present-day satirist like Shaw 
may again aim shafts at the medicists and 
their ways : 

London. — Here is some of the talk in George 
Bernard Shaw's play, "The Doctor's Dilemma": 

"Most medical discoveries are made every lif- 
teen years regularly." 

"The most tragic thing in the world is a sick 
doctor. He is like a bald-headed man trying to 
sell a hair restorer." 

"We would be far healthier if every chem- 
ist's shop in England were demolished." 

"What is a surgical operation? Only manual 

"I don't believe in morality. I am a disciple 
of Bernard Shaw." 

"It shows want of taste to speak about death, 
especially in the presence of a medical man." 

"If you knew as much as I about the ignorance 
and superstition of patients you would wonder 
at doctors being as honest as they are." 

The play is very successful, although the 
critics agree that it is not a play at all, only a 
discourse a la Shaw in three acts and an epilogue. 

The chief problem the play offers for discus- 
sion is, of course: "Was the doctor right?" 
but this is only one of the questions raised in 
the play's course. "Should widows marry 
again?" "Ought artists be honest?" "Do doe- 
tors know anything?" "Should children be vac- 
cinated ? " "Is the vivisection of dogs justifi- 
able?" are a few others. 


Invited Audience Sees Fuji-Ko at the Garden 
Theater in New York. 

Sooner of later, of course, some dramatist 
i^J going to be able to rise to the treatment 
of race antagonisms, such as are now current 
between certain people of the United States 
and the Japanese, and between the whites 
and negroes. Meantime there is the follow- 
ing incident, as described in the New York 
Times, to show the extent to which drama is 
extra-racial and extra-territorial : 

Fuji-Ko, rejoicing othenvise in the title, "The 
Lady of the Wistarias," appeared before an in- 
vited audience at the Garden Theater recently in a 
so-called Japanese dream play, which proved to be 
one part monologue, very poorly written, with 
one part moving pictures, and a tiny bit of 
Japanese dancing which added the one pleasing 
touch of variety to the whole. According to a 
note on the program the play is founded on the 
Japanese belief that the spirits of dead soldiers 
return at twilight — when the "honorable bugle 
calls them home — to guide the hands, to keep 
true the hearts of their countrymen." 

Goruku-Tanaka, having been called to war, and 
supposedly among the dead, his little wife, 
0-Tsuri-San, in order to support herself and 
"the Baby," adopts the profession of Geisha. 
She tells in a long story the various incidents of 
her life past and present, with frequent pauses 
in the recital, while badly painted biograph pic- 
tures are shown supposedly illustrating the inci- 
dents. The whole is accompanied by music, 
which someliow fails to always seem appropriate, 
though it is credited on the program to Mr. 
Paul Bevan, M. A. F. S. A., Honorable Secretary, 
"Japan Society," London. 

Eventually 0-Tsuri-San burns incense before 
an altar, prays for the return of her husband, 
and he stands before her, a very substantial sort 
of vision. He tells the Geisha that he is not a 
dream, but a reality, her own husband come back, 
and the curtain falls. 

J\iji-Ko's dance with fans is pretty and un- 
usual, but the rest of her performance is color- 
less, insipid, and uninteresting. 




— New York American. 


Play a Succession of Horrors Which Rouse In- 
dignation of the Audience. 

Before passing into the realm of the 
aitistic and the permanent, all forms of art 
usually have to express themselves in the 
most extreme terms of realism. The follow- 
ing from the Philadelphia North American 
i -. an instance in point : 

Berlin. — Remarkable scenes took place at the 
production of a drama entitled "Chevalier Blue- 
beard," by Herr Herbert Eulenberg, at the Les- 
sing Theater here recently. 

The play surpasses anything that has liitherto 

been presented to the theater-going public in the 
way of downright sordid and horrible realism. 

In the first act the horrified audience saw on 
the stage a crypt in which lay the heads of five 
wives already murdered by Bluebeard. The sec- 
ond act represented a wedding banquet on the 
stage, which is suddenly disturbed by the only 
son of Bluebeard, who drinks until he falls into 
delirium tremens, and then runs amuck, demol- 
ishing everything within his reach. Suddenly, 
after a most disgusting exhibition of drunken 
delirium, he falls on his knees and says the 
Lord's Prayer. 

More Horrors. 

The third act reveals Bluebeard murdering his 
sixth wife. During the fourth act the burial of 



the sixth wife takes place on the stage. There 
is a coffin, with weeping relatives, and after the 
funeral service the coffin is lowered into the grave 
by ropes, the planks are removed and earth is 
thi-own on the coffin. 

The son, still in delirium tremens, hangs him- 
self on a tree on the stage in full view of the 
audience, and soon afterward the dead wife's sis- 
ter drowns herself in despair. 

The fifth act shows Bluebeard attempting to 
murder his seventh and last wife. She escapes 
from him, springs into the flames of his burning 
castle and perishes, likewise in full view of the 
audience. Her father and brother thereupon ap- 
pear and kill Bluebeard without more ado. 

This play is not intended to be melodramatic, 
but an extremely modern realistic drama, the 
Lessing Theater having long enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being the home of one of the highest 
forms of dramatic art. 

The audience began to hoot, shout, and hiss in 
the third act, and general indignation rose by 
degrees until a perfect storm broke out in the 
last act. The spectators shouted: "This is dis- 
gusting!" "This is a scandal!" "This is pro- 
fane!" "Stop it!" 

Loud hoots and hisses at times made the actors 
almost inaudible, and many persons rose in their 
places and shook their fists at the actors and 
actresses, gesticulating wildly with righteous in- 

Most critics condemn the play, but a few 
praise it as revealing wonderful talent. 


Trenton Co-ed Will Journey Alone to the Philip- 
pines to Wed Her Soldier. 

Here is another of the incidents of real 
romance that serve to keep up the imagina- 
tion of the playwrights. It is from the New- 
York World : 

Trenton, N. J. — A romance of two former 
co-eds in the state schools here will have a happy 
climax in a wedding in the Philippines. The 
principals are Miss Florence Wilkinson Watson, 
daughter of John Watson, a Trenton business 
man of prominence, and Lieutenant William T. 
Butler, a former resident of Morrisville, Pa., now 
serving in the United States Army in the Philip- 

The bride-elect will travel alone across the con- 
tinent and by steamship to the Philippines, and 
upon her arrival in Manila the ceremony will be 

Miss Watson has not seen her sweetheart in 
eight years. In that time he had done all his 
courting by mail. She was only a school girl 
when he left home to join Uncle Sam's forces in 
the war with Spain, but at his request she prom- 
ised to write to him. 

Cupid kept a watchful eje on the mails and 

for eight years letters between the couple were 
very regular. Recently there was a proposal 
from the soldier and an acceptance by the girl. 
Lieutenant Butler could not leave his post of 
duty, even to be married, and so his bride will go 
to him. She says she is not afraid to make tlie 
long journey alone. 

The bridegroom-to-be is a self-made officer. 
He entered the service as a private. Miss Wat- 
son will start for the Philippines as soon as she 
can get her trousseau ready. 


Brings the Gold Hunter to Machias, Maine, After 
a Terrible Experience. 
The following, from the Indianapolis 
News, is likely some day to find its way into 
the melodrama : 

Machias, Me. — To the heroic fortitude of the 
captain's wife, Mrs. Frank McGuire, who stood 
lashed to the wheel during the severe gale that 
swept the New England coast from Sunday, No- 
vember 11, to the following Wednesday, is due 
largely the safety of the schooner Gold Hunter, 
of Blue Hills, Me., which woiked her way into 
this harbor, eleven days overdue from Portland. 
The little vessel showed plainly the marks of the 
storm. Her deck was swept clean and her sails 
were in tatters, but the hull withstood the ter- 
rific pounding it received. 

The Gold Hunter, with Captain McGuire, his 
wife, and one man for an assistant, left Port- 
land, November 10, with a general cargo for this 
port. November 11 the Gold Hunter made good 
progress with clear weather until afternoon, 
when the wind breezed up from the northeast 
while the vessel was four miles off Peter Manan 

Split the Mainsail. 

A sudden gust of wind split the mainsail of 
the vessel and carried away the jibs. Without 
her headsails the little schooner became unman- 
ageable. The sea made up rapidly and the vessel 
was continually smothered in the wash of the 
combers. Mrs. McGuire was below at the time 
the storm broke, preparing supper, but rushed 
on deck and took the wheel while her husband 
and his assistant went to work to bend on a fore- 
sail so as to bring the vessel up to the wind. 

W^ith the ei'aft wallowing wildly in the trough 
of the sea this task was most difficult. With 
great patience and consummate seamanship the 
two men labored for hours to get their little rag 
of sail set. while Mrs. McGuire, lashed to the 
wheel, aided as well as she could by what little 
steering was possible on the almost helpless 
craft. Finally the foresail was rigged, double 
reefed, and while the two men clung exhausted 
to the mast, Mrs. McGuire brought the vessel 
around head-up to the wind and held her there 
for forty-eight hours. 



Drifted Out to Sea. 
Before the fury of the gale the vessel drifted 
out to sea for ninety-six miles off Mount Desert 
Rock. In all this time it was impossible to cook 
food or even to heat any coffee. Kept up only 
by excitement and pluck, Mrs. McGuire clung 

with the helm "kicking" strongly to the wild 
plunges of the ship, but the endurance of the 
rugged north woman was equal to the test. 

November 13 the gale abated, and the two 
men rigged temporary sails before Mrs. McGuire 
could be relieved from her post. All hands were 


to her post through the height of the gale, while 
Captain McGuire and his man attended to their 
little storm sail, which continually broke from its 
fastenings. It was a man's work at the wheel 

exhausted with their struggles and exposure, and 
under such scanty' canvas as could be set it was 
hard and slow work bringing the Gold Hunter 
into port, where she had been given up for lost. 




Man Who Procured His Conviction Twenty-three 

Years Ago, Touched by Pity, Obtains 

a Pardon from Governor. 

Either melodrama or the sincere romance 

ox human strife may take the following 

from the New York World for its theme : 

The circumstances that led to the release last 
Monday of Guiseppe Guidici from life imprison- 
ment in Auburn prison show what an important 
factor chance is in the career of some men. 
Twenty-four years ago a mere boy in intelligence 
and experience came to this country from Italy. 
Behind him he left his four-year-old sister Anna, 
whom he promised to bring over as soon as he 
had made enough money. Three months later 
he was under sentence of death for the muVder 
of a countrymen whom he shot in a quarrel. His 
case at that time excited a great deal of sym- 
pathy, and through the intercession of such well- 
known persons as Judge Tracy, Henry Ward 
Beecher, General Catlin, Judge Rapallo, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Cantoni, of Brooklyn, David B. Hill, 
then governor, commuted his sentence to life 

He was first taken to Sing Sing, where his 
good behavior and quiet demeanor won him the 
praise and confidence of the prison officials and 
in 1890 he was transferred to Auburn. For 
twenty years Guidici labored behind prison walls 
utterly despairing that he would ever become a 
free man again. Last February, however, by 
strange chance. Justice Almet F. Jenks, of the 
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, who 
in 1884, as assistant district attorney of Kings 
Couiity, conducted the prosecution of Guidici, 
met him in Auburn Prison. 

A Strange Meeting. 

The Justice, in company with Justice Nathan 
L. Miller-, had gone to Rochester to attend a ban- 
quet given to the justices of the Appellate Divi- 
sion, and was the guest of Justice Rich, who sug- 
gested a visit to the prison. It was Sunday, and 
the warden in showing them around chanced to 
call Guidici, who was near by, to bring him a 
key. When the convict returned. Justice Jenks, 
much impressed with the quiet demeanor of 
Guidici, made inquiries about him. 

When told the history of the man, the Justice 
suddenly recalled that he had conducted his 
prosecution. Questioning the warden still 
further, he learned that of all trustworthy and 
well-behaved convicts in the prison, Guidici was 
the model. He had earned the confidence of the 
warden and the keepers and for eleven years had 
been a trusty with the freedom of the entire 
prison. Justice Jenks was touched and calling 
the prisoner to him said: 

"Guidici, do you remember me? I was the 
district attorney who sent you here." 

"No, sir," replied the prisoner. 

"Would you like to be free?" continued the 

"Yes, sir, I would," rejoined Guidici. "I am 
contented here. They treat me very well, but I 
would like to be free. I have been here so long — 
twenty-three years," and bowed with grief the 
convict hung his head while tears rolled down 
his cheeks. 

Justice Jenks was much affected and promised 
Guidici that he would try to secure his pardon. 
From that day he, as well as Judge Miller, la- 
bored until they obtained a full pardon for Gui- 
dici from Governor Higgins. But the kind- 
hearted justices did not stop there. They wanted 
to make the man's future as secure as possible, 
and accordingly Guidici will leave in a parlor 
coach on the New York Central Railroad for 
Cortland, N. Y., where Justice Miller has a 
farm. There work will be given Guidici for the 
rest of his days. 


Lecturer Says Race Will End in Madhouse if 
Present Marriages Go On. 

Occasionally the misanthrope appears in 
actual life exactly as in the play. Here is a 
recent instance, as given in the Chicago 
Keeord-Herald : 

' ' If the people of America would keep the com- 
ing generations from inhabiting madhouses they 
should abolish indiscriminate marriages, forget 
that hallucination called love, and choose their 
life partners on the same principle that a suc- 
cessful cattleman chooses his stock." 

In the above sentence Doctor Julius Grinker, 
professor of nervous and mental diseases at the 
Chicago Post Graduate Medical School, recently 
voiced a warning to the American public of the 
great dangers which may confront it in the near 
future. He spoke in the Public Library Building 
under the auspices of the Chicago Medical Soci- 
ety on "American Nervousness, Its Cause and 
Cure." A large audience listened to the address. 

Doctor Grinker eliminated all scientific terms 
from his lecture and told the audience in plain 
words of the nervous diseases which were slowly 
but surely eating their way into the lives of the 
people of this country. Considerable stress was 
laid on the subject of marriage and heredity, and 
the great evils which result from bad marriages 
were shown. 

"Like begets like," said he, "and the nervous 
system bows to the law of all life — the law of 
heredity; the law that governs your life and 
mine. If we are bundles of unstable nerves and 
abnormal susceptibilities, it is but little trouble 
to trace the cause back to our forefathers. The 
youth of to-day should be educated and com- 
pelled to choose his mate in the way that fine 
horses and cattle are chosen. When a man 
comes to marrying he should choose his wife in 
the same way that she chooses a new dress. 

"Love is a wonderful thing. It is a halluci- 



nation, an illusion provided by nature to cause 
men and women to mate and to procreate the 
species. But love should be thrust in the back- 
ground and relegated to the scrap heap of worn- 
out adages if the health and security of poster- 
ity is to be taken into consideration. Do not 
have your children afflicted with the evils that 
have been inflicted upon you. Stop falling in love 
with a pretty face, and get a wife who is healthy 
and will rear strong and wholesome children. 

"If there could be a law passed in this coun- 
try by which men and women would be compelled 
to undergo physical examinations and have the 
physical records of their ancestors investigated 
before a marriage would be allowed it would be 
the best thing that could possibly happen. If it 
were possible that this law could be passed, 
hundreds of diseases, ailments, and ills would 
be eradicated from the race." 

Doctor Grinker spoke of the prevailing causes 
of nervousness and told of the numerous little 
things by which the neuresthenic could be easily 
distinguished. America, he said, had more nerv- 
ous people than any other country in the world, 
almost one member of every family in the United 
States being afflicted with some form or other 
of nervousness. Among the most nervous class, 
he said, women predominated. 

"You see thousands and thousands of nervous 
women on the streets every day," said he, "and 
about ninety-nine out of a hundred should be 
in a sanitarium. The shopping habit is one of 
the great causes." 

Besides heredity, Doctor Grinker said that en- 
vironment had much to do with the prevailing 
nervous epidemic. The bringing up of children, 
he said, was the most important and the most 
ignored phase of the situation. 


New York Woman Creates a Storm by Proposing 
Trial Wedlock. 

No drama of the current day could be 
adequate, whether it pretended to be prob- 
Ifiri play or not, which failed to take account 
of the almost universal controversy as to 
how love, which seeks to express itself in 
matrimony, may most safely risk its gratifi- 
cation. Therefore, it will be others than thtj 
comedians who will give their minds to the 
following from the Chicago Inter-Ocean: 

New York. — Trial marriage is one of the re- 
forms advocated by Mrs. Elsie Clews Parsons in 
a book published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, en- 
titled, "The Family." 

The author is the daughter of Henry Clews, 
the banker, and wife of Congressman Herbert 
Parsons of this city. She is a doctor of philoso- 
phy, a Hartley housefellow, and was for six years 
a lecturer in sociology at Harvard College. The 
volume just issued consists of fifteen lectures. It 

is a comprehensive, painstaking essay of the 
family relations from ancient times to the pres- 
ent day, and embraces a great mass of data con- 
cerning marriage among all civilized people. 

For the infelicities which beset the institution 
of matrimony to-day Mrs. Parsons oilers reme- 
dies, to be applied before or after the nuptial 
knot is tied. The ante-marriage precaution she 
advises is a legal supervision of the qualities of 
the would-be contracting parties, to the end that 
their fitness for the connubial state may be deter- 
mined before the license is granted. 

Favors Marriage on Probation. 

She has much to say about trial or time mar- 
riages. The trial marriage as suggested by her 
is a union in which the couple set a time limit 
on the partnership or fix a period of probation. 
At the end of such period, if the relation is found 
to be satisfactory, it may be continued. 

If, for any of the many reasons Mrs. Parsons 
enumerates, the man and wife deem it best to 
part, they may do so by mutual agreement, with- 
out the intervention of the courts. The author 
favors, also, the removal of legal restraint on 
either the man or woman so divorced from remar- 

Intended as Guide to Mothers. 

The main part of the book is given to the 
story of social origins and developments, par- 
ticularly in respect to the family relation. In the 
closing chapter, which is an ethical consideration 
of what has gone before, the author points out 
present-day matrimonial evils and suggests re- 
forms. The work as a whole, Mrs. Parsons says, 
is intended to prove a useful guide for the intel- 
ligent mothers, "who, single-handed, undertake 
the responsibility of fitting their daughters for 
useful and joyous womanhood." 

After showing that men and women bent upon 
maniage in the past gave no thought to society's 
welfare, the author says that she perceives a 
changing tendency in modern times. 

"There are signs already," she announces, 
"of the spread of the idea that the individual 
is brought to consider the effects on society of 
his or her marriage. Individuals tainted by epi- 
lepsy, insanity, inebriacy, deaf mutism, etc., are 
taught by many to be morally guilty if they 
marry. There is a growing realization of the 
cost to the state of reproduction by its di.seased 
or vicious subjects, and a growing inclination to 
prevent these classes from reproducing them- 

Eugenics a Religious Dogma. 

"If the biological knowledge of the future 
throws more light upon the present-day mysteries 
of heredity — demonstrating the disastrous results 
of the mating of those handicapped by minor as 
well as more flagrant taints or lacks — the social 
obligation in marriage will be held more and more 
considerable. The social demand for the posses- 
sion of progressive traits, physical, moral, and 
mental, as well as lack of disease on the part of 
the child bearers and begeters, will exert more 



and more pressure upon the individual. Eugenics, 
as Professor Dalton suggests, will become a reli- 
gious dogma. 

"The relation between married persons should 
be that best fitting them for their task of parent- 
hood. It should be one allowing for a full devel- 
opment of their natures, for all their capabilities 
should be taxed in their role of parenthood. It 
is unfortunate that in the emancipation-of-woman 
agitation of the past half century the reformers 
failed to emphasize the social as well as the 
individualistic need of change." 

Early Marriages, Under Conditions. 

Mrs. Parsons makes a plea for early marriages 
under certain conditions of education, but admits 
the force of some arguments advanced against 

"It would therefore seem well," she says, 
"from this point of view to encourage early trial 
marriages, the relation to be entered into with a 
view to permanency, but with the privilege of 
breaking it if proved unsuccessful, and in the 
absence of offspring, without suffering any great 
degree of public condemnation: 

"If individualism and altruism are to be recon- 
ciled in the view that child-bearing and rearing 
is the most important of all social services, the 
desirability of change in many social relations 
in and out of the family will have to be frankly 
faced and, if necessary, new adaptations must 
be welcomed." 

Discusses Various Forms. 

In another part of the book, which treats of 
the various forms of marriage, is this passage : 

"Duration of marriage in the lifetime of the 
married persons seems, to a great extent, to be 
dependent upon its form. Where monogamy pre- 
vails, it is often accompanied by forms of promis- 
cuity or by readily obtained divorce. Polygamy 
satisfies, to a certain extent, the desire for vari- 
ety to which transiency of relationships is often 
due. In this connection Sir John Lubbock makes 
an enlightening distinction between lax and brit- 
tle mayriage. Wliere an enduring form of mar- 
riage is prescribed, marriage tends to be lax ; i. e., 
polygamous or accomplished by promiscuity; 
where separation is more or less optional, it tends 
to be brittle. 

"Incidentally, let us note here, in illustration 
of the brittle marriage, so-called time and trial 
marriages. In time marriages a contract for mar- 
riage for a stated time is made. The time may 
be fpr a fixed number of days during the week 
(part time marriage). This is a lax rather than 
a brittle arrangement. Or for a stated continu- 
ous period (term marriage, hand fasting). At 
the end of the stated period the relation may or 
may not be made permanent. • * » Trial 
marriage is a variety of time marriage, it being 
distinctly agreed that the relationship may be 
di.ssolved at any time." 

By making legal provisions for greater care 
in the forming of conjugal alliances, however, 
Mrs.' Parsons would avert many unhappy results 
and simplify the problem of felicitous marriages. 

She goes so far as to suggest a matrimonial 
white list, although she leaves a possible black 
list to the imagination of the reader. 


In Her Fancy Mrs. Astor Still Entertains Many 
Who Are Dead and Gone. 
Royalty has always had its pathetic tales 
of declining greatness, which lives in mock 
state and holds its court in the halls of its 
own disordered imagination; but few would 
have thought that America's aristocracy 
would ever have had the dramatic story to 
recount which is given as follows in the 
Denver Post : 

Her mind clouded, her health shattered, Mrs. 
Astor, last and greatest of the supreme leaders 
of New York society, will never again sit upon 
her throne. A dreamer of strange dreams, this 
American social leader ends her career in sorrow. 

There will be no Astor ball this season. There 
can not be, for Mi's. Astor will not be able to 
entertain. The whispers behind fans, in bou- 
doirs, and over teacups are now loudly voiced in 
the revelation that Mrs. Astor is insane. 

She believes that she is still at the zenith of 
her power and glory as a social leader, but she 
reigns only in a court thronged with courtiers of 
her imagination, the images of lovely women and 
gallant men — some of them are quick, but more 
dead — by whom, in fancy, she sees herself sur- 

In the dead hours of the night, the Astor Fifth 
Avenue mansion will be a blaze of light, and 
within the empty drawing rooms Mrs. Astor will 
be strolling about among her imaginary guests. 

Night after night the watchman in front sees 
the lights flash up in the drawing rooms, the 
conservatory, the guest chambers, the ballroom, 
wherever Mrs. Astor directs, for it has been ar- 
ranged that all her moods and whims be humored, 
and that she be under no physical restraint. Act- 
ing under the orders of Mrs. Astor 's children. 
Colonel John Jacob Astor, whose mansion ad- 
joins that of his mother, Mrs. Orme Wilson and 
Mrs. Haig, the servants exert themselves to 
humor her eccentricities and obey her orders to 
the letter, so far as they may be for her wel- 

Day and Night Servants at Her Call. 

Taint streams of music will creep through the 
massive doors and double windows. In her rest- 
lessness she oftens craves music. Not infre- 
quently a brougham will dash up to the porte- 
cochere with a yawning coachman and footman 
on the box. The portal will swing open, perhaps, 
and a slim figure, wrapped in furs and sustained 
by two serving men, will come to the threshold. 

A shake of the head and the little group van- 
ishes inside. A footman waves to the coachman 
and the carriage returns to the stables. Mrs. 



Astor has been persuaded not to set out in the 
dead of night to pay a round of calls. 

Mrs. Astor is obsessed of the idea that she is 
still at the zenith of her power and glory as 
leader of society. She sits at her desk, and with 
her secretary, or companion, plans state dinners, 
grand balls, little supper parties after the opera. 
They indulge her to the top of her beiit. The 
engraved cards with a line blank for the date 
are brought out, names of the guests whom she 
designates are written in, and the envelopes 
are addressed. 

She checks off the list. Querulously she de- 
bates upon the eligibility of this woman or that 

Then the bundles of invitations are borne from 
the room on a silver salver by a servant and 
burned in the furnace. It does not matter to 
Mrs. Astor. She forgets. 

In the daytime she drives, not often, but when- 
ever she can not be persuaded to remain indoors. 
It is typical of her condition that she regards 
persons and objects inversely. This renders her 
amenable to control by taking a contrary, posi- 

How She Is Managed. 

If it is not thought best to permit her to 
drive, Dr. Flint, the nurse, Colonel Astor, or one 
of her .servants will suggest that she go out in 
the carriage. Mrs. Astor will decide not to go. 

When she will not eat, she is told that she 
can not have food. She orders it, to prove her 
mastery of her affairs in her own household, and 
food is brought to her. 

She has conceived the idea that the doonvays 
in the mansion are incorrectly placed, that the 
arched tops should be on the floor and the sills 
at the ceiling. She ordered a table fastened to 
the ceiling of one of her private apartments, 
declaring that the guests whom she expected to 
dinner could not be seated comfortably in any 
other way. 

Tlie table was secured as she wanted it, but 
she was not satisfied that it could not be u.sed 
until she had had a stepladder fetched and 
vainly essayed to climb it to get to the table. 

Quire after quire of her monogramed paper 
is covered with invitations to noted society 
women, asking them to call and discuss arrange- 
ments for balls and dinners. 

The letters, of course, are never mailed. The 
topics of which they treat are gone from Mrs. 
Astor 's mind before the ink on the notes is dry. 

She accosts her servants and other attendants 
by the names of her friends, those who have 
shared with her the social successes of the past 
and present generation. This one is Mrs. Fish, 
that Mrs. Belmont, the other Ward McAllister, 
another Mrs. Oelrichs, a maid Mrs. Vanderbilt, 
and so on. Those who have seen Richard Mans- 
field in the final act of "Beau Brummel" can im- 
agine these distressing and heart-rending scenes. 

Intervals of lavish generosity come when Mrs. 
Astor will summon her servants and deck them 
out in some of the treasures of her wardrobe, and 
of her jewel coffers. She smiles pleasedly as she 

tosses them rich silks, satins, and furs, and re- 
quests them to don them; or hangs about their 
necks diamond necklaces, ropes of pearls, set- 
ting diamond crowns, coronets, and tiaras upon 
their heads, and loading their fingers with gems. 

"You will oblige me by accepting these," she 
asks plaintively. They bear the jewels and the 
dresses away and put them back in their places. 

Nurses and Doctors Fear the End May Come. 

Sleep flees her for days. Then she is given opi- 
ates, not too many nor in too strong doses, for 
the physicians fear for her heart. She dreads 
the night. When her fitful tossing ceases and 
she lies quiet, a felt-shod nurse extinguishes the 
lights in the great chamber. Then she flits to a 
corner and seats herself where she can watch 
the bed. In the shadows the nurse waits, satis- 
fled so long as the quiet breathing of the patient 
murmurs in the dark, fearing lest it cease and 
the impending shadows close down upon the 
house, as soon they must. 

Mi-s. Astor is the daughter of Abraham Scher- 
merhorn, a wealthy merchant of the old city. 
She was never a beauty, but no woman who rose 
to her eminence in society was ever so generally 
and devotedly loved and respected. 

It is a tradition that she was never heard to 
utter an unkind word of any one. Scandal she 
would neither listen to nor repeat. 

Her sweetness of disposition and habit was 
unchanged even during the provocations of the 
famous Astor family feud that arose over the 
question of which should be called "Mrs. Astor" 
and be the head of the family on the distaff side 
• — Mrs. William Astor or Mrs. William Waldorf 
Astor, the wife of the son of John Jacob Astor, 
William Astor 's brother. 

It was that victory which firmly established 
Mrs. Astor in her position as leader of society. 

Mrs. William Waldorf Astor, defeated, re- 
moved to England and died there. 

It can not be doubted that Mrs. Astor is the 
last society leader. Society as it is now con- 
stituted is too large to resign itself to the domi- 
nation of one woman. There are over-many 
intei-necine quarrels. Besides, where is there a 
woman of birth, position, and wealth who has 
Mrs. Astor 's tact? 

Almost Seventy-nine Years Old. 

The break-down, which came in Boston shortly 
after she had landed there from the steamship 
that brought her across the Atlantic from 
Europe, was foreshadowed while she was abroad 
in the summer. 

All of her life — she is now nearly seventy-nine 
— Mrs. Astor had been remarked for her poise, ■ 
her excellent sense, and her repressive inclina- 
tions. None of the oddities of manner which 
usually presage the advance of age marred her 

But last summer there was a change. As much 
as her strength would permit, she plunged into 
the gaieties of the various resorts which she 
visited. This was startling, for Mrs. Astor for 
years had shunned such things. 



Her high spirits were noticeably at variance 
with her customary placidity. She ranged the 
fashionable shops of London and Paris, buying 
lavishly of the beautiful garments which were 
laid out for her inspection. She talked of a 
social season in New York this winter which 
should be the crowning triumph of her career. 

"I am growing younger and younger every 
day," she frequently told her friends. "Would 
you be surprised if I should marry again?" 

None of the toilettes which she chose was suit- 
able for an elderly woman. They were of bril- 
liant hues and radiant materials, the most daring 
conceptions of the Parisian modistes. 

Most of the gowns were such as would be worn 
by a girl of twenty. 

With them she ordered coquettish little hats, 
confections, such as she had never cared for 
previously. Trunkful after trunkful of these 

fripperies, representing a great sum, were exam- 
ined by the customs inspectors at Boston. 

An ominous collapse sent her to bed almost 
as soon as she gained the shelter of the Hotel 
Somerset. Specialists were sent for, among them 
being Dr. Austin Flint of this city. Their ver- 
dict at that time has been fully confirmed by 
her state since she came to New York in Octo- 
ber. Other alienists and phy-sicians learned in 
diagnosing and coping with the maladies and in- 
firmities of the old have watched her constantly. 
Their opinions coincide with the judgment of 
Doctor Flint. 

Among her medical attendants, besides Doctor 
Flint, are his son, Austin Flint, Jr., who vir- 
tually lives in the Astor mansion ; Doctor Allan 
MacLean Hamilton, and Doctor Charles R. Dana. 
Their orders are carried out by three of the best 
nurses who could be obtained. 







SCARCELY the most improbable of East 
Side melodrama would have ventured, 
for the sake of a new thrill, into the story 
that has recently come out of the Middle 
West, and involves a scale of family 
devotion and sacrifices seldom witnessed or 
even conceived. Said the Cleveland Plain 
Dealer, describing this incident: 

Do gypsies steal children and carry them off 
to become members of their own thieving, for- 
tune-telling, roving tribes? 

Whoever believes that such stories are myths, 
invented to terrify refractory little ones at bed- 
time, need only to turn to this page and read the 
affecting statement of little Rosie Adams of Chi- 
cago, who, after more than a year in slavery in 
different bands of these nomads, has been re- 
stored to her parents at Salem, Mass. 

They should bear in mind also that but for the 
devotion of her parents, which impelled them to 

^Adapted from Cleveland Plain Dealer. 

leave their home and become voluntary ffvp^ies, 
attaching themselves first to om; tribe and t'len 
to another, probably little Rosic wo'-ld never 
have escaped from the captors wiio profited by 
her toil, and who sold lier into bouiliit."' in other 
camps, when so disposed, like any chattel. 

In September of last year there was no hap- 
pier, though humble, home circle in Chicago 
than that of which John Adam, an honest and 
hard-working mechanic, was the head. Only a 



few years before he had come from Russia with 
his wife and infant daughter, Rosie. 

As no more children had been born to them, 
Rosie was their idol. The father saved money 
out of his wages, and they bought a little home 
in the outskirts of the city. Rosie was sent to 
the public school a few blocks distant, and at 
eleven years old gladdened her parents' hearts 
by signs that she was developing into a genuine 
little American. 

Failed to Return from School. 

Then one day at the beginning of November 
Rosie failed to return from school at the usual 
hour. When Adam returned from his work at 
supper time he found his wife weeping and heart- 
broken. Their little Rosie had not come home. 
Her mother had gone to the schoolhouse and 
learned only that Rosie had been dismissed with 
the other children. 

All that night, and for many days and nights 
afterward, Adam searched vainly for his lost 
daughter. The most he could learn was that a 
little girl answering to Rosie 's description had 
been seen walking along Michigan Boulevard 
toward the Union Railway Station with a 
swarthy complexioned woman and carrying a 

During the summer there had been a camp of 
gypsies in a vacant lot not far from the Adam 
home. Both Adam and his wife had seen bands 
of wandering gypsies in Russia. They were 
among those simple-minded folk who really be- 
lieved that gypsies sometimes stole and carried 
off white children. 

It was useless for their friends to argue with 
them. Without little Rosie there was nothing 
left for them in this life. 

"God's will be done," said Adam to his wife. 
"We also will become gypsies, for only in that 
way may we hope to get news of our little one." 

Eagerly the wife assented. They sold every- 
thing they possessed but their little home, ar- 
rayed themselves in gypsy garb, boarded a train 
on the same road by which the father believed 
Rosie and her woman captor had traveled east- 
ward from Chicago and got off at a small town 
in Indiana, where Adam had learned there was 
a gypsy camp. 

Adam was a stout fellow, familiar with horses, 
wagons, and harness, and the gypsies welcomed 
him and his wife into their tribe. They did not 
dare make any inquiries about their lost 
daughter, merely keeping their eyes open and 
their ears ready to profit by idle gossip which 
might offer a clew to the missing child's where- 

Looked Like Real Gypsies. 

Becoming a skilful horse trader, Adam gained 
the esteem of his gypsy comrades. His mechan- 
ical skill made him very useful in repairing their 
harness and wagons. It also furnished him with 
an excuse to transfer his services to other bands 
when they were especially needed. In this way, 
without creating suspicion, the father and mother 
worked their wav into Ohio and to Detroit. 

Mrs. Adam, by her ready and capable services, 
gained the good will of the gypsy women wher- 
ever husband and wife camped, and so was not 
excluded from the circle of tribal gossip. In 
this way she learned that she and her husband 
were only a few weeks behind an eastward trav- 
eling band which had recently purchased from 
another band a little white girl who had become 
prosperously expert at telling fortunes. 

Adam and his wife believed this to be their 
daughter. They grasped every opportunity to 
work their way eastward. In the winter time 
this was slow work, for then most gypsy camps 
remain stationary in some favorable location 
waiting for spring and good roads. 

It was May before they had crossed the AUe- 
ghenies. By that time no one would have known 
that Adam and his wife were not real gypsies. 
Their hands and faces were blackened by weather 
and the smoky atmosphere of winter camps. 
Mrs. Adam's hair, which had been flaxen, like 
little Rosie 's, had been darkened at the begin- 
ning of her travels with a decoction of herbs. 

In the gossip she overheard from time to time 
the stolen child was spoken of as dark-haired, 
and the mother had no doubt that little Rosie 's 
hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes had been similarly 
treated by her gypsy captors. So the father and 
mother had never wasted time looking for a child 
with their Rosie 's flaxen locks: 

In the Jersey Lowlands. 

It was not until nearly a year from the time 
they started on their travels that Adam and his 
wife reached the lowlands of New Jersey and 
joined a camp of gypsies not far from Trenton. 
Then they became almost certain of little Rosie 's 

They learned that a little girl captive had been 
sold for $200 to the famous chief of the New 
England tribe, John Croix. This news gave them 
grave apprehensions, for the reputation of John 
Croix for cruelty and greed had become well 
known to them. 

"Husband, we must hurry," said Mrs. Adam. 
"I feel that we are drawing near to our little 
daughter and that her lot is harder than ever." 

As soon as possible they had themselves trans- 
ferred to a New England bound band which had 
need of Adam's hands with wagons and harness. 
Then they crossed the Hudson by the Fort Lee 
Ferry, journeyed through Westchester County, 
N. Y., into Connecticut, into Massachusetts and 
to the outskirts of Boston, where the band rested 
for a week. It was then late in October. 

"Husband, we must hurry; I seem to hear our 
little one calling to us," said the wife every 
day. The long strain was telling on them both. 
It was terrible for them while the band rested. 

It was now they learned that John Croix and 
his band decided to winter on a farm near 
Salem, Mass. Hearing this, the band of which 
Adam and his wife were members broke camp, 
its leaders thinking that the neighborhood of 
Salem might be a good wintering place for them, 

Two days brought them within sight of the 



camp of John Croix, and they pitched their tents 
for the night. 

. First Sight of the Daughter. 

•John Adam could not wait for morning light. 
In the early dusk he stole over among the tents 
of John Croix's camp, his wife following at his 
heels. Suddenly the sight of a brown-skinned, 
dark-haired little girl in front of one of the 
tents stirring something in a pot over a fire made 
his heart stand still. 

"If only I could see that her eyes are blue," 
thought Adam. 

Just then an old gypsy woman came out of 
the tent and boxed the little girl's ears so sav- 
agely that she cried out. 

It was his own little lost "Rosebud's" voice. 
But how much older her twelve months' hard 
experience had made her appear! Adam started 
forward, forgetting all the caution he had 

The little girl saw and recognized her father 

and mother. She threw out her anns, screaming 
joyfully : 

"Oh, mamma, dear! Oh, papa! It's me — 
your little Rosebud!" 

Mrs. Adam clasped her child to her bosom 
and then swooned, while her husband wept and 
prayed on his knees with his "little Rosebud's" 
hand clasped tight. But the gypsies were en- 
raged. The father and mother were roughly 
treated and detained by their late companions. 
But little Rosie, made nimble and resourceful 
by her wild experiences, dashed away and 
brought the police. To save himself from arrest, 
John Croix was compelled, when taken to court 
with the girl and her parents, to pay Adam $400 
— $200 on account of the original kidnapping 
and $200 for Rosie 's services during her period 
of slavery. With this sum the now happy Adam 
family will return to their home to begin civil- 
ized life anew. 



:^ Mws McDowell 

— Adapted from New York World. 





AS ONE after another of the outward 
clothes of graft and social error are 
thrown off thru the cumulative influence of the 
latter-day demand for comprehensive reform, 
there has been a corresponding approach to 
the real underlying elements and motives of 
human conduct. In the face of the enorm- 
ous problems with which the new political 
leaders have had to deal, there has been 
found a necessity for principles that are 

much stronger than expediency, that out- 
ride the pomp and thrill of partisanship, and 
that will still hold themselves not only in- 
tact but enthusiastic as well, no matter what 
the opposing circumstance. 

Among some close and thoughtful ob- 
servers this signifies a return to the primary 
conceptions and impulses involved in re- 
ligion — an inference which is more or less 
borne out by an apparent revival of life 



among existing sects and a remarkable in- ers of the times. The quotation is from the 

crease in the number of new sects whose New York Times: 

tenets all seem to include, in some manner, London.— Bernard Shaw lectured in the Essex 

the union of the religious ideals with the Hall, in connection with the Guild of St. Mat- 

.. , ■ i J! i . /.^ thew, his subieet beina: "Some Necessary Re- 

practical ponits of statecraft. p^j,.; j,, Religions." Mr. said we 'had a 

A Thanksgiving inquiry 


O, Lore}, so migbty and so kigli. 
It is our custom, unto Tljee, 

To raise our hands and to Ttee cry 
I wonder if Thou knowest me ! 

O. Lord of earth and sea and sky, 
W^tile all Thy people do rejoice. 

And check the soh. abate the sigh — 
I wonder, dost Thou hear my voice ! 

Lord, hear me once, ere I should die ; 

My greatest "wonder is of me; 
What is the thing that I call I? 

What IS my meaning unto Thee? 


Bernard Shaw Says This Only Can Overcome 
Social Cowardice. 

For instance, there has been the following 
notable utterance by Bernard Shaw, the 
caustic dramatist and commentarian of Eng- 
land, who, in many respects, may be said to 
be one of the most advanced and able think- 

great many pressing social problems to solve, but 
lacked a religion which would impel us to tackle 

The socialism presented by those able middle- 
class Jews, Marx and Lasalle, was a demonstra- 
tion that the workingTnen were being robbed of 
fifty per cent of the proceeds of their labor, but 
it was found that people would not make a revo- 
lution for fifty per cent. Men were always cow- 
ards. If they were not afraid they would con- 
stantly be getting run over. The more intelligent 



and sensitive a man was the more cowardly he 

A Religious Man Defined. 

If the great congregation of cowards called 
the human race were to be got to disregard their 
own safety and interest, they must be made re- 
ligious. A religious man was not one who be- 
longed to the Church of England or who did not, 
and the enthusiasm of men who did not belong 
to that church seemed much greater than that 
of men who did. Nor was he a man with a spe- 
cial creed. A religious man was one who had 
sure knowledge that he was here, not to fulfill 
some narrow purpose, but as an instrument of 
the force which created the world and probably 
the universe. Religion made a man courageous, 
and if he was not intelligent it made him ex- 
tremely dangerous. In the absence of religion 
a coarse man had the most courage, but with 
religion the most fragile and sensitive became 
enormously courageous. 

Many people who said they believed in God 
did so because they thought that otherwise He 
would strike them dead. That was an abomin- 
able idolatry. Yet in schools religion was taught 
much in this way. The Jehovah of the earlier 
parts of the Bible was an abominable idol who 
was pleased to have Jephtha's daughter sacri- 
ficed to him, and sent bears to eat up little chil- 
dren. The result was that the masses became so 
irreligious that the people did not dare to teach 
them a genuine religion, for they would not be- 
lieve it. 

Coming to the New Testament, we found 
something new and startling — a Man who spoke 
of himself as God, and when he did so always 
caused a riot, because the people could not stand 
for such a stupendous idea. The end of the Gos- 
pel story — the popular and bloody part — spoiled 
the beginning. If Christ had died in a country 
house, worth five thousand a year, everything He 
said would be just as true as if He had been 

Powerlessness of God. 

The main truth that required to be taught was 
the powerlessness of God. If we conceived God 
as a moral force we must admit that apart from 
us He was powerless. Millions revolted against 
religion when confronted with the question "If 
God is so powerful, why is the world such a hor- 
rible place?" It was no use saying God could 
not be understood. A man in the dock would 
not be e.xcused because he said he had some 
higher purpose that other?, could not understand. 

The will that drove the universe was driving 
every man more or less, even the most sordid 
stockbroker in London, and it was evidently 
driving at some sort of moral conception. An- 
other thing to remember about God was that He 
made mistakes. Only after many trials He had 
produced a man who, though only a makeshift, 
was at his best rather a wonderful creature. If 
men realized that what God was driving at 
finally was a perfected comprehension of His own 
purpose, there would be little difficulty in making 
them religious, observant, and intelligent. 

People lumped in with their religion and phi- 
losophy and morals a number of other things 
which were merely associated ideas and customs. 
He never talked disrespectfully of religion, but 
his mission was to tell people of the rubbish that 
choked religion. Until that rubbish was got rid 
of there was no chance of getting a world in 
which anything worth talking about would ever 
be done. 

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No Throne Above, No Beyond, Says Professor 
Schmidt, of Cornell. 

Another instance is the following from the 
New York World : 

Ithaca, N. Y. — Professor Nathaniel Schmidt, 
of the Cornell department of Semitic languages 
and Oriental history, preached in the Unitarian 
Church recently. Dr. Andrew D. White and 
other prominent Cornell officials were present. 

The speaker declared that a new religion was 
approaching, in which is a deeper insight into 
nature and a deepening of the moral sense. 
Christianity has failed to adapt itself to the 
spiritual needs of man, he said. The new religion 
will meet all these. It will be universal, cover- 
ing all times and peoples. 

The supernatural in religion is foolishness, 
he declared. There is no throne above in the 
new faith, and the idea of a beyond can have no 
place. We are all denizens of the universe. The 
mind must progress. Away with formulas and 
creeds ! Put them into a museum, as a thing to 
be studied. 


Christian Scientists Make Ardent Defense of the 
Founder of Their Church. 

Still another instance of the emotion that 
lies in the adherence of many people to new 
sects which have to do intimately with the 
practical morals of every-day life is afforded 
in the promptitude with which the Christian 
Scientists rallied to the defense of Mrs. 
Eddy. Said the St. Louis Republic: 

James A. Logwood, of the Christian Science 
Publication Committee of Missouri, issued a 
statement regarding the recent published reports 
about the condition of Mrs. Mary Baker G. 
Eddy, head of the Christian Scientist Church. 

"The original report," Mr. Logwood says, 
"contained three specific charges. 

"First — That Mrs. Eddy, in her daily drives 
around, and about the streets of Concord, was 
being impersonated by a dummy in the form of 
one Mrs. Leonard. 

"Second — That Mrs. Eddy was dying with 
cancer, and that she was, and had been for some 
time, under the charge of a physician. 

"Third — That Mrs. Eddy, through disease and 
the infirmities of age, was physically and mental- 
ly disqualified from attending to her affairs." 

Mr. Logwood's statement continues: 

It was clearly shown by the published accounts 
that charge No. 1 was based wholly upon the 
statement of one witness, a janitor from Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. This janitor went to Concord for the 
purpose of identifying the woman, who, it was 

said, was impersonating Mrs. Eddy in her daily 
drive. He had never seen Mrs. Eddy, but as- 
serted that, from where he stood on the side- 
walk, he recognized Mrs. Leonard, although much 
disguised through the closed doors of her car- 
riage. This incident occurred on October 22. 

Sworn Statements. 

Here are the unimpeachable facts: 

Mrs. Leonard makes a sworn statement before 
Josiah Fei-nald, Notary Public, in which she says 
she had never impersonated Mrs. Eddy; had 
never ridden in her carriage; in fact, had never 
stept inside of it, and had not been out of sight 
of Pleasant View, Mrs. Eddy's home, since Feb- 
ruary 19, 1906. 

Mrs. Leonard's denial of having impersonated 
Mrs. Eddy was corroborated by Mayor Charles 
R. Corning, General Frank S. Streeter, and by 
several others. They, according to their sworn 
statements, knew Mrs. Eddy personally; saw her 
almost daily in her drives about Concord, and fre- 
quently spoke to her; had transacted business 
with her personally; and all declared that they 
had never seen any person in Mrs. Eddy's car- 
riage except herself. 

Rudolph B. Frost, who has charge of the 
painting at Pleasant View, also swore that on 
October 22, while Mrs. Eddy was out driving, he 
conversed with Mrs. Leonard, who was super- 
intending the work he was doing about the house. 

As to the second charge, while it was boldly 
stated that Mrs. Eddy was dying of cancer, and 
had a medical doctor in attendance, these charges 
are absolutely devoid of any evidence. No doc- 
tor's name has been mentioned in the accusa- 
tion, and no such doctor has been found. 

Disease Denied. 

Mrs. Leonard made the following statement 
before a notary public: 

"I deny most emphatically that Mrs. Eddy 
has any such disease as cancer or that she has 
any other disease. As I am and have been in 
daily contact with Mrs. Eddy, seeing her many 
times each day, I am in a position to know as 
to what I am stating. The story that a phy- 
sician from Boston is attending her is without 
foundation, as there is no physician from any- 
where attending Mrs. Eddy, nor has there been 
while I have been in her home." 

This statement was also corroborated by those 
in Mrs. Eddy's home, and many others, whose 
names can be furnished if desired. 

The third charge, that Mrs. Eddy is mentally 
and physically disqualified, and is unable to at- 
tend to her affairs, on account of disease and in- 
firmity of age, is also disproved beyond con- 

Frederick N. Ladd, treasurer of the Concord 
Loan and Savings Bank, in a signed statement, 
said: "I am not a member of the Christian 
Science Church, but I feel it my duty to con- 
tradict such false rumors. I have had the honor 
of being in the presence of Mrs. Eddy several 
times each year, and most emphatieally say that 



she is in every way capable of conducting her 
business affairs." 

George H. Moses, editor of the Concord Even- 
ing Monitor, made a signed statement to this 
effect : 

"I have had the pleasure of knowing Mrs. 
Eddy for more than ten years, and I have had 
occasion to correspond with her, and to meet her 
with reference to matters of public importance 
in this community. These relations with her still 
continue, and within a very short time I have 
received from her long letters, written from be- 
ginning to end in her own handwriting, which, 
from long acquaintance, is perfectly familiar to 
me, and that she is indubitably alive, both phy- 
sically and mentally, is well attested by these 
communications. ' ' 

Mrs. Eddy's Statement. 

Following the interview with Mrs. Eddy, Oc- 
tober 20, the Associated Press representative 
wrote : 

"Although Mrs. Eddy shows her advanced age 
in some respects, her voice to-day was clear and 
strong, and she gave no evidence of decrepitude, 
or of any weakness not to be expected of a 
woman in her eighty-sixth year." 

Edward N. Pearson, Secretary of State of New 
Hampshire, says : "I was present by invitation 
at Pleasant View to-day with the representatives 
of eleven newspapers. I stood near Mrs. Eddy, 
whom I have known personally for some fifteen 
years. I distinctly heard her answers to the 
questions asked her. I saw her leave the room 
in which the interview was given, and walk to 
her carriage. I saw the carriage drive toward the 
city. Mrs. Eddy's voice was clear and strong, 
and her appearance was that of a woman in full 
possession of all her faculties. I am not a Chris- 
tian Scientist and I am without bias and preju- 
dice in this matter." 

On November 1, two press representatives — 
Mr. Harlan 0. Pearson, local representative of 
the Associated Press, and the editor of the Pa- 
triot — were at Mrs. Eddy's residence, and stood 
in the hallway while Mrs. Eddy came down stairs. 
They stood where they could not be seen by Mrs. 
Eddy, who was totally unaware of their presence. 
They said she descended easily, without any ap- 
parent hesitation, thus proving to them her abil- 
ity to go up and down stairs, and about her 
house as usual. 

These and many other signed statements, at- 
test Mrs. Eddy's mental and physical ability 
and freedom to attend to her personal affairs. 

Her Writings. 

To lift any lingering shadow of mystery as 
to Mrs. Eddy's retirement, I quote from her own 
writings on the subject. In her book "Miscel- 
laneous Writings," page 278, in a letter to her 
students in Chicago, written in 1888, she says : 

"For two' years I have been gradually with- 

drawing from active membership in the Chris- 
tian Scientist Association." 

Same volume, page 136, in 1891, writing to her 

"When I retired from the field of labor, it 
was a departure, socially, publicly and finally, 
from the routine of such material modes as so- 
ciety and our societies demand. Rumors are ru- 
mors — nothing more. I am still with you on the 
field of battle, taking forward marches, broader 
and higher views, and with the hope that you 
will follow." 

On page 322 in Mrs. Eddy's message to her 
Boston church, prior to 1896, explaining why she 
would not be present : ' ' Your dual and imper- 
sonal pastor, the Bible, and science and health 
with key to the Scriptures, is with you; and the 
life these give, the truth they illustrate, the love 
they demonstrate, is the great shepherd that 
feedeth my flock, and leadeth them 'beside the 
still waters.' By any personal presence or word 
of mine, your thought must not be diverted or 
diverged, your senses satisfied, or self be jus- 

Christian Science does not include in its prac- 
tice hypnotism, mesmerism, or spiritualism. It 
is based upon the rational and demonstrable 
teachings of the holy Scriptures. By their fruits 
ye shall know them. It is conservatively esti- 
mated that within the brief period of _ the his- 
tory of Christian Science more than 1,000,000 
people have become virtually interested in it, be- 
cause they have learned, through actual proofs, 
that it is not a mere theory, but a tangible, 
living, demonstrable truth. 

There is hardly a town or hamlet in the civi- 
lized world but that one will find those that have 
been benefited by this Christ-truth and are ready 
to give a reason for the hope that lieth in them. 
"Therefore, beloved, my often-coming is un- 
necessary; for, though I be present or absent, it 
is God that feedeth the hungry heart, that giveth 
grace, that healeth the sick and cleanseth the sin- 
ner. For this consummation he hath given you 
Christian Science, and my past poor labors and 
love." Christian Science Journal, volume 12, 
page 94. 

Mrs. Eddy issued a public statement, dated May 
3, 1894. She says, in part : ' ' My work for the 
mother church is done; and be it remembered 
that I came to Concord, N. H., for the purpose 
of retirement." 

Christian Science teaches its followers to lead 
pure and upright lives, and to heed the words of 
the Master, as given in the sermon on the mount. 
"Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, 
do good to them that hate you, and pray for 
them which despitefully use you, and perse- 
cute you ' ' ; and, thus ' ' to let your light so shine 
before men tha,t they may see your good works 
and glorify your Father which is in heaven." 



WHISTLING GIRL IN CHURCH what were apparently feelings of mingled interest 

— and surprise while a woman whistler warbled 

Vaudeville Feature Employed to Attract Attend- three tunes in the intervals between the reading 

ance in New York. of the Word and the sermon. 

The appreciation with which some of the Dr. Goodchild believes in the efficacy of ad- 

, , , , ,, , , „ vertising, and the last number or Gist, hi? 

orthodox sects meet the new demands for g,i„rch paper, announced that it was the pur- 

"Farewell, dear; we must hope for the best. I may be able to get across safely." 

— Chicago Tribune. 

practical phases to the religious organiza- pose of the trustees to do all that could be done 

^ ,,..,«,, • J. .1, to make the services of tlie church attractive, 

tions IS reflected in the following from the « t^ ^ ■,,;■, , 

bo the members ot Dr. Goodchild s congi-ega- 

Jsevf York Herald: tion were prepared for something unusual 

„-,.,,, 1 • J. i 1- • when they assembled last evening. Thev saw a 

Vaudeville turns, as an adjunct to religious ^^^^^ ^-^^^ ^^ ^,^p rostrum under the choir loft, 

service, have been introduced by the Rev. Dr. ^^^^ j^ ^ front pew a young woman whom ihey 

Frank M. Goodchild, pastor of the Central recognized from her lithographs, which hung xn 

Baptist Church, in West Forty-second Street,- the lobby of the ehureh, as Miss Ethel M. Palmer, 

and recently- the congregation listened with "artistic whistler;'''' -.'A. 



Miss Palmer had her own accompanist, and 
when it came time to do her first turn she stepped 
briskly to the rostrum. A moment later bird- 
like notes interpreting the "Manzanillo," by 
Robyn, were chasing each other through the 
building. There was no doubt of the artistic 
rendering of the number, but the privilege of 
applauding which is accorded a theater audience 
was denied to the congregation, so the "turn" 
was received in silence. 

Defends His Action. 

Miss Palmer's second number was the inter- 
mezzo from "Cavalleria Rusticana," and this 
was followed by Tobani's "Hearts and Flow- 
ers," so familiar to all students of semi-classic 
music. There was a little stir among Dr. Good- 
child's hearers after the whistler retired, and it 
was noticed that many settled back in their seats, 
their faces bearing an expression of relief. It 
was evident then, as was proved by bits of con- 
versation heard after the services were over, 
that there was some uncertainty in the minds 
of the pastor's flock as to the propriety of the 
performance, and they were glad it was over. 

After the sermon Dr. Goodchild consented to 
give his views regarding vaudeville as an acces- 
sory to religion. He said : 

"My object in making this departure from 
conventional lines is to see if by introducing a 
little musical novelty we could not fill the whole 
church on Sunday night. The conditions under 
which we have to labor are not equalled in any 
other city in the world. The Central Baptist 
Church is in the middle of a block in which 
there are seven theaters. We have not a half 
dozen families in the congregation who 
live within a mile of the church. We must draw 
on the floating church attendants, and it is with 
this in mind that the departure from regular 
lines was made. 

"While I do not wholly approve of the intro- 
duction of anything that will mar the sacred- 
ness of church worship, I believe in using the 
best means of assembling the people. I be- 
lieve with Dr. Duff, that eminent preacher who 
once said: 'I would be willing to knock two 
old shoes together if it would draw a crowd to 
whom I might preach Jesus Christ.' 

"Personally, I would prefer a plain, ordinary 
sei-vice, but to reach the people I intend to com- 
pete in as dignified a way as possible with the 
attractions with which this church is surrounded. 

"Next Sunday night we will listen to Charles 
Wold play sacred and classical melodies on his 
musical glasses." 


Kindergarten in a New Jersey Edifice While 
Mothers Attend Service. 
An interesting side light on the trend to- 
ward the practical is given, again, in the 
following from the New York World : 

"Bring your babies to church; the girls j villi 
play with them during- the services. " 

Such is the message which the pastor and trus- 
tees of the Methodist Church of Verona, N. J., 
have sent to the mothers of the town. 

A kindergarten has been established in the 
chapel of the church, and Miss Gertrude Edith 
MacDowell and Miss Jane Condit, both promi- 
nent in the Epworth League, have taken upon 
themselves the task of caring for the youngsters 
while the mothers listen to sermons by the Rev. 
Charles Eugene Little. Last Sunday was the 
first session of the kindergarten, and church at- 
tendance increased mightily because of the in- 

"I think the work is simply grand," said Miss 
MacDowell after the service last Sunday morn- 
ing. ' ' And how much the mothers enjoyed the 
sermon ! Why, there were lots and lots of women 
in church to-day whom we had not seen for a 
long time, just because there was no one to mind 
their children." 


Englishmen Are Debating the Question of Trans- 
migration of Souls. 
The reaching out of religious forms to- 
ward the expanded world included under 
the nomenclature of the Occult is shown, in 
part, in the following from the Philadelphia 
Inquirer : 

London. — If letters to the newspapers can be 
accepted as a criterion, hundreds of Englishmen 
are wondering whether we have ever lived before. 
Dr. Andrews Wilson analyzes the strange phe- 
nomenon of memory given by the contributors 
in part as follows : 

' ' The doctrine of metempsychosis or trans- 
migration of souls represents a very ancient be- 
lief. Not merely did it credit the possibility 
that the soul after death could be transferred 
from one human being to another, but it also 
held that the human soul might take up its 
abode in another form of life and be trans- 
ferred from the purely human to the lower ani- 
mal domain. The theory asserts that as each 
stage is ended and a new era begun, the soul 
sheds most of the features it illustrated in the 
life it left, retaining, now and then, however, 
vague memories of some of its antecedent states. 
Such memories, forcibly projected into the fore- 
ground of our existence to-day, it is held, should 
convince us that we have 'lived before.' 

"Everything we have heard or seen or other- 
wise appreciated through the agency of our sense 
organs — every impression, every sensation — is 
really stored up within those brain cells which 
exercise the memory function. True, we may 
not be able to recall all of them at will; many 
are doubtless beyond the reach of the power 
that revives and prints off for us positives from 
our stored up mental negatives. But it is none 
the les& significant that on occasion we can dis- 
inter memories of events whose date lies very 



far back in our lives — recollections, those per- 
haps, we have never realized after their recep- 
tion, but lying latent, and only awaiting the re- 
quisite and proper stimulus to awaken them and 
to bring them to the surface of our life. 

"This expresses briefly what wq mean by our 
'subliminal consciousness.' " 


Jewish Rabbi Finds Danger in the Presidential 

A peculiar phase of the religious situation, 
and one which probably reflects, in spite of 
its controversial aspect, the tendency to- 
ward new religious unity, is shown in the 
following from the New York Times: 

Philadelphia. — Rabbi Krauskopf, speaking in 
the Broad Street Temple, attacked President 
Roosevelt's Thanksgiving proclamation and de- 
clared that no Thanksgiving service would be 
held in his synagogue. He argued that compli- 
ance with the proclamation would be subversive 
of the religious liberty in which the Nation was 
founded, the Constitution of the United States 
guaranteeing an absolute separation of Church 
and State. His subject was "Sectarianism in 
Public Institutions." He said: 

"A President's proclamation asking the peo- 
ple to assemble for a Thanksgiving service in 
their respective places of worship implies either 
that such a service is not provided for by the 
various church organizations, or that he is 
obliged to do so by the laws of the land. As 
to the former supposition, none knows better 
than President Roosevelt that of all religious 
practices none is more frequently enjoined and 
none more scrupulously observed than that of 

rendering thanks to Him from whom all our 
blessings flow. As to the President being re- 
quired by law to issue such a proclamation, our 
law books fail to show such authority. The 
practice is due to custom only. 

"The many ways in which the Thanksgiving 
Day is observed shows that almost instinctively 
the people refuse to take their religious orders 
from any save their respective church organiza- 
tions. In but comparatively few churches are 
services held, and the attendance upon them is 
the most meager of the year. Large numbers of 
the persons devote the day to feasting and merry- 
making. Football games are attended by tens 
of thousands, foremost among them the so-called 
cream of society, among them many who seldom 
absent themselves from the regular services of 
the church. Theaters, music halls, and other 
places of amusement are crowded on that day. 

"I have no objection to Thanksgiving Day as 
a day of rejoicing. I would be the last to ad- 
vocate its abolition as a secular holiday. We 
have none too many holidays, and there is noth- 
ing that our Nation needs so much as days of 
relaxation. But as much as I favor it as a 
secular holiday, I strongly oppose it as a holy 
day enjoined by the Government. I regard a 
government's interference in matters religious, 
or a religious interference in matters political, 
as a danger against which we can not be suf- 
ficiently on our guard." 


A Newspaperman Starts Out to Learn Whether 
They Are a Value or a Pest. 
In no field does the religious element im- 
pinge so much upon the practical field of 
polities as in the matter of missions. Some- 
thing of interest in this direction, evidently. 




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is at least to be forthcoming if the following 
preliminary story from the Pittsburg Dis- 
patch may be taken as an indication : 

Mr. Ellis's assignment is to make a frank, un- 
biased and first-hand newspaper study of what 
American missionaries are really doing in for- 
eign lands, and how they are doing it; to in- 
vestigate the social and religious changes that 
are now transforming the East, and to write char- 
acter studies of some of the interesting men from 
this side who are doing things on the other side 
of the world. 

A special interest will attach to these letters 
on the part of church-going readers, for these 
■want to know, in unstereotyped speech, just what 
religious work in so-called "heathen" lands is 
like and exactly how it is done. Mr. Ellis is com- 
missioned as a special representative by the 
International Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation, by the World's Christian Endeavor 
Union, by the Student Volunteer Movement, by 
the Religious Education Association, by the 
American National Red Cross Society, by the 
Young People's Missionary Movement, and by 
the secretaries of all the leading missionary 
organizations in the United States and Canada. 
He also bears letters from Government officials, 
from international business concerns, and from 
residents of the Orient, so that all doors will be 
open to him and every possible facility extended 
for the fullest investigation of his subjects. 

Midpaciflc. — I am on the trail of the American 
missionary. His footprints are large and deep 
and many, and I shall certainly come up with 
him. Then we shall know what sort of individual 
he is — whether a haloed saint, as the religious 
papers represent, or a double-dyed knave, as 
many other papers and people assert, or a plain, 
every-day American trying to do an extraordi- 
nary job to the best of his ability. 

Rather queer, isn't it, that after having been 
in the business of exporting missionaries for well- 
nigh one hundred years America should actually 
know so little about the article himself, and be 
So decidedly divided as to his value? 

For the American missionary has been more a 
subject of controversy than American canned 
beef. Hundreds of persons who have visited 
foreign parts and say they know, and thousands 
who declare that they have their information 
"straight," declare that the missionary is a sort 
of pious bunco man; that he is not wanted where 
he works; that he is an unmitigated nuisance, 
and he is keenly alert to the welfare of number 

Contrariwise, a vastly larger number of per- 
sons in every part of the land firmly believe, and 
support their conviction by their coin, that the 
missionary is a saint and a hero, and the selfless 
servant of a thankless world's welfare. All criti- 
cism of him they sweepingly resent, and are loath 

to hear aught to his dispraise. The apotheosis 
of the missionary is a characteristic of modem 
religious life. 

On a Still Hnnt for Facts. 

Curiously enough, the public hears only these 
two opinions of the missionary, one of which 
represents him as a scoundrel or a fool, the other 
of which exalts him as a demi-god. So far as I 
am aware, nobody has ever set out, indepen- 
dently, and representing no board, society, or 
cause, to find out, impartially, the exact facts 
in the case. This is the mission I have under- 
taken. My journalistic integrity is pledged to 
the duty of ascertaining, without favor or fear, 
exactly what sort of person the missionary is, 
how he works and amid what conditions, and 
whether the task he has imposed upon himself 
is worth doing at all, and, if so, whether he is 
doing it well. 

To that end I shall personally examine on the 
ground representative enterprises of all denomi- 
national and undenominational missions. I shall 
attempt to study the workers themselves and 
hear their side of the story. With equal diligence 
I shall consult qualified native opinion and search 
out the foremost foreign critics and ascertain 
their views. In a word, with no other purpose 
than to give the American public a fair, frank, 
full story of this controverted subject, I have 
started on this journey around the world. What- 
ever the conclusions I may report, they will at 
least be honest. 

Largest American Business Abroad. 

The biggest single foreign enterprise in which 
America is engaged is this one of foreign mis- 
sions. The rest of the world, and especially the 
Orient, knows the Western continent chiefly by 
its missionaries. Figured in dollars, the business 
last year cost the American public $5,807,165, 
paid in by an organization with approximately 
12,000,000 shareholders of all religious denomi- 
nations, Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Mor- 
mon. (The foreign mission work of all coun- 
tries cost $15,000,000 yearly.) For all this enor- 
mous output the tangible returns to Amtrica 
were practically nothing. True, the missionary 
helped to create a market for the American pack- 
ers ' products and for American locomotives and 
sundry other forms of merchandise. But the 
church members, as church members, who put 
up the money, profited not at all by this. 

Apparently, the missionaries themselves, of 
whom America maintains 3776 in Japan, China, 
Korea, the Philippines, Burma, Siam, India, 
Thibet, Persia, Turkey, Egypt, and the South 
American countries, do not get rich out of this 
vast sum. According to the official figures, which 
I secured before leaving the United States, the 
missionary's salary ranges from nothing to $1800 
a year. The last-named figure is paid to veterans 
of the Baptist denomination, who are married 
and have families; the former represents the 
salary promised to the missionaries of the China 
Inland Mission, the Christian and Missionary 



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Alliance, and a few other undenominational 

Per cent 

United Presbyterian 4 1-3 

Methodist, North 5 2-5 

Methodist, South 5 7-10 

Baptist, South 6 1-10 

Presbyterian, North 6 3-10 

Presbyterian, South 7 7-10 

Reformed Church 8 7-10 

American Board 10 3-5 

Protestant Episcopal 11 1-10 

Baptist, North 11 1-2 

I found these Missionary Board officials a civil 
lot. I could have wished the Armstrong Commit- 
tee such luck in its investigation of insurance 
matters. The boards open wide up, and then 
deluge one with information upon his approach. 
In fact, the consideration which, more than any 
other, tends to predispose me, as an investigator, 
toward the missionary people is the heartiness 
and frankness with which they seem to welcome 
an investigation. Without hesitation they have 
afforded me every facility for looking into their 
work at home and in foreign lands. They say : 
"Find out the worst and tell the public, includ- 
ing us. We want to see the thing with the eyes 
of a disinterested observer." Surely, I reason, 
the organization which maintains that attitude 
can not contain much graft, however mistaken 
its principles and policies may be. 

New Side of College Life. 

Picked up in the forest of facts amid which I 
found myself, is the news that Yale University 
has established a missionary lectureship, with 
Professor Harlan P. Beach, an ex-missionary, as 
incumbent; and that Yale, Harvard, Princeton, 
and the University of Pennsylvania all now 
have foreign mission enterprises of their own, 
manned by graduates and supported by alumni 
and students. 

Nothing more extraordinary has come to my 
knowledge than the grip the missionary cause 
seems to have taken upon the American insti- 
tutions of higher learning. The largest and 
most representative intercollegiate and under- 
graduate gathering ever held on the Western con- 
tinent, if not in the world, was the Student 
Volunteer Convention in Nashville last spring, 
when more than three thousand students, from 
some four hundred universities, colleges, and 
academies, met in a remarkable convention. 
About three thousand of these volunteers have 
gone to foreign parts since the movement was 
inaugurated in 1892. 

In connection with this body and other organ- 
izations of young people there has been a phe- 
nomenal development of the study of missionary 
literature, and within a dozen years more than 
600,000 purely missionary books have been sold. 

Hard Knocks for the Missionaries. 

Quite different are the stories I hear in other 
quarters. One of the higher officers of the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company assured me, as one 

who knows, that "the missionaries are a lot 
of grafters. But," he added, with the charac- 
teristic commercial spirit of the day, "I do not 
want to see their graft stopped, for it pays us 
to carry them." 

A Hong Kong merchant aboard ship declared 
that "the missionaries are a pack of scoundrels. 
They are overbearing, lazy, pestiferous fellows, 
recruited only from the very lowest ranks of 
society in America and Great Britain." That 
last was a little more than I could swallow, for 
it went contrary to my personal knowledge in 
numerous instances. The missionary may prove 
to be a bad egg when he reaches foreign shores, 
but every college man in the land knows the 
stock from which he springs. I recalled while 
leaning over the rail conversing with Mr. Hong 
Kong Merchant, that a few weeks before I had 
read an enthusiastic autograph letter from Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to Rev. Dr. Arthur H. Smith 
(father of the project of bringing Chinese stu- 
dents to American universities) concerning tlie 
latter 's books on China. A few days previously 
Dr. Smith had been the President's guest at 

As a matter of candor, I may say that thus 
far I am having some difficulty in running down 
to particulars the countless charges against the 
missionaries. I hope to have better fortune in 
foreign lands. As an illustration of my troubles, 
there is the instance of a fellow-passenger on the 
transpacific steamer, the wife of a Philippine 
official. She had learned the nature of my quest. 
"I am glad you are going to get after the mis- 
sionaries, and I hope you will rip them up the 
back," she began breezily. "We who travel 
and live out here know that they are a bad lot." 
Yet she could not, when urged, become more 
definite, and, although long a resident of Manila 
and an Episcopalian, she confessed that she had 
never heard or met Bishop Brent, the brilliant 
head of the Philippine missions of her church. 

Good Morals but Bad Manners. 

Already I have a dim suspicion that one rea- 
son for the antipathy which many travelers have 
to missionaries is to be found in the latter 's 
attitude toward life aboard ship and in port 
cities. The missionary is, I infer, often narrow 
and intolerant, and desirous of imposing his 
standards upon everybody. He is prone to make 
unmannerly remarks about the amount of drink- 
ing that goes on, seven days a week, aboard 
ship. The incessant gambling, also, of the smok- 
ing room and ship saloons gets on his puritanical 
nerves. He can not see — and he is entirely too 
blunt and inconsiderate, I believe, in expressing 
this opinion — why practices should be counted 
good form aboard ship that are contrary to the 
law of the land when ashore. That is the way 
he justifies his tactlessly aired opinions. 

Tourists do not like to have the narrow stand- 
ards of the missionaries thus flung at their heads 
censoriously; and they are not likely to form an- 
entirely favorable estimate of their critics. "Too 
many young missionaries," said a famous vet- 




W. p. Calkins, President 

Hartford Building 


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Percy C. Pickkell. Manager 

Telephone Central 6765 

Chicago, III., Dec. 1, 1906. 

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THE r A N D E X 

eran missionary to me a few minutes ago,' 
"think that they must start out by trying to 
convert the whole ship. They do not try to 
mingle socially and congenially with their fellow- 
passengers. They acquire an identity as mission- 
aries, rather than as men and women." 

The same man, himself a resident of Yoko- 
hama, is authority for the statement that mis- 
sionaries in port cities maintain an attitude of 
aloofness or separation toward other foreigners. 
They apparently reason that they have come out 
to work for the natives, and so they can not 
give any time to the European community. The 
result is inevitably a lack of mutual sympathy 
and understanding, and the creation of a hostile 
spirit on both sides. A good missionary, I take 
it, needs to be a good "mixer"; he must know 
how to be a man among all kinds of men; else 
his usefulness, his reputation, and his calling 
will suffer. 

Still, whatever his faults or virtues, the mis- 
sionary is an interesting personality. He man- 
ages to keep pretty much in the public eye, 
whether by being kidnapped by brigands, mas- 
sacred by Chinese, by being lost in Africa's wil- 
derness, by making work for the nation's gun- 
boats and marines and diplomats, by running 
genuine relief enterprises, or by being decorated 
by kings, emperors, and scientific societies. 


A motor car is not the place 

To court a girl with ease and grace, 

You'll find you can't keep up the pace 

And woo her. 
Your eyes on the road ahead, 
There isn't much that can be said; 
You really dare not turn your head 

To view her. 

Her color comes, her color goes. 
On either side the landscape flows; 
The motor is the worst of foes 

To Cupid. 
The man who guides his flying car 
Along love's lane will ne'er go far; 
He'll fetch up with an awful jar — 

The stupid ! 

'Tis better then to wisely wait. 
And when you strike a tamer rate 
Along the path from papa's gate — 

Why, view her. 
There'll be no throttle there nor brake. 
No speeds your anxious thoughts to take, 
No fear of skid or bump or break — 

So woo her. 

— Exchange. 





Twelve men and women, frankly declaring that 
they believed suicide to be the only way out of 
difficulties in which they found themselves, have 
sought the aid of the Reverend Henry M. War- 
ren, chaplain of the city hotels, within the last 
five days in response to a general invitation ex- 
tended by him to those who contemplated suicide, 
in which he said he would help them to change 
their minds. This invitation was given by Doctor 
Warren in his service last Sunday night in the 
Fifth Avenue Hotel and was printed in the 
Herald the next day. 

In his sermon Doctor Warten said there were 
scores of strangers in New York every day 
who had come there with the well-founded in- 
tention of ending their lives. They came, he > 
said, because they could easily conceal or lose 
their identity. 

Doctor Warren argued that the suicidal intent 
of such persons might often be thwarted if they 

only had some person to whom they could pour 
out their hearts at the critical moment in their 
unhappy lives. They almost invariably came 
to the city alone and were therefore without 
counsel when the contending thoughts coursed 
through their brains. To serve as a personal 
friend rather than as a minister, Doctor Warren 
made his recjuest that all persons so inclined 
see him before they carried out their purposes. 

Twelve men and women have confessed person- 
ally to Doctor Warren that they intended to 
commit suicide, and he has received more than 
a score of letters from others^ who, although not 
intending to end their lives, have declared them- 
selves to be in dire straits, from which they 
believed, they said, there was no departure save 
by extreme methods. 

Keeps Identity Secret. 

Doctor Y7arren granted an interview (o the 






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Herald touching the cases of those who called 
on him, but refused to divulge the names or 
addresses of any of them. 

"One of the most striking instances," said 
Doctor Warren, "was that of a^ man who came 
to this city from Boston. He is the manager of 
a large manufacturing concern there and has a 
wife and several daughters. Family and finan- 
cial difficulties caused him to ponder over suicide 
as a way out of his difficulties, and he came to 
this city and registered in the Grand Union 
Hotel under an assumed name. He had told his 
family he was going to the Pacific Coast on 

' ' On his way through the lobby to a drug 
store, where he expected to purchase poison, he 
saw my explanatory card and asked the clerk 
about me. He came to see me, and by remain- 
ing with him for a whole day I got him to go 
back home. I have received a letter from him 
telling me I saved him from what he saw after- 
wards would have been an awful mistake." 

Many of the cases which have come to Doctor 
Warren's personal attention arose from lack of 
funds. Others were caused directly by business 
or professional failure. As an illustration. Doc- 
tor Warren quoted this letter: 

"Dear Sir: — I have read a reprint of your 
'invitation to suicide' in the Herald. Well, you 
may give new hope and life to some, but not 
to me. Some, like I, have suffered so long that 
any kind of rest must be welcomed. Years ago, 
a graduate of the Universities of Zurich and 
Munich, I started life full of hope and ambition 
as an architect. Now, after untold hardships, I 
mean to end it, and not even my wife can 
prevent it, I fear. If there is any power in 
words, for my wife's sake give me hope. Things 
are dark, dark — so dark. Send for me. 

"New York, November 26, 1906." 

Another Man Saved. 

"About three days ago," continued Doctor 
Warren, "a Scotchman came and told me he 
was going to commit suicide. Although his 
clothes were shabby, one could tell that they had 
been cut from good material. He told me that 
a year ago he had been a well-to-do merchant 
in Glasgow, that he had failed in business, had 
been deserted subsequently by his wife, and had 
fled to America. For several months he said he 
had worked as a clerk, but had lost his position 
when his employers cut down their force of 
clerical men. The rest of his story was short. 
He had gone from bad to worse until he sought 
sleep on park benches and food anywhere. 

"Several days ago, he said, he picked up a 
Herald on a bench in Central Park and read 
the account of my sermon on suicides and came 
to see me. I got him work and to-day he has 
no thought of suicide." 

Illustration of the mental state of women 
who plan to commit suicide is this letter, received 
a few days ago by Doctor Warren : 

' ' Dear Doctor Warren : — I read of your ser- 
mon in Monday's Herald. You stated that any 

person in trouble who expected to commit sui- 
cide should come to you first and you would 
advise them. I must see you at once. 

"I am just now impelled to do anything, how- 
ever desperate. I can't tell my troubles to my 
friends. I can't do it — I haven't the heart. I 
must tell some one. I would rather die, however, 
than even give an inkling of my difficulty to 
my friends." 

Another case of which Doctor Warren told 
was that of the son of a banker living in River- 
side Drive, who, after he had made one unsuc- 
cessful attempt to end his life, was dissuaded 
from a second attempt. 

"This young man," said Doctor Warren, "is 
a college graduate and independently wealthy. 
He told me he had tried to die by inhaling illu- 
minating gas in his bedroom. A servant, how- 
ever, had entered his room and turned off the 
gas and he let the matter pass as accidental. 
He told me he wanted to die because a young 
woman to whom he had been engaged had broken 
the engagement and been married to another 
man. Imagine my astonishment when he told 
me that I had performed the wedding ceremony 

"I soothed him and told him I was not posi- 
tive that I had ever performed such a ceremony 
and that he might have heard an erroneous re- 
port. He thought his case over for an hour, 
shook hands and said goodby. He is to-day as 
happy as ever, having heard that the report was 
false, and I have learned that the sweetheart's 
quarrel may be patched up soon. 

Letter from St. Louis. 

Unusual because of its grim philosophy is this 
letter recently received by Doctor Warren from 
a man in St. Louis : 

"Dear Sir: — I have seen your appeal in the 
paper to the effect that any one who intended 
suicide could address you. As I am one of those 
unfortunate ones, or, perhaps, fortunate ones 
who can make up his mind to such a step under 
certain circumstances, I address you frankly. 

"The first question you'll ask me is, 'Is life 
worth living?' My reply is that it is, but when 
you have a family depending upon you and you 
can not make a livelihood for them you are only 
an extra burden, whereas they would benefit by 
your death. They would get the life insurance. 
If I stay here much longer even this will be 
gone, as I am unable to keep it up. I am fifty 
years old. I was in business for myself, but 
failed in 1902 by endorsing notes for others. I 
am now out of work. You may think it an easy 
thing to get a position at ray time of life. Just 
try it and you will learn differently; nobody 
wants you. * * * 

"Quotations from Scripture and sermons will 
not be of any assistance. It is practical assist- 
ance that is wanted, and to get this practical 
assistance the Lord must help those who help 
themselves. The only practical help I see is 
suicide. ' ' 

"This man's case, hopeless though it may 



P H E N 
P H E N 
P H E N 














CHAS. F. KOSTER Secretary 

J. H. LENEHAN, General Agent 

Western and Southern Department, Chicago, Illinois 

A, C. OLDS, State Agent for Pacific Coast 






































































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seem, should not in reality be so," said Doctor 
Warren. "If there were some one to whom 
he could go in St. Louis, some one to advise him, 
I feel sure that the cloud would be dispelled." 

"Several days ago," continued Doctor War- 
ren, "a smartly gowned woman about thirty-five 
years old, came to see me. She told me she was 
a widow and had until then been in financial 
straits for several months. She said she had 
left her boarding house two weeks previous with- 
out paying her bill, being ashamed to say she 
had no money. She handed me $90 and begged 
me to go and pay the bill. She said she had 
feared arrest daily and had several times been 
on the point of committing suicide because of 
sheer mortification. I paid the bill and this 
woman's troubles ended." 

"Only Wednesday a young woman told me 
she had intended to commit suicide unless she 
was able to get a position at once to buy her 
food and shelter. I talked to her for several 
hours and sent her away in a cheerful mood. 
All she needed was a ray of hope and a sugges- 
tion as to how and where to find employment." 
"I am in a dreadful fix," wrote a woman. "I 
am here alone in the city, my only home being 
a rented room at $2 a week. I owe $3 on it 
and all I have is five cents in cash. I am too 
weak from lack of food to even hunt work. I 
never thought I would be in such a predicament 
when, several years ago, my husband (now dead) 

was pastor of the Church, in , and 

I was organist." 

"This letter," said Doctor Warren, "is only 
one of many of its type. A few dollars from 
some fund would help such persons to their 

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The Last Cowboy looked at the caravan of 
prairie schooners waiting for the opening of the 
Big Pasture. Far away the wisps of smoke from 
a flouring mill blurred the horizon. 
"Mexico for me," was all he said. 
There are no more Big Pastures. There was 
all of Oklahoma once. Then the Government cut 
down the range by the great opening of 1888. 
Then there was the Cherokee Strip and this went 
out in the great rush of 1893. Then there was 
No Man's Land, and this is now a peaceful 
county in Oklahoma, settled by the despised 
"Nestors." Then there was the I. X. L., with 
its three million acres in a solid body. This has 
been cut up in small farms and Amarillo, the old 
cattle outfitting point, has become a city of farm- 
ers. And last of all was the Big Pasture. Now 
that is going. 

The Last Cowboy was too good a loser to 
whimper. "It was a great day for us while it 
lasted," he said. "All of this western country 
was ours. We could ride where we pleased, 
shoot where we pleased, when we pleased, and 
almost whoever we pleased, and no questions 
asked. We made this country, or at least this 
part of the country. We got here when the In- 
dians were here. We drove out the Indians. 
Then we drove out the wolves. Then we exter- 
minated the coyotes and prairie dogs. Now we 
have got to follow the long trail. No more 
United States for us. The blamed old Nestor 
has made us hard to catch. It's home and kids 
and the quiet life for us after this. 

"But we have done some things besides shoot 
up towns and make tenderfeet dance in booze 
joints. First of all we tamed the Comanches. 
We had a hard tussel with them redskins, but 
we made Christians out of them before we got 
through and they are the peaceablest Indians 
in the West to-day. We fought 'em all the way 
from the Cimarron to the Rio Grande, through 
the sage brush and the chaparral till they quit 
stealing ponies and quit burning towns. The 
picture books don't give us any credit for this. 
They just tell about the times when we got off 
the range on a budge hunt. Yet we were the 
long arm of the law in this Western country up 
to the time the 'Nestors' began to get thick 
some twelve or fifteen years ago. Time was 
when you could go five hundred miles on a stretch 
and never strike a constable. It was the cow- 
boy who kept out the cattle thief, who kept out 
the train robbers and the murderers and the 

T H E P A N D E X 14') 

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"Sh-s-s-s! They're eating dinner now." 
" Are you sure .'" 
"Yes; 1 bear father eating soup.'* 

rest of the bunch who go out principally in the 
night time. 

"Of course it hurts. When a fellow has got 
used to 'gyp' water and the mirages, when the 
shadows of the mountains take on the gold and 
silver in the evenings, when the gray of the 
sage brush gets into the blood, a fellow kind of 
hates to leave it. It's been home to us from 
the time we could throw our legs across a pony's 
back. The great winking stars at night and the 
great staring sun in the daytime — they have 
burned their way into the marrow of our bones. 
We have been brother to the desert loneliness, 
to the gray wolf and the slinking coyote, com- 
panions of the dumb brutes who feed on the 
rolling prairies. And it's hard to quit. It's 
hard to think we have reached Lands End, that 
the old free life has gone forever 
and that from this time on we must 
adopt domestic habits or go to 
where there are no wire fences, no 
railroads, and no 'Nestors.' Think 
of me with a bunch of kids." 

And he laughed way down in the 
cavernous rfecesses of his sun- 
browned chest. 

"Wouldn't I make a pretty 
father? Why the first time I tried 
to hold a baby I would let him drop 
and break his head. It's Mexico 
or the Philippines or dinky old 
Argentina for me." 

The pinto pony grazed around at 
his feet and he pulled at the pipe 
for a minute. 

"Now, wouldn't it jar yOu to 
think that the Indian has outlived 
the cowboy after all? That's the 
hell of it. We must go alone. We 
are the last of what the literary 
fellers call a type. But the old 
paint-faced Indians remain and the 
Government feeds 'em. That's 
what makes me want to go out and 
turn loose this old gun of mine six 
times more for luck. Still it's all 
in the game and when a man calls 
the turn wrong he's got no right to 
holler when the dealer rakes in 

the chips. It's just a case of betting on the 
wrong card. We thought it was going to last 
forever. We thought there was room enough in 
other parts of the country for the fool farmers 
without their trying to cut up the big ranches. 
That 's where we got off wrong. And the damned 
Indian who didn't think, who didn't have no 
think, is here, and we are the ones to go. And 
the first son of a gun of an Indian who laughs 
at me is going to get what's coming to him. 
He's going to get it so the doctors, won't be of 
much use to him. 

' ' Some fellers have been telling me to give 
it up and settle down, to acquire a section of 
land and raise a family. Now, that sounds good 
to a man who has always had a policeman to 
see that he got home all right every night and 
who wears slippers when he goes out on the porch 
to get his morning paper, but none of it for 
Willie. The old saddle for a pillow, the ground 
for a bed and the long wail of the coyote to 
sing me to sleep. I'd just as soon be in jail as 
cooped up in a cottage. The stampede, the long, 
long days on the Montana trail, the night rides, 
the thirst and the hunger and the good old windy 
ranges are what call to me. A man who has 
had his feet frozen to his stirrups, who has had 
snow-blindness and sand-blindness, who has 
thrown wild steers with his naked hands and 
snapped rattlesnakes' heads off as a child would 
pop a whip, would look like a fool beside a fire- 
side with a baby on his knee." 

There was a long pause and the pipe sent long 

The Girl — " Oh. isn't this heavenly, Charley, dear! 
he forgets half the time we've a patent piano-player." 

Papa's so absent-minded 



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fl ORCHARD AND FARM, the most handsomely executed farm publication in 
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q THROUGH ITS COLUMNS during the year 1907 we shall be delighted 
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streamers into the hazy blue of the sky. He pinching shoe. Still, it all comes to the same in 

kicked with his heels in the sand and watched the eiid." 

the sun going down. He swung himself into the saddle, the pony 

"Well, we'll go up into British Columbia, swept across the plain in a long easy "lope." 

maybe. They tell me there's big ranges up For miles you could see him, a lonely figure 


(Overheard at the Louvre.) 

American Tourist (suspiciously) — "Say, guide, haven't we seen this room before?" 
Guide — "Oh, no, monsieur." 

Americaji Tourist — "Well, see here. We want to see eversrthing, but we don't want to see 
anything twice!" 


there. Anyway, we're not wanted here. It's limned against the sun. He disappeared over a 

skidoo. Go away, old peoples, go away. If it rise in the prairie and the shadows fell. The 

wasn't that the damned Indian has got the laugh last of the old-time cowboys had become just a 

on us at the last — that's the rub; that's the memory. 




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Old-Fashioned Brown Sugar with All Its De- 
lights Is Gone. 

"What I waiit, " said the top-flatter who was 
buying groceries, "is some brown sugar. Got 

The clerk said he had and sifted out a shovel- 
ful of sugar in to the tray. 

"Hold on a minute," said the top-flatter. 
"That isn't brown sugar. It's the kind you fel- 
lows all over town have been trying to sell me 
for brown sugar, but it isn't brown; it's a pale, 
whitish, sickly yellow. What I call brown 
sugar is the kind mother used to sweeten the 
pies with when I- was a kid. Don't you remem- 
ber it? It was dark and coarse-grained and 
full of lumps as big as your fist. There was more 
of the concentrated essence of sweetness in one 
of those lumps than in a whole shovelful of this 
yellow stuff, and after a fellow had sneaked a 
chunk of it out of the barrel and crawled off 
under the back stairs and gobbled it in secrel 
he was fairly oozing sugar at every pore. Thai 
is the kind of sugar I want. Got any?" 

"No, sir," said the clerk, "we don't keep 
it. It is very old fashioned. There is only a 
little of it put on the market." 

The top-flatter sighed. "I understand now," 
he said, "why so many cakes and pies and 
preserves don't taste right." 

Too Bad to Be True. 

The hall bedroom boarder, who had been I'e- 
cently married, rose screaming from his nuptial 

"What in the world is the matter, dearest?" 
exclaimed his bride. 

"I dreamed," and he shuddered almost to the 
swooning point at the memory; "I dreamed that 
I saw a forest scene like the one in the home- 
made oil painting in my room at the boarding 
house. ' ' 

Reminding him of the impossibility of such 
a thing, the young woman managed to quiet the 
terrified man. — Judge. 

"How is the water in the bath, Fifi?" 
"Please, my lady, it turned baby fairly blue." 
"Then don't put Fido in for an hour or so." 
— Courier- Journal . 

■ The First Quarrel. 
Adam — It's all off. Good-bye forever! 
Eve — Then take back your rib. 

Some men grow, under responsibility, and oth- 
ers were swell. — Puck. 

If conscience makes cowards of us all, cow- 
ardice, on the other hand, gives some of us about 
all the conscience we ever know. — Puck. 

New Lamps for Old. 

Johnny's dog, Tige, was a nuis- 
ance. His pet theory must have 
been that all things were created 
to be destroyed — at least, so his 
practices indicated. Johnny's folks 
were anxious to be rid of Tige, 
and at last they decided to work 
upon the lad's affections with lucre. 

"Johnny," said his father one 
day, "I'll give you five dollars if 
you'll get rid of that dog." 

Johnny gasped at the amount, 
swallowed hard at thought of Tige, 
and said he would think it over. 

The next day at dinner he made 
the laconic announcement: "Pa, I 
got rid of Tige." 

"Well, I certainly am delighted 
to hear it," said the father. 
"Here's your money; you've 
earned it. How did you get rid of 
the nuisance?" 

"Traded him to Bill Simpkins 
for two yellow pups." answered 
Johnny. — Lippincott 's. 

In time, no doubt, all kinds of 
geese will fly south in the fall, ex- 
cept the very timidest, who will 
always go by rail, probably. — Puck. 

' VVliat on eartti are you doine with those electric fans .^" 
' Preparing for to-morrow's spin, my dear." 

—New York Herald. 







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HOME BARBER SIPPLT CO., ogo R. DIsdlKon Street, Chicago, Illinois 






Room 500. 95 Washinslon Si.. Chicaso. 244 S. Broadway. Los 
Anseles. 1016 Broadway. Oakland. 13th and Mission Streets. San 

Mothers, Wives, Sisters 

Help your Boys, Husbands, Brothers, to 
start the New Year right by having them 
take the old reliable 


Bring this ad with you, or mail it, and receive our 
10 per cent discount, which we are offering for a 
limited time only. All medicines taken internally. 
No hypodermic injections. Send for our free book 
of testimonials, gathered from 1 2 years of successful 


505 Telegraph Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

Every Woman 

is interested and should know 
about the wonderful 

Marvel Whirling 
Spray Douche 

Ask your druggist lor it. 
II he cannot supply the 
MARVEL, accept no other but 
send stamp for illustrated book- 
sealed. It gives full particulars and 
directions invaluable to ladies 

Umi CO., ReOM B, 44 E. 23(1 STREET, HEW YORK 





Plense mention The Pandex Tvhen vrrltlns to Advertlner*. 

1 UNIVtKai I Y 





. FA/D /N CAPITAL Sc/ffS£/^VE 

' * • 


Mr. Edison 



every -word of 
this straight- 
for-ward offer. 

"I want to see a Phonograph 
in every American home." 

The ptaonoeraph is Mr. Edison's pet and 
hobby— the only one of his wonderful 
inventions of which today he holds 
active control. 

Buys This 

Outfit No. 5 

$27.50 for Edi- 
son outfit No. 5, 
far, far superior to 
the highest priced 
imitations of the 
genuine Edison. 

^A and upward 
•^iVfor other 
Edison outfits. 



Send no money — no deposit — no C. 0. D. — If after 4S hours ' free trial in your oHun 
home the Edison does not fully satisfy yott and all your family, return outfit AT 
OUR EXPENSE — an offer open to every responsible person in the United States. 

$ ^ .50 a Month 

Comnarisonfl Drove ***" »biiolute. unquaiifled nuperiorltT 
vumparivunv pruvc ^^ ^i^,, genuine Edison phono^ntph 
ftnd the genuine Edison gold moulded recordH. Mr. Edison's 
patents, AS the reader probably knows, are the phonograph 
patents. At the remarkable price now msLdeon the great hkllson 
outfit No. 5— total cost of •27.60— and other genuine Edison out- 
fits for 914.20 and upward — why ehou'd anybody choose the 
Inferior Imitation talking machines, costing as much or eren 
much more than the genuine Edison ! 

No Imitator Is allowed to infrlnfre on either the original or 
the later Udlson patents. Hence the imitation machines are 
made In all kinds of peculiar ways to ^et around the patent laws, 
though detracting from the real vatue of ihe phonograph. I^Ir. 
Edison orcoiirse covered the [^ood polntH of the phonograph by 
his patents; it is the only one of h]» inventloDs In which he Is 
stlU actively Interested, working dally in the phonograph lab- 
oratory. And we need not argu« with you aa to the merits of 
Mr. Edison's invention compared with the work of some other 
"Inventor" or "inventors," 

We want toprot'f fo you by this remarkable free trial offer 
what everybody In the talking machine business openly or 
■ecretly admits about the wonderful superiority of Hr. Edison's 
own Initrument. 


buys the great outfit No. 5. and t^ 
costs you ag little as if you paid cash 
(not even Interest on payments) totsl 
cost only $27.50. 

fJO O^Ti'tt^ a W/^#»Alr *°*^ upward for other 
cJV «-CtIL9 A W CCi\ genuine Edison outflta. 

No discount for cash ^^ ^'•^^ '^^^ purchasers are tak- 
IXO aiSCOUnr lOr Casn ,„g advantage of tbia offer to ae- 
cure the finest Improved Edison outfits at present prlcas, that 
we aie often asked for some cash distiount. We must Inform you 
that the prices at which we now sell on time are already so low 
(the lowest allowed under the patent laws) that we cannot give 
you anything off for cash. If you prefer, send cash In full after 
i8 hours* free trial In your home. No reapontibU party need 
send any cash with order. 

By making this offer it is unnecessary to Aoht imitators in court, for 
they simply cannot compete. You get the benefit in the rock-bottom 
price and easy-payment terms on the finest genuine Edison outfits. 

You cannot Imaiplne how much pleasure you and your family, old and younK. will g^et 
from the genuine Edison until you have tried it in your own home. Waltzes, two-steps, 
minstrel shows and grand opera. Perfect reproduction. The improved Edison phono- 
graphs are no ordinary automatic entertainers, but musical Instruments of highest merit. 

WRITE for Catalog 

You need not bother with wrltlnK a letter. Just write your name and addresa ^ <^ 
plainly on coupon : put the coupon in an envelope and mail it today. Edison cata- ^ >p 
Iocs, special circular on the new style improyed Edison outfits and Edison record cata- > ^^ ^ 

no money /y^ »,- 
down. Wouldn't you like to try the new sty le Edison phonograpb ' ^jSy ^ » 

Frederick Babson / ^"^^^^^^ 

149-150 Michigan Av*. * o'^'V^'^Sv*' 

loff will be mailed free prepaid. Remember, frte trial- 
down. Wouldn't you like to try th 
Oet the Edison catalog anyway Sim the coupon now. 

^^ij — ~p^ Suite 1661 Chicago, III. 

15 Cents 



and Hygienically Clean Clothes are worn 
by the WOMEN who use 20 Mule 
Team Borax Soap — the only real Borax 
Soap. Borax is the world's greatest 
cleanser, and most harmless antiseptic. 




Standard Typewriter 




St Helens Hall 



T^upih ma\f enter at any time 

Corps of Teachers^ Location, 

Building, Equipment, The Best 


Some Thoughts About The Pandex 

From a New York Newspaper Man 

W. J. Lampton, inventor of the famous "Yawp" Verte* 

Pandex came and I'm here to say that it is the best yet along 
general reading lines. I don't know what you are doing in ex- 
tending its circulation, but it seems to me that you should build 
it up into the 1 00 thousands. As a magazine for the people 
who live beyond the daily paper zone, it leads all and should be 
in every farmer's house. I showed it to a Swiss editor who is 
here seeing the country and learning about us, and he will write 
you about having it sent to him, not in exchange, but for his $1 .50. 

From the San Francisco 

The January Pandex of The Press is crowded with readable 
matter, as December was rich in noteworthy news. The Pres- 
ident's message is printed in full, and the editor announces that 
any one who wishes the message in a separate pamphlet may 
get it by sending 1 cents in stamps to the publisher. This is a 
sensible scheme for any one who wishes to preserve a copy of 
the message in convenient form. The main topics that are dis- 
cussed in this number are the war against trusts, the coal famine, 
the Japanese school question, the financial outlook, the Panama 
canal and ships, etc. The editor's comment is strong and pithy 
and the cartoons and other illustrations throw amusing side lights 
on the news. The Pandex is by all odds the most readable of 
the magazines and it is indispensable to the busy man who wishes 
to keep posted on the News of the world. 

From a Subscriber in Seattle 

J. p. Martin, Real Estate 

I am highly pleased with The Pandex. It is more than all the 
other magazines put together for a man with limited time to de- 
vote to current events. 


Edited by Arthur I. Street 


Series II. 


Vol. V. No. 2 

COVER — Wall Street Snuggery — Adapted from 
Chicago News 

frontispiece: — voted for It. — New York 

EDITORIAL — From State to Religion 153 


No Eviction Christmas Eve 162 

Poor and Wealthy Get Money 162 

Cincinnati Men Receive Gifts 163 

$50,000 by Special Train 163 

Santa Claus in Baltimore 164 

J51. 230.294 Given to Charity 166 

Europe's Christmas Cheer 166 

Christmas Strilte in Schools 168 

Condemns Christmas Feeds 169 

toon 170 


Congress Ready for a Fuss 173 

Must Use His Big Stick. . .' 173 

Democrat to the Defense 173 

President Right; No Row 174 

Charged with "Fatuous Meddling" 174 

Fine, McCutcheon '175 

Will Break Message Habit 176 

Fines and Jail Scare Railways 176 

Root for Senator 178 

Gompers Cries Fraud 178 

Dare Not Revise Tariff 179 

"Thru" It Shall Be 179 

"The Beloved, Exalted Roosevelt ' 180 


Harriman Leads Forces 180 

Criticism Resented by President 184 


LIC" 189 


A Wail 192 

Story of the Rich Man 192 


May Cost Many Lives 193 

Famine Felt in Canada 194 

Starvation Behind Famine 196 

Fuel Famine a Conspiracy 196 

Southwest Losing Millions 196 

Shippers Partly to Blame 197 

Hill, J. J., on Coal Famine 198 

High Prices for Every Necessity 198 

HUMOR 204 




VERSE 210 


Democrats See a Live Issue 211 

Root Explains Talk 212 

Chicago to Lead World 212 

May Amend Crime Laws 214 

Slot-Machines Tax Bill 214 

Some Proposals in Colorado 214 

Reforms Strong in West 215 

New Anti-Tipping Bill 216 

Big Year for Legislatures 216 

"State Rights" Go to Court 218 

Hughes Blames Laws for Evils 218 

Texas Car Shortage Remedy 219 

Ohio Liquor Law to Stand 219 

Square Deal in Pennsylvania 219 

Sovereign State not a Nation 219 

Manitoba for Public Telephones 220 

Owe City Enormous Debt 220 

Fight on Municipal Plant 220 

Municipal Plant a Success 222 

Bryan's Reply to Root 222 

Europe on States' Rights Fight 222 

Protectionism Followed Civil War 223 

Folk Wants a Lot of Things 223 


VERSE 228 

CARTOONS . , , 229 


Vatican Issues a Note 233 

Pope Would Be a Martyr 234 

Evangelizing the World 234 

Ministers Will Edit Paper 235 

War on Sunday Theaters.' 235 

Fight for Open Sunday 23S 

Church Wins in Porto Rico 235 

Pulpit the Coward's Castle 236 

Man Superior to Commerce 236 

It's a Moral Problem 238 

Church Neglects Labor 238 

Legislation No Cure for Ills 239 

Puritan Day In Boston 239 

Union of All the Protestants 240 

Confucius Promoted 240 

Madhl to Reconquer Egypt 240 

Services in Many Languages •. 241 

Daniel II, Latest Prophet 241 

Scientist Exposes "Miracle" 242 

Why Sam Jones was a Clown 242 

Saving Souls at 101 243 




De Raylan's Sex Known . 253 

Wife Beat De Raylan 254 

Madman Poses as Woman 256 

Senorlta Dressed as Tramp 258 

First to Hold Indiana Office 258 

Women in Postal Service 258 

Women Happy Without 'Vote 259 

Corelli Calls Woman Names 259 

Luxury-Loving Wives Crush Souls 260 

Fight to Separate Elections 260 

Names Woman Deputy Sheriff 260 

Women Outgrowing Men 260 

Trade Schools for Girls 261 

How Women Waste Millions 261 

Labor Laws for Women 261 

Hotel for Women a Failure 262 

Paper Published by Women 262 

Woman's Brain for Sale 264 

Sees Good in Race Restriction 264 

Question of Courage 265 

French Women and Corsets 265 

Nine Years to Malte a Dress 265 

Down With the Broom 266 

Cannes Feels Man Famine 266 

Woman Moonshiner 266 

Stare at Weil-Known Women 267 

Jilted Because of Beauty 268 

His "Tootsy Wootsy" 269 

Girl Wife Traded for Them 269 

Sisters In Duel for Love 269 

THE "NEW MAN" 270 


VERSE 276 



VENGE 286 

Killed a Silver Fox 286 

Wild Dogs of India 286 

Monster Wildcat 287 

Tigers Reared by Dogs 287 

Cat Hunts Like Bird Dog 287 

Mouse That Robbed Railroad 287 

Fought Snakes Three Hours 288 

Fiddling Charms Wolves 288 

To Domesticate Eight Foxes 288 

Monopoly on Chickens 390 

Eagle Attacks Hunter 292 

Hunting Jaguars In Mexico 292 

Dogs as Holiday Gifts 295 

Hotel for Dogs Pills Need 298 

Ontario's Great Hunting Record 300 

Real Fish Story 300 

Man With a "Night Eye" 302 



24 Clay Street. S«n FranoKO. Tribune Building, New 'Votk. 

Hartford Building. Chicago. 

Editorial Office. I : MiU VaUey. Gal. 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice a. Second - claM Mail Matter ' 5 Cents tSe Copy. $1 .50 Per Year 

When you are interested in trunks or 
leather goods we would be pleased to have 
you look over the largest and best selection 
of Trunks, Valises, Suit Cases, Telescopes 
and Baggage of all kinds shown on the 

Write for Catalogue 

A. B. Smith Co. 

Turk St. and Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 

There's Reason in It. 

A man who has used the Williams 
Typewriter for five years is in a posi- 
tion to know what it will do. Notice 
it is a comparative knowledge, too: 
Rockland Commercial College 


M. A. HOWARD, Proprietor. 

"1 have used a number of Williams Typewriters in 
this college during the past five years, which have been 
subjected to hard usage at the hands of students and 
operated side by side with other leading makes of type- 
^vriters. My experience has convinced me that the 
Williams does more and better work, costs less for 
maintenance, and is easier to operate than any other 
machine." (Signed) "^ H. A. HOWARD." 




you have failed to secure a writing machine which will 
turn out exactly the kind of correspondence you have long 
wanted. Your letters written on the Williams will challenge 
the admiration of your patrons; you will effect a saving of 
90 per cent in maintenance, increase your output with no 
increased effort, and have a machine that stands up to the 
hardest usage. It satisfies Write now. Booklet B. 

Williams Typewriter Co. 

G'ene°rTi Office. Dcrby, Conn., U. S. A. 

London Office: 57 Holborn Viaduct. 

1 2 Trips 



^^P^ Mail the Coupon to 
any one of the fol- 
lowing offices : 

New York; Chicago; Reno, Ne- 
vada; Los Angeles, California; 
Portland, Oregon; San Francisco, 
California; Kansas City, Missouri; 
Denver, Colorado. 

^ ORCHARD AND FARM, the most handsomely executed farm publication in 
the United Slates, is published in San Francisco, and is 20 years old. 

q THROUGH ITS COLUMNS during the year 1907 we shall be delighted 
to take you to California twelve times. We will tell you of the great reclama- 
tion work in the Western States. We will show you how crops are produced 
through the process of irrigation. We will keep you posted on horticulture and 
floriculture in the land where trees blossom and bloom the whole year 'round 
and where flowers never fade. 

q WE WILL PROVE TO YOU the great progress in live stock development 
in the States west of the Rockies. In fact, through the columns of ORCHARD 
AND FARM, every vital item of interest to the agriculturist and live stock 
grower will be presented from the standpoint of the practical farmer living west 
of the Rockies. 


scription to ORCHARD AND FARM. This is a beautiful leatherette case 
which is filled with all the needles that a woman will use from the age of four- 
teen until she is ninety-four. Also, IT IS WELL STOCKED with the 
" Can't Bend 'Em Pifls." 

q THIS CASE IS WORTH $1.00, and it cannot be bought at any store in 
the world. We will give it absolutely free with one year's subscription to 

*1 THIS OFFEK is good lor either old or new subscribers. 
Cut Out and Mail Today 


Gentlemen : I am enclosing $' .00, for which please send to my address immediately the 
Martha Washingrton Needle Case and your publication. Orchard and Farm, for one 





Pleas« mention The Pandex n-hen vrrltinff to Advertisers. 



The Senate Demanded an Explanation and Got It. 
— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 

directed himself, finds it requisite to elabor- 
ate his messages to Congress until they 
become sermons in political and social 
morality. This is why Governor Hughes, 
pursuing the precedent set by President 
Roosevelt when he first entered the White 
House, has followed an earnest inaugural 
address on the philosophies of modern gov- 
ernmental methods with a notice to all per- 
sons, influential and otherwise, that what 
business can not be transacted with the 
Chief Executive of the State in the open 
chamber has no right to claim the secrecy 
of locked doors or the privilege of favored 
consideration. This is why the Speaker of 
the lower house of the Pennsylvania Legis- 
lature, contemplating the venal record of 
preceding state administrations and legis- 
latures, made a candid and apparently most 
sincere appeal to his fellow members to 
"play the game above board." to justify the 
popular confidence, to elevate honorable 
considerations above those of personal bene- 
fit or corrvipted pledge. 

forces in order to raise the level of cost 
much beyond the level of the increase in 
wage or other emolument which they, as 
masters of the situation, are willing to pay. 




Indeed, tho the declaration 
of common will has ex- 
pressed unqualified support 
of the men in public office 
who govern by the rule of higher standards, 
and tho prosecutions have been inaugurated 
in every section of the country against the 
systems of extortion by which a limited 
group pirate and absorb the energies, earn- 
ings, and accumulations of the general 
public, the factor of selfish acquisition has 
still so trenchant a hold iipon the impulses 
and extortions of those who are in the ad- 
vance that the leaders of reform begin to 
realize the necessity of assailing the ideals of 
conduct and of seeking to create a new re- 
lationship between the consciences of heart 
and the practices of competitive existence. 
This is why the President at Washington, 
to achieve the large ends to which he has 



This is why, too, the golden 
state of Colorado, altho it 
has since named as its rep- 
resentative in the Senate a 
member of one of the most absolute and 
grinding trusts in the United States, acceded 
to the candidacy of, and installed in power, 
a preacher-governor so church-devoted that 
he must needs have his inaugural ceremonies 
performed in the clerical edifice in which he 
made his first public success. 

The Spirit 


Furthermore, it is the reason 
why the animated contro- 
versies and warfare of Con- 
gress and of business, such 
as the Brownsville affair or the rivalry of 
Hill and Harriman, or the strike of the train- 
men, which seem at the moment of their 
crises so threatening, pass away shortly into 
a superior spirit of compromise and resolu- 

Ardently antagonistic to the President tho 
Senator Foraker may seem, and spokesman 
tho he is suspected of being for the Vested 



¥4/ li 

Or Maybe the Money Power Is Shrinking Some. 

-Indianapolis News. 



Interests which seek the President's over- 
throw, he did not fail to perceive, at the 
crucial instant, that the issue of the Browns- 
ville affair was beyond the reach of his 
forensic eloquence and that its final adjudi- 
cation would lie, not in the matter of the 
tecnnical right or non-right of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Army to dismiss 
summarily troops virtually guilty of the most 
dangerous insubordination, but in the larger 
question of the moral responsibility of those 
who witness and refuse to divulge crime of 
whatsoever degree. 

for the 

Bitter tho the antagonisms 
of Mr. Hill and Mr. Harri- 
man may be in their anti- 
thetic conceptions of the 
profession and obligations of railroading, 
both know that the use of arms in the fight- 
ing for rights-of-way along the Columbia 
River and the exerting of "undue influence" 
upon the municipal councils of the cities of 
Puget Sound for the sake of protecting or 
securing terminal privileges are a far de- 
parture from the trend of the times and an 
alienation of their individual interests from 
the sympathies of the public or the indul- 
gence of the public's administrators. And, 
accordingly, they make their mutual peace 
upon the basis of at least an outward mani- 
festation of fellow feeling and they moderate 
their franchise demands to a poinj as little 
in conflict as they can render them with 
the spirit of concession and generosity 
which the public is beginning to find more 
to its liking and more to its general benefit 
than the older zest of grab and confiscation. 
However much the men who handle great 
industries may resent the constant aggres- 
sions of Labor and the constant pressure for 
an increasing share of the product of work 
and enterprise, a trainmen's strike is not al- 
lowed to expand into the magnitude of a 
strike of the coal miners because the lesson 
has been assimilated that, after all, if the 
laborers can show with any degree of fair 
front that the inequality of financial favor 
incident to an increasing of dividends upon 
capital stock disproportionate to the increas- 


ing of dividends upon the efficiency and 
faithfulness of labor is in violation of the 
better principles of humanity, there is no 
reasonable possibility of holding out against 
Labor's demands. 

Financially, commercially, po- 
Building ntically, the axis of interest 
thus shifts from the expe- 
dient to the ethical. The 
nation has lived, almost, upon the founda- 
tion of the expedient ever since the Civil 
"War, when, as Miss Tarbell's valuable 
articles in the American Magazine have so 
clearly shown, economic policies were de- 
vised without the slightest idea of ever be- 
coming permanent or of being economically 
defensive, yet which have since fastened 
themselves upon the country with a grip 
almost as tenacious as patriotism itself. The 
high tariff schedules were made to provide 
a revenue whose need was as extraordinary 
as it was imperative. They were framed 
under utterly abnormal and impassioned 
conditions wherein those who were without 
honesty or honor molded the form of laws 
to their own selfish ends. And, unhappily, 
they imbued the political concepts of the 
people with the belief that that impost policy 
is best which brings in the income in the swift- 
est possible manner without regard to the 
opportunities it affords for fraud and per- 
sonal aggrandizement. They imbued the in- 
dividual standards of conduct and of re- 
lationship with the Government with the be- 
lief that wherever the people can be made 
to aid the cause and prosperity of the indi- 
vidual, there is neither vice nor error in the 
business policy that drives the opportunities 
thus opened to the furthermost limit. 



And under the guidance of 
the thoughts thus instilled, 
American conditions have 
grown on to the unfortunate 
and perilous situation with which President 
Roosevelt and his aides are now battling. 
Instead of adhering to the liberties and bene- 
fits of Democracy because of the more equit- 
able distribution of opportunity and acquisi- 


* I MU51 GO 8AO?i> 
TLBV^E TAKE jbsK5 . i.^ii 

^VM 5* AT TME ^ 

^ ^^ SUhBAY » ^^ 

w^n> you ,^ j 


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¥ ■ ■ • •^ulVlRiV^"^- A 11/1 1 

The Dream of the Railway Official. 

— Chicago Inter-Ocean. 



tion which Democracy should guarantee, the 
dominating elements have fought for Democ- 
racy 's retention and exalted its greatness 
because of the play it gives to the stronger 
to outmaneuver the weak, and for the more 
unscrupulous to put beneath their power those 
less able than themselves to grasp the van- 
ishing coins or to preserve intact the re- 
sults of their own labors. Sheltered by a 
system designed to scatter evenly among 
workmen and employer the differences be- 
tween the costs of labor abroad and labor at 
home, the masters of industry have juggled 
the giant's share of the fruits into their own 
pockets. And, successful in this, they have 
extended the same methods into the wide 
field which may be said to be the distinguish- 
ing feature of the current century, namely, 
the field of corporations and syndicates. 
Where the valuable and wisely legislated in- 
stitution known as the corporation might 
have been employed, as in theory it is in- 
tended to be, to protect the small owner to 
the same degree that the larger one's su- 
perior ownership protects him, the aim has 
been chiefly to consolidate and fortify the 
station of the majority stockholders, to as- 
sure increasingly the supremacy of those 
who aspire to it, and to rob the minority of 
such force as belonged to them, by virtue of 
individuality, before they submitted to the 
leveling dictates of the forms of law. 


the Purpose 

of Trade 

Steel plant and railroad, oil 
refinery and meat-packing 
house alike have been 
aborted Into the creating of 
power, wealth, and benefit for restricted 
groups of men, akin in lack of conscience or 
sympathetic in the greed of superiority. The 
transportation problem, which should by its 
very nature as a public utility be handled 
solely for the good it works to the com- 
munity in general, has been approached and 
manipulated to give unnatural ascendency 
and reckless authority to those who rise to 
the command. The slaughtering of live stock 
and the making of its innumerable products 
and by-products into commodities for gen- 
eral consumption have been distorted until the 

primary purpose of accommodation has be- 
come chiefly a game in imposture and wage 
slavery, in order that one man's, or a few 
men's, ambitions for vast wealth and vaster 
distinction may be achieved without limita- 

That business, whatsoever its sort, has its 
first genesis in social need, and derives its 
quality and its real permanence from the ex- 
tent to which it fulfils actual social exchange, 
has been almost forgotten. The simple 
elements that exist in barter, that establish 
men's reputations in the small circles of im- 
mediate friendships within which they move 
— branding them with marks of fairness or 
clothing them in the shame of universal dis- 
esteem — are eliminated from the larger fight 
which begins when the commercial office is 
reached or trade and finance are conducted 
over the wire or thru the mails. 


Personal Life 

Men, in the narrow limits of 
personal and friendly con- 
tact, sacrifice themselves and 
their comfort and wishes, 
rather than cheat their fellows or lie and 
steal from those who dwell near them. Mr. 
Rogers, of the Standard Oil, as Mr. Lawson 
has testified, has nothing but personal 
charm, generosity, and human sympathy 
when among those whom he knows and for 
whom he cares. Mr. Rockefeller has, of late, 
been ardently defended for his personal 
piety and simplicity by a British clergyman 
who was warned against becoming subject to 
his domination by accepting the pastorate 
of the church to which Mr. Rockefeller is 
one of the leading contributors. 


the Sense 

of Truth 

But outside and away from 
the sphere of home and close 
associates, these men lose 
their sense of truth and 
honor ; they put off the garb of sincerity and 
take on that of expediency. They guide 
themselves by the modern adaptation of the 
principle which carried the institution of the 
Jesuits, first to great power, and then to 
ignominous overthrow, namely, the principle 
that the end jiistifies the means. Their 
philosophy reiterates the tenets of Machia- 




— Washington Post. 



velli; and it points to the unprecedented 
prosperity of the country to prove the sub- 
stance and worth of such contemplations 
when put into action. Prosperity becomes 
to them like an ancient estate such as Mach- 
iavelli counseled thru his "Prince" to erect 
upon an artificial basis of intrigue and politi- 
cal duplicity. Or it is a fetich at the shrine 
of which they worship; and the interference 
of a President with any of the sacred proc- 
esses by which it has been builded provokes 
their retaliatory resentment to such an ex- 
tent that they seize upon and magnify every 
incident of his administration that may pos- 
sibly redound to his discredit or ultimately 
lead to his deposition from office. They use 
their organs of publicity to confound his 
reputation for veracity in the controversy 
with the Storers. They agitate the issue of 
State Rights, even tho it threatens the prog- 
ress of their expanding trade in the Orient, 
when they think that by so doing they can 
unfasten his hold upon the votes of the 
Pacific Coast, or avert his growing popular- 
ity in the States of the South. They ridicule 
the frequency of his congressional messages, 
and delight, as with the exultancy of youth, 
when they put a temporary quietus vipon his 
advocacy of Simplified Spelling. 

A Voice 


It is only when confronted 
with the specter of the ob- 
secrated Bryan, or the ab- 
horred Hearst, as an alter- 
native, that they pause in their reverences, 
and wonder how it is that not every one 
bows with them, or that a servitor, hitherto 
so faithful as Secretary Shaw, should warn 
the country that there is something hollow, 
inflated, and perishable in the image which 
they have set up. To a surprising degree 
their senses remain closed to the apparently 
unstayable advance of socialism, whose fun- 
damental impulse is the desire to re-estab- 
lish the principles of common humanity, to 
rebestow upon society the reign of decent 
comradeship and spontaneous common love. 
Like the German Emperor, they are faced 
with an electoral upheaval greater than any 
that has yet taken place within the n.ation. 

greater by far than that which returned 
Cleveland to the Presidency in 1892 ; yet they 
still make playthings of so much of the 
public as is willing to believe it can grow 
suddenly rich along the pavements of Wall 
Street; they still continue to seek to drive 
from power such able, tho not always 
credit-worthy men, as James J. Hill, by wrest- 
ing the control of the St. Paul from his 
grasp, as they wrested that of the Illinois 
Central from Stuyvesant Fish. They watch 
the waxing potency of Labor in its ever 
more frequent demands, and they glower 
at it with the withering indignation of in- 
jured and insulted right. Even in places 
so far away as San Francisco, where they 
have long stood in wicked coalition with the 
wicked managers of Labor's political organ- 
ization, they talk of establishing a daily 
newspaper to break the back of all the 



New Morals 

Nothing seems to call them 
again to the simpler ways, 
the fairer ways, the better 
ways, which they are only 
too glad to follow in private, which they 
are only too imperative in impressing upon 
their children and requiring of all the public 
except themselves when engaged in business. 
Commercially and financially they are cut 
loose from the moorings of morality. The 
incentive of gain has become greater than 
the incentive of virtue. The acquisitions of 
the day have got out of proportion to the 
more permanent possessions which outlast 
decay or accident, and are yet ready to be 
at hand and in use when monetary panic be- 
falls or bankruptcy chases away the tinsel 
and the accoutrements of thrift. 


of Higher 


What they need to bring 
them out of the obsession, 
to rehabilitate the elements 
that will make them over 
into the average, the worthy, the unob.jur- 
gated men they once were, is the deep, 
thrilling impulse that proceeds only from 
some manner of religion — not a religion, 
necessarily, such as any of those which now 



exist, but one which, like Christianity when 
it supplanted the worship of the Roman Em- 
perors, is big enough, clear enough, simple 
enough, ordinary enough to be assimilable by 
every class of people, to provoke response in 
every fashion of mind, to arouse passionate 

adherence in every line of avocation. It must 
be a religion that will teach men that they are 
something more than themselves, and that 
the greater life is that which is lived in the 
widest possible sphere, not of money and 
of gain, but of fellowship and human unity. 


-New York American. 






Photographic Tourist — "Hold on! I want to 
take one a day for 363 days, and all like that! " 
— Adapted from Chicago News. 




TO an extent greater than in any previous 
holiday period since the earlier days of 
the Republic, the Christmas season of 1906 
witnessed a public endeavor to distribute the 
largesses and joys of prosperous living. And 
this, too, not so much in form of philan- 
thropy, of dinners and trees and charitable 
donations for the poor, as in the sharing of 
mercantile profits and the division of the 
products of labor. At least for the few days 
of the year thus represented, the spirit of a 
broader humanity prevailed, and, pos- 
sibly set an example which will do much 
toward working social betterment in the 


Justice Refuses to Sign Warrants to Dispossess 
the Poor. 
Even the courts appreciated the spirit of 
the season, as was manifested in the follow- 
ing pathetic incident as described in the 
New York Herald : 

When Justice Edgar Lauer reached the Mu- 

nicipal Court, in East Fifty-seventh Street, he 
found an unusually large number of poor per- 
sons from the East Side who had been served 
with .summonses in dispossess proceedings. Sor- 
row and fears showed on almost every face, until 
Mr. Lauer said: 

"If all of you weeping women and children 
will have patience I will try to gladden your 
hearts. It is the .judgment of this court that 
every one of you shall keep on decorating your 
Christmas trees and have a happy Christmas, 
for I have decided to sign no warrants at this 
season, but to give you time to pay your rents 
or obtain other quarters. I am sure that after 
these remarks no landlord or agent will insist 
upon any of you being thrown into the street 
on this bitter cold day, the eve of a merry Christ- 
mas. ' ' 


Pittsburg Institutions Declare Dividend for 
Stockholders and Workers. 
What the profit-sharing disposition was is 
shown in the following from the New York 
Herald : 

Pittsburg, Pa. — Mill worker, bank clerk, and 
financier shared alike in special distributions of 
wage and stock dividends declared by the most 



important interests in Pittsburg. Special Christ- 
mas distributions were made to wage earners in 
nearly all the steel and iron mills in the Pitts- 
burg district, ranging from 5 to 10 per cent of 
the monthly payroll, while in the financial dis- 
trict the leading banking institutions paid em- 
ployees from 20 to 100 per cent of their respec- 
tive monthly stipends. 

Mill workers on monthly and semi-monthly 
pay received their salaries for the full month of 
December, and this, together with the many 
premiums, is estimated to have caused a dis- 
tribution of nearly $30,000,000 in the Pittsburg 

The shopping districts that afternoon presented 
the spectacle of one huge struggling sea of hu- 
manity and at midnight department stores were 
still disposing of the remnants of their depleted 

An extra dividend of turkeys was declared in 
many of the industrial establishments. It has 
been the custom in prosperous years to distribute 
turkeys among mill and electrical workei-s on 
Thanksgiving. This was done this year and was 
repeated again on Christmas. Turkeys are sold 
here for 27 cents a pound, and as the birds given 
the will workers averaged twelve pounds apiece, ' 
this special dividend calls for a substantial finan- 
cial expenditure in plants employing from 2000 
to 5000 men. 

The Farmers' Deposit National Bank declared 
a special Christmas dividend of 1 per cent on 
its new capitalization of $6,000,000; this means 
a gift of $60,000 to stockholders. 

The Union Trust Company declared a Christ- 
mas dividend of $6 a share, making dividends for 
the year 66 per cent. The Colonial Trust Com- 
pany declared a special Christmas dividend of 
1 per cent; the Lincoln National Bank declared 
a special dividend of $2 a share, and many other 
financial institutions offered similar holiday pres- 
ents to their stockholders. 

The First National Bank gave its employees 
10 per cent of a month's salary as a Christmas 
present. Other institutions gave presents of 
from 5 to 100 per cent on monthly salaries. 


Employees in All Lines Made Happy by Ad- 
vanced Pay or Dividends on Salaries. 

The extension to the West of the same 
manner of dividing up the earnings as was 
followed in Pittsburg is reflected in the fol- 
lowing from the same paper as the above : 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — The homes of thousands of 
workers in this city have been made happier 
by the liberality of employers, who have dis- 
tributed extra wages, dividends and other gifts. 

Many of the railroads several weeks ago 
granted increases in wages that came in time to 
add to the Christmas funds of their workers. 
Scores of smaller employers remembered their 
helpers with gifts of varying kinds and values. 

All of the bankers in the city granted a di- 
vidend of 2 per cent of the annual salaries to 
their assistants and clerks. The only exception 
was the Western German Bank, which made its 
gift of good will on the basis of 4 per cent. The 
Cincinnati and Suburban Bell Telephone Com- 
pany gave the young women in its employ 6 per 
cent on their yearly pay and remembered each 
man on the payroll with a turkey and a quart of 

The Cincinnati Traction Company will follow 
its custom of former years by having two big 
celebrations in Music Hall later in the season. 
Immense trees will be burdened with gifts for 
all of the employees and their wives and chil- 
dren. The affair will last two days, so that every 
man will have an opportunity to attend. 


McHarg Sends a Real Santa Claus Over Virginia 
and Southwestern Railway. 

More striking and dramatic than almost 
any other incident of the season was the fol- 
lowing, also from the New York Herald : 

Bristol, Tenn. — Henry K. McHarg, a wealthy 
New York man, generously remembered all em- 
ployees of the Virginia and Southwestern Rail- 
way, which he recently sold to the Southern Rail- 
way. He presented farewell gifts aggregating 
nearly $50,000 in cash. 


— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 



Heads of departments each received a check 
equal to one year's salary, while all other em- 
ployees received the equal of one month's pay. 

The company sent a special train to deliver 
the checks to the men along the road. The con- 
ductor was attired as Santa Claus and the train 
was designated in all telegraphic train orders as 
the 'Santa Claus train,' and given the right of 
way over all others. 

This is the second time in recent years Mr. 
McHarg has distributed thousands of dollars in 
presents among his employees. When he sold the 
Atlantic, Knoxville and Northern Railway he 

This was especially so in the main telephone 
exchange, where every girl in the 'hello row' 
was the recipient of presents galore. Most of 
the presents from subscribers were in the form 
of checks or cash. Besides the money there were 
boxes of candy, handkerchiefs, writing paper, 
fans, rosaries, gloves, calendars, pictures, and 
flowers. One girl received $40 in cash from sub- 
scribers whom she has served in the past year. 

A Lombard Street liquor dealer sent down a 
case of whisky to be divided among the girls. 

With the merry Yuletide here comes increased 
pay for the local employees of the Pennsylvania 


-St. Louis Republic. 

presented his manager, John B. Newton, with 
$25,000. Mr. Newton received a liberal share 
this time. 


Telephone Girls Get Many Presents, While 
Wages Are Increased. 

In Baltimore the story was as follows in 
the New York Herald : 

Baltimore, Md. — No city, perhaps, has more 
to be thankful for than Baltimore, for there were 
signs of prosperity everywhere. 

Railroad, the Standard Oil Company, and for all 
of the trainmen, engine drivers, and yardmen of 
the Western Maryland Railway. 

During the year all the employees of the United 
Railways received an increase in wages and the 
Typographical Union won the eight-hour day. 

The brewery companies have granted increased 
wages and the eight-hour day. The horseshoers 
are now getting more pay. The old scale was 
$14.15, while the new rate is $16.17. The car- 
penters of the city have succeeded in establishing 
the eight-hour day and now receive $2.50 in- 
crease a week, while the can makers received an 
increase of 50 cents a day. 





— Chicago Tribune. 



$51,230,294 GIVEN TO CHARITY 

Marshall Field, With $8,000,000 for Museum, 
Led the Contributors. 

With such liberality in the gift part of the 
year as is exhibited by the above items, the 
possibilities of the ensuing year as a whole 
become an absorbing subject of speculation. 
For comparison, the following summary of 
the philanthropies of 1906 as estimated by 
the Indianapolis News, is instructive: 

Philadelphia, Dec. 22.— One hundred and fifty- 
three thousand three hundred and eighty-four 
dollars and eleven cents a day ! That is the phil- 
anthropic tribute which the year now passing has 
paid to mankind's betterment and relief from 
suffering. The twelvemonth's total of $51,230,- 
294 is impressive, even to those who may have 
followed the course of such annual records, and 
have so become accustomed to eight-figure giving. 

No record has been kept of the many small 
gifts, made daily, which undoubtedly would raise 
the year's aggregate by fully $10,000,000, nor 
the contributions to the suffering Jews of Russia, 
to the famine-stricken provinces of Japan, to the 
homeless and hungry of San Francisco and Val- 
paraiso and to the Italian sufferers from the fury 
of Vesuvius, whose total probably exceeded 

None of the old world's charities is included 
in this record — American only being given. For- 
eign benefactions in 1906 probably equaled those 
of the United States, making the grand total of 
the world more than $100,000,000. 

Here are some of the gifts made by foreigners : 
Estate of 'Sam' Lewis, London, to general chari- 
ties, $15,000,000; five prominent Germans, in 
honor of the Kaiser's silver wedding, $10,000,- 
000; Pedro Alvarado, Mexico, to the poor of his 
country, $10,000,000; Alfred Beit, South Africa, 
mainly educational causes, $10,000,000; Princess 
Matternich, France, miscellaneous charities, .$5,- 
000,000; John Crowle, London, to the temper- 
ance cause, $2,500,000; William Imre, London, 
general charities, $1,500,000; an anonymous Pole, 
to endow the Warsaw Orchestra, $1,000,000; 
Princess of Monaco, to found Paris marine in- 
stitute, $1,000,000; Lord Inverclyde, London, va- 
ious marine charities, $600,000; Montfiore Levi, 
Brussels, to aid consumption fight, $500,000; 
Oscar Bischoffscheim, London, various charities, 

$18,264,350 for Education. 

More than a third of the year's grand total in 
the United States has gone to the advancement 
of education. Fifty-nine colleges and universities 
and twenty-one institutions of the secondary 
class received $5000 or more. 

Following education the benefactions of 1906 
rank: To galleries, museums, and societies of 
kindred aims, $11,029,340; to homes, hospitals, 
and asylums, $5,719,053, with practically the same 
sum ($5,610,681) to miscellaneous charities. Va- 

rious gifts made not in cash, but 'officially' 
valued, amounted to $5,448,000; church, works of 
one kind or another received, $3,047,075; and 
$1,316,795 was spent for library building or en- 

A study of these figures, in connection with the 
similar totals of the past six years, shows that 
1906 has fallen behind each of those predecessors, 
with the sole exception of 1900. The year 1901 
still holds the 'record.' The benefactions for 
these years have been approximately: 1900, $47,- 
500,000; 1901, $107,360,000; 1902, $94,000,- 
000; 1903, $95,000,000; 1904, $62,000,000; 
1905, $76,100,000. 

Woman's Share and the Honor Roll. 

The detailed lists show that American woman- 
hood is playing a great part in this work, but it 
is worth special notice that no less than eleven 
of these givers have passed the $100,000 mark. 

That larger 'Roll of Honor,' where one may 
set apart the names of those who have given in 
the millions, gives from its eleven items a total 
of practically seven-tenths of the whole year's 
aggregate— $36,966,148. This includes Mr. 
Anonymous, who has put his hands into his vari- 
ous pockets to the tune of $1,508,000. 

Those who contributed $1,000,000 or more are : 

Marshall Field, Chicago $8,000,000 

Charles T. Yerkes, New York 6,655.000 

Andrew Carnegie, New York 6.108,148 

John D. Rockefeller, New York 4,425,000 

P. A. B. Widener, Philadelphia 3,000,000 

William Markuardt, Fallis, Okla 3,000,000 

Daniel B. Shipman, Chicago 1,150,000 

Albert Willcox, New York 1,110,000 

Otto Young, Chicago 1,000,000 

James D. Phelan, San Francisco 1,000,000 


Bountiful Feeding During French Celebration — 
Britain's Titanic Plum Pudding. 

Christmas, as experienced abroad, is par- 
tially reflected in the following from the 
New York Sun : 

The consumption of Christmas cheer in vari- 
ous European cities has set a Frenchman with 
an odd- taste in statistics figuring. He indulges 
in -some appalling calculations, but he also gives 
a merry idea of the way in which the festival 
is observed in the Old World. 

Of course he begins with Paris. Christmas Eve 
is the great time there, and the reveillon, or 
watch night — which they hold a week earlier than 
New Yorkers — is the feature. At midnight the 
gay city is as animated as at noonday. The deli- 
catessen stores and the grocers, as well as the 
cafes and restaurants, are wide open and doing 
a land office business. 

Golden hued pates, poultry roasted to a turn, 
all sorts of meats in jellies tempt buyers who are 
going to end the evening with a feast at home. 
The rotisseries, or roasting establishments, are 
all aglow. They are not unlike the Coney Island 



^(^v-^i^iS;^^^^'^''-'; ■'■;''■■■ ' ■" ;:■ ?; ■ ^■ 



— Chicago Tribune. 



furnaces at which rolls of beef are kept turning 
on horizontal bars. But they are huge affairs, 
each with several horizontal bars and each bar 
has four or five roasts on it — chickens, ducks, 
turkeys, geese, rabbits, and game. 

During the night of Christmas Eve, 1905, 
Paris is credited with devouring in public or 
private feasts 400,000 pounds of beef, veal, and 
mutton; 57,200 pounds of pork in various forms, 
350,000 pounds of poultry, 20,000 pounds of 
game, 136,000 pounds of butter, 140,000 pounds 
of cheese, 380,000 pounds of fish and shell fish, 
1,530,000 eggs, and 2,100,000 oysters. 

Evidently Paris did not oo hungry. The statis- 
tician refuses to figure on tlie ocean of liquor that 
was consumed, but he mentions that one leading 
restaurant sold 600 bottles of champagne and that 
its total receipts for the night were 26,000 francs, 
or $5200. 

Next in order, the British plum pudding is 
discussed. The writer dwells on the picture as 
it is carried into the dining room at the close of 
the family dinner, with the lambent blue flame 
of the blazing brandy playing all around and 
over it. Then comes the appraisal. 

If all the plum puddings of all the families in 
England were united in one great sphere it would 
have a diameter of nearly thirty-five miles. The 
ingredients are calculated as follows: 42,800,000 
pounds of bread crumbs (the crumbs of 800,000 
four-pound loaves), 2,800,000 pounds of raisins, 
2,800,000 pounds of suet, 26,000,000 eggs, 700,- 
000 pounds of almonds, 500,000 pounds of cinna- 
mon, 1,500,000 nutmegs, 3,200,000 citrons, 330,- 
000 quarts of brandy besides minor ingredient?. 
He forgets to give estimates on the currants, 
sugar and milk used. 

The goose is the staple of the German Christ- 
mas. As Christmas approaches whole trainloads 
of geese converge upon Friedrichsfelde, a vil- 
lage near Berlin, which is the great goose mar 
ket of Germany. Thence they are redistributed 
to the ovens, spits, and braising pans of the em- 
pire. Berlin devoured 400,000 of them on Christ- 
mas Eve, 1905. 

Nowhere is the feasting more hilarious than 
at Naples. It takes place, mostly, in the open 
air. Turkeys are in great favor, but fish is the 
characteristic Neapolitan viand. 

On December 23 and 24 every year a long pro- 
cession of wagons streams into the city, laden 
with eels which come all the way from the la- 
goons of Comacchio on the Adriatic Coast. Oth- 
ers are brought by boats from Corsica. The 
total amounts up to something like 3,000,000 
pounds of fish, all of which is cooked in oil, well 
flavored with garlic in the Italian way. 

No one is so poor in Naples that he does not 
feast at Christmas. Those who live from hand 
to mouth all year make sure of plenty at this 
time. They begin to save for it in the preceding 
March, depositing with certain provision dealers 
small sums varying from one to four cents a day. 
When the festival comes, they have sums saved 
varying from about $4 to $15. According to the 
amount they receive a basket of eatables more 
or less well' stocked. A three-cent daily deposit 

from March 30 to December 24 means a total of 

For this amount the basket contains thirty- 
four articles, among which are thirty pounds of 
flour, thirty pounds of macaroni, two pounds of 
beef, two pounds of eels, two pounds of lard, 
chestnuts, hazelnuts, figs, apples, tomatoes, an- 
chovies, cheese, fresh or dried fish, pickles, olives, 
a live turkey and a bottle of ' rosolio, ' a pink cor- 
dial with a flavor of roseleaf much beloved of 
the Neapolitan palate. With a little cheap wine, 
the possessor of such a basket and his family 
may feast almost continuously for a couple of 

The statistician winds up with a couple of in- 
stances of eccentricity in Christmas feasting. 
He tells of a rich Brazilian in Paris who gave a 
midnight dinner last year to six friends which 
cost him $756. The only instructions he gave 
to the traiteur were that everything served should 
be the most expensive that it was possible to ob- 

An Englishman varied the idea by ordering a 
summer dinner for Christmas day at the Savoy 
in London. Covers were set for thirteen and 
the bill was $2600, just $200 a plate. The feast 
opened with melons, which were charged at $55. 

The asparagus cost $65 a bunch; a great 
bouquet of cherries, which was the ornamental 
feature of the dessert represented $90. The 
windup was a bottle of brandy, put away in 
1789, which cost $60. 


Hebrew Protest Against Observance of Festival 
Keeps Thousands From Studies. 

A suggestive religious phase of the holiday 
season is reflected in the following from the 
New York Herald : 

Attendance was decreased from fifty to sixty 
per cent one day in the schools in the heart of 
the East Side on account of the protest by the 
orthodox rabbis and the Hebrew press against 
the Christmas celebrations. 

Opinions of parents differed in degree. Some 
of them not only permitted their children to go 
to such exercises as were colorless as far as any 
religious significance was concerned, but even 
went themselves. Between these two extremes 
the opinion was registered by schools, which 
showed a falling off from ten to thirty per cent in 

Exhortations to the Hebrew pupils to go on 
strike had been spoken and printed since the pre- 
vious Saturday, when it became evident that the 
Committee on Elementary Schools did not intend 
to take any action with regard to the Christmas 
observances, other than to warn principals and 
teachers to be careful. 

In ultra-orthodox households children were or- 
dered not to go to school. In several tenements 
in Rivington Street, where there is a strong Rou- 
manian and Polish influence, the housekeepers 



and janitresses were stationed with brooms at 
the doors, with requests to drive back all young- 
sters who would attempt to go to the forbidden 
observances. With the natural perversity of . 
childhood, a few of the pupils ran a blockade at 
the back doors and arrived breathless in their 

There was a much larger proportion of boys 
absent than girls throughout all the institutions. 
The girls, who had bought new frocks and 
learned recitations and songs, seemed to have pre- 
vailed on their parents to let them take part in 
the much-discussed programs. 


Vicar of Burtonwood Thinks Spiritual Aspects of 
the Day Are Ignored. 

In view of the tendency to get away from 
the purely charitable aspect of philanthropy 
to the wider region wherein liberality spends 
itself in sharing of products and profits at 
all seasons and under all circumstances, the 
following condemnation of "Xmas feeds," 

as taken from the New York Sun, is of un- 
usual interest : 

London.— The Rev. A. M. Mitchell, vicar of 
Burtonwood, Lancashire, who recently censured 
the action of the Rev. Mr. Goodchild, of New 
York, in giving performances in his church as 
counter attractions to the Sunday theatrical per- 
formances, now lashes the popular observance of 
Christmas. He says: 

"Gorge and surfeit make Christmas to a ma- 
jority. The spiritual aspect of the festival is 
conveniently and unblushingly ignored in favor 
of worship at the kitchen altar. 

"The kitchen altar as the sacred shrine of 
Christmas! What number of knees bow low be- 
fore it which are too stiff to bend before God and 
the altar of love. A bird's carcass, a joint of 
beef and a piece of swine's flesh constitute the 
pivot of Christmas joy. 

"If our goui-mandizing Christmas customs 
ceased nominal Christians would discontinue 
their observance of the festival. Eat and eat 
well is the creed of all sorts and conditions of 
Christians. There is no difference. As is the 
aristocracy so is the democracy. Like priest like 
people ! ' ' 

— St. Louis Globe-Democrat. 




Copyrighted by Collier's Weekly. 

— Reproduced by Special Permission. 


T. Vesuvius Roosevelt 


'TpHE ordinary hill which remains forever still, 

-*■ All covered o'er with specimens of botany, 

Is hugely safe and sane; but its heights seem rather plain 

And its silence breeds political monotony. 
I myself prefer a mount with a crater as its fount. 

Dropping firebrands like the thunderstorms of Pluvius — 
There is something half satanic in conditions so volcanic, 

Yet we're proud of our Political Vesuvius. 

tVith a curious, sulfureous 

Rumbling, grumbling roll of thunder, 
Teddy's going to erupt — 
Stand from under I 

"IT /"HERE the grafter sleeps content, suddenly the air is rent 
'^ ' With a blast like that which buried Herculaneum; 

Railway lobbies cough and choke in a cloud of flame and smoke, 

And the Conscript Fathers get it in the cranium. 
Now Chicago beef is shook, now the poor old Spelling-Book 

Shouts: " Have mercy, sire! your heat will crack the shell o' me!" 
Now the mountain heaves its shoulders and upheaves a ton of boulders. 

While the sparks descend and roast the luckless Bellamy. 

With a hectic, apoplectic 

Howling, growling roll of thunder, 
ITeddy's going to blots up — 
Stand from under! 

'"p^HOUGH there's sometimes scarce a puff from his lid, that's just a blufF, 

-"■ For his calmer moments never mean security, 

And the prophets yell: " Look out! he's intending for to spout — 

There'll be trouble in the very near futurity." 
No, we can't foresee just what, but his crater's getting hot. 

And the coals will soon be dropping, as they must, again 
Singeing up the Tariff's tatters and the mossy old Standpatters — 

There's no telling lohere Vesuvius will bust again. 

]Vith a jouncing, nation-bouncing. 

Bumping, thumping roll of thunder, 
'Ceddy's going for to spout — 
Stand from under! 

Copyrighted by Collier's Weekly. 

— Reproduced by Special Permission. 




Harriman vs. Roosevelt. 

-Detroit Journal. 


ALTHO the Christmas season provoked 
an unprecedented display of fellow 
feeling and of willingness to distribute 
more evenly the products of industry — or, 
perhaps for this very reason — the big forces 
which stand at the head of the productive 
and intermediary agencies of the times seem 
to feel that the time has come to administer 
a check to the national administration which 
insists upon criticism and restraint of exist- 
ing business methods. Marshaling once 
more the factors and instrumentalities they 
have so often employed before, and rely hi g 

upon the traditional popular prejudice 
against third terms for Presidents, they ap- 
pear to have inaugurated a campaign cal- 
culated finally to overthrow Mr. Roosevelt 
and his policies. On this occasion, they are 
under new generalship, that of the man who 
has been showing an invincible supremacy 
in the world of business. And, as this 
man's will and purpose have been as imper- 
ious in their sphere as President Roosevelt's 
have been in theirs, there is a joining of 
personal issue, which promises to become of 
most dramatic interest. 




Members Had New as Well as Old Scores to 
Of course, the principal field of war on the 
part of this new enemy of the President is 
Congress, which in the past has been all too 
pliant a tool of the selfishness of Business. 
How the field was utilized was shown, in 
part, in the following from the Philadelphia 
Inquirer shortly after the opening of the 
current session: 

Washington, D. C, January 1. — Congress will 
begin the actual work of the short session on 
Thursday. All indications point to a great deal 
of friction and pulling and hauling, from start 
to finish. There are some important bills on the 
calendar which must be disposed of. Their pas- 
sage will be contested at every stage. Organized 
labor will be on hand to resume the flglit of last 
session. Great financial interests concerned in the 
anti-immig:ration bills, the Ship Subsidy Bill, and 
the Philippines Tariff Bill will look out for their 

Pacific Coast interests will watch the Chinese 
exclusion modification act closely and fight it at 
every turn. And all this is to be done between 
times of passing the great supply bills of the 
nation, whose proper consideration alone shoulcl 
consume all the time, it is claimed by some. 

A row with President Roosevelt is thought to 
be certain. It will start with the Brownsville af- 
fair, will be intensified if the Santo Domingo 
treaty is attempted to be revived, and will be a 
kind of continuous performance throughout the 
session. Very sensitive upon the subject of al- 
leged executive encroachment, still chafing over 
some events of last session, not in a very good 
humor over the flood of executive recommenda- 
tions. Congress figuratively is carrying a chip on 
its shoulder and looking for trouble. 

The Brownsville case will afford a vent for the 
relief of a good deal of the pent-up feeling 
against the alleged tendency of the executive de- 
partment of the Government to exert undue au- 


If He Does Not the Present Session of Congress 
Will Do Nothing. 

The President's method of meeting the 
attack is suggested in the following from the 
Indianapolis News : 

Washington. — Unless the President uses his 
"big stick" this session of Congress will not 
accomplish anything worthy of mention. 

It is the determination of the leaders in the 
Senate and House to make it a do-nothing session 
unless the President, with public sentiment be- 
hind him, forces legislation. It has not been the 

expectation of the President that he would get 
much from the session, but there are a few things 
he is exceedingly anxious to have done. 

First of all he wants the Philippine Tariff Bill, 
decreasing duties on the products of the Islands 
entering the United States, put through. So far 
not a move has been made toward getting that 
bill out of the Senate Committee on Insular Af- 
fairs, and the inside talk about the Senate is 
that the measure will not be considered. 

A special message from the President has 
asked for speedy action on the bill to confer the 
right of American citizenship on Porto Ricans. 
It is significant that the very day the message 
reached the Senate the bill was reached on the 
calendar. "Let it go over under rule 9," said 
Senator Kean, of New Jersey, and over it went. 

There is a tacit understanding among the legis- 
lative leaders that neither the bill requiring the 
publicity of campaign affairs nor the bill to pro- 
hibit corporations from contributing to campaign 
committees shall be passed. The "practical" poli- 
ticians are opposed to both measures. 

Senator Smoot is not to be unseated unless a 
distinct understanding among the leaders on the 
Republican side is declared no longer in force. 
Excuses will be found for postponing a vote, and 
the session will end with the Mormon senator still 
in his seat. 


Senator Carmack Charges Foraker With Insincer- 
ity in His Attack on President. 
One of the points which the Opposition 
appeared to count upon for weakening the 
President's power was the discharge of the 
negro troops. But this very soon turned its 
edge back upon the assailants, especially 
when it served to bring so strong a Demo- 
crat as Senator Carmack to the President's 
defense. Said the San Francisco Chronicle : 

In his address Senator Carmack gave what 
he regarded as the real purpose of the agitation — 
an attempt to unhorse Roosevelt as the Repub- 
lican leader. He said: "It seems to me that 
there is something else behind these uncalled-for 
attacks on the President than a passion for Jus- 
tice and for law. This particular act of the 
President is simply the occasion, but it is not 
the cause of this violent and concerted attack on 
the administration. The President has done 
enough in all conscience to alarm every real 
friend of the constitution, but through it all he 
has had the united and enthusiastic support of 
all the senators on the Republican side. 

"It is by the best acts of his administration 
that the President has aroused so deadly an an- 
tagonism within his own party. He might have 
continued to trample on the law to the end of 
time, and there would have been no voice of pro- 
test if he had not otherwise offended. The Presi- 
dent has made the mistake of compelling his 



party to break with its old-time friends, to turn 
its guns upon its allies of a hundred battles; he 
has brought the great railways and trusts to 
know that there are such things as government. 
His party leaders have yielded a snarling and 
reluctant half-way obedience to his will, biding 
time and opportunity to strike." 
• He told the Republican senators they must 
make choice of the alternative "either to renomi- 
nate President Roosevelt or give us back our 
platform. ' ' 

He then turned his attention to Foraker's criti- 
cism of Major Blocksom and declared that "the 
Senator from Ohio may be God Almighty to the 
Republican party of Ohio, but not of the uni- 
verse. I can remember with what frantic energy 
he used to wave the bloody shirt, a shirt dyed 
with the crimson current of his own rhetoric; I 
remember how he used to go raging over the 
land, a bifurcated, peripatetic volcano in peren- 
nial eruption, belching fire and smoke and melted 
lava from agonized and tumultuous bowels. I 
can see how in public speeches he spattered the 
gall of his bitterness upon the South, until I 
came to think that the Senator wished all the 
white people of the South had but a single neck, 
that he might sever it at a blow. I would not 
have to go back forty years, or make any inquiry 
into the Senator's pedigree to prove that the 
Senator from Ohio is the last man to sit in judg- 
ment in a case of murder where a negro was the 
murderer and a southern white man was his vic- 

"But I will not do the Senator such gross in- 
justice as to judge his heart by the testimony of 
his own mouth; and when my southern friends 
ask me if the Senator from Ohio is really as 
rabid and bitter as he seems, I tell them no, his 
ferocity is purely oratorical ; it is simply the 
lingering force of a tyrannical habit." 


Fear of Clash Over Brownsville Affair Purely 
Imaginary, Raymond Says. 

Another view of the negro affair was the 
following, as given by "Raymond" in the 
Chicago Tribune : 

Washington, D. C. — There is not the slightest 
danger now, nor, in fact, has there ever been, of 
any real clash between the President and Con- 
gress over the Brownsville affair. There has 
been an honest difference of opinion and some 
heated argument, but there has been no time 
when the cordial relations between the executive 
and the legislative branches of the Government 
have been in danger of being severed. 

There are sycophants and hangers on about the 
White House who have reported to the President 
direful stories of threatened doings in Congress. 
There have been legislative touts and lobby loaf- 
ers who have sought to inflame the minds of dis- 
tinguished senators and representatives with the 
idea that the President was defying them, and 

that he would defy them to the limit of impeach- 
ment, no matter what Congress might do nor how 
it might do it. 

In point of fact, throughout the whole of this 
extraordinary Brownsville incident the President 
and Congress have acted strictly within their 
rights, and there has not yet been any evidence 
of an intention on the part of either to interfere 
with the prerogatives of the other. 


J. P. Morgan's Newspaper Organ Declares the 
President's Attitude is Ruinous. 

What is generally •construed as an inside 
view of the Opposition sentiments was the 
following : 

New York. — "Mr. Roosevelt's hatred of the 
railroads, which has reached the proportions of 
an intellectual obsession, bids fair to bear sub- 
stantial fruit in the not distant future. Indeed, 
it is quite certain that we shall all have to pay 
deeply for the sins of the railroads." 

With these words the Sun, controlled by J. 
Pierpont Morgan, introduces a bitter editorial 
attack upon the President, and voices the feel- 
ings of the great railroad magnates of the land. 
It continues: 

"The transportation rates of the United 
States are the lowest in the world and are a 
scientific wonder. There is no page in the his- 
tory of commerce that is so wonderful as that 
which records the fall in the cost of railroad 
transportation during the last thirty-five years. 
Natural causes brought it about, and if natural 
causes are not checked in their operation by fatu- 
ous and ignorant meddling rates will go lower 
yet. If they are checked, and there is a reckless 
and mischievous effort now on foot to do so, then 
disaster will ensue as surely as the night follows 
the day, and with disaster will come increased 
cost of transportation. 

"The roads are between Mr. Roosevelt and 
the deep sea. The gross earnings are suffocat- 
ing them, the net earnings are steadily vanish- 
ing, and behind all is the specter of an intoler- 
able usurpation which means only bankruptcy 
and disaster. Communities are howling for coal; 
farmers are distracted for means to get their 
grain to market; merchandise of all kinds en- 
cumbers the sidings and chokes the railroad 
yards, and only open weather palliates the imme- 
diate prospect. 

"But never mind the railroads. They have 
earned and they fully deserve the punishment 
that is coming to them. If the laws are not en- 
forced we must make new laws. But what we 
want to know is, How does a paternal and illus- 
trious ruler propose to provide for the unem- 
ployed millions who will presently appeal to hi? 
omnipotence for succor?" 




— Indianapolis News. 


Overworked Lawmakers Laugh at 


Nothing, apparently, bristles Congress 
more than what it regards as the President's 
attempts to preach to it. One phase of this 
preaching is reflected in the following from 
the Chicago Tribune, apropos of a cartoon 

by McCutcheon, which is printed in conjunc- 
tion with this symposium: 

Washing-ton, D. C. — McCutcheon 's cartoon in 
The Chicago Tribune, descriptive of the way in 
which the President has flooded Congress with 
messages, created considerable amusement in 
Congress. An examination of the Congressional 
Record shows how cleverly it represents the 

The two houses of Congress have been in ses- 
sion exactly twelve days. The lower house has 



been in session fifteen days, but usually does not 
receive communications from the President when 
the Senate is not assembled. Altogether the 
President has sent in eighteen messages, an aver- 
age of one and a half for each complete legislat- 
ive day. 

Three Messages Every Two Days. 
Here is the list : 

Dec. 3. — Congress convened. 

Dec. 4. — Message on the treatment of criminals 
by probation. 
Message transmitting the annual report of the 

Civil Service Commission. 
Message on control of the yellow fever. 
Message on church claims in the Philippines. 
Message recommending the authorization of 
the President to dismiss officers of the navy 
without trial. 
Dec. 5. — Message recommending legislation for 

Dec. 10. — Message recommending the reimburse- 
ment of the owners of the British schooner 
Message transmitting the ordinances of the 

Executive Council of Porto Rico. 
Message recommending payment to Lieutenant 
Colonel L. K. Scott, United States Army, for 
an invention used by the army. 
Message recommending the return of customs 
duties collected from certain British im- 
Message recommending an appronriation for 
the payment of the cable company whose 
wires were cut by Admiral Dewey during the 
war with Spain. 
Dec. 11. — Message describing conditions in Porto 
Rico and recommending citizenship for its 
Message transmitting the report of the Keep 
Commission on the purchase of department 
Dec. 17. — Message describing conditions on the 
Isthmus of Panama. 
Message concerning revision of the public land 

Message recommending reorganization of the 
naval personnel. 
Dec. 18. — Message transmitting the report of 
Secretary Metcalf on the Japanese questions. 
Dee. 19. — Message on the discharge without honor 
of three companies of the Twenty-fifth 
United States Infantry. 
Dec. 20. — Congress adjourned for the holidays. 

"The President has given us enough subjects," 
observed one member, "to keep two Congresses 
busy. I wonder if he expects anything to be 


the "message habit" by allowing the press 
to make the inferences reflected in the fol- 
lowing from the Cleveland Plain Dealer: 

Washington. — President Roosevelt has taken 
heed of the criticism in Congress of his "message 
habit. ' ' There is a fair promise that hereafter 
the Executive will not so freely communicate his 
views to the legislators on topics in which he is 
interested or which are urged upon him by en- 
thusiastic champions of proposed reform. 

Mr. Roosevelt is not sorry that senators and 
representatives have criticized and found cause 
for laughter in his message-writing proclivities. 
He knows all about the sharp remarks that have 
been made and has read some of the newspaper 
articles setting forth the Congressional comment 
on messages multitudinous and overlapping. He 
is glad that the comment has got into print, be- 
cause he believes it will be the means of ridding 
him of a burden. 

Some of the sharpest critics of Mr. Roosevelt's 
facility in letter writing have been the same men 
who had urged him to indite messages on sub- 
jects dear to them. The President feels that it 
is hardly kindly or gracious for those who have 
had their wishes gratified in the one instance to 
be quick with the criticism when the attempt is 
made to gratify the wishes .of some of the critic 's 
colleagues. The President rather rejoices in the 
publicity that has been given Congressional criti- 
cism. There will be little fuel for the fire from 
now on, and some men will get chilled. 


The President Decides to Send Fewer Communi- 
cations to Congress. 

Characteristically the President promptly 
robbed his enemies of fire in the matter of 

Moody Says Corporations Now Promise to Obey 

Something of the reason for the financial 
anger at the President is disclosed in the fol- 
lowing from the Philadelphia North Amer- 
ican : 

Washington. — Granting rebates on railroads to 
large corporations in discrimination against 
smaller shippers has virtually ceased, and the 
I'ailroads and corporations now have a wholesome 
respect for the law, according to the ofBeials of 
the Department of Justice. 

This opinion is based on advices from many 
reliable sources, which indicate that the imposing 
of heavy fines and the imprisonment of two de- 
fendants have frightened those who have hereto- 
fore violated the law with impunity. 

Attorney-General Moody is in receipt of let- 
ters nearly every day from railroad officials and 
officers of corporations advising him that they 
propose to observe the law. United States dis- 
trict attorneys throughout the country have also 
advised the Department that the Elkins anti- 
rebate law is not being violated on an extensive 







Secretary Said to Be Choice of the President 
for Piatt's Shoes. 

Another point in the President's adminis- 
tration of which the Opposition took full 
advantage was the issue of State Rights, 
which Secretary Root made the more serious 
thru a speech which was widel.y miscon- 
strued. In view of this speech of Root's and 
of Root's general relationship to the admin- 
istration, the following is interesting. It is 
from the Washington Post : 

Many explanations have been sought for the 
reluctance of Senator Thomas C. Piatt to resign 
his seat in the Senate, which both physically and 
mentally, by the best testimony of his friends, 
he no longer is. able to fill. 

Superficially it has looked to political ob- 
servers that the only thing a man of Piatt's ad- 
vanced age would consider would be his own 
convenience and pleasure. But beyond and be- 
hind this change in the personnel of a United 
States Senator from New York lies an interest- 
ing chapter of 'high finance.' The final page 
will not be written until the battle of two great 
contending financial forces which seek to domi- 
nate the election of Piatt's successor has been 
fought out decisively. 

There are, of course, two great financial com- 
binations contending for control, not only in the 
field of railroad supremacy in the United States, 
but also in relation to the financial domination 
of various other extensive industrial and com- 
mercial enterprises, as well as the majority in- 
fluence in the next Republican National Conven- 
tion. What may be described as 'premature' re- 
ports of President Roosevelt's aspirations after 
he shall leave the White House have a material 
influence in this regard. 

There is no doubt that a movement has already 
begun to render impossible the election of Mr. 
Roosevelt as a Senator from New York when his 
term in the White House has expired. It is not 
necessary in this connection to narrate the vari- 
ous questions of controversy which have arisen 
between Mr. Roosevelt as Chief Executive and 
not only the corporations and trusts on the other 
hand, but the combined individualities' of various 
candidates for the Republican nomination to suc- 
ceed him. It is easily imaginable that if Mr. 
Roosevelt as President can defy Congress to a 
standstill, can assert unequivocally that he will 
refuse to enforce laws enacted by the Congress 
if not in accord with his own ideas of right and 
public welfare, in this course he, as a political 
individual, has stored up for himself trouble im- 
measurable in the future. 

Recent reports of E. H. Harriman's alleged 
willingness to rehabilitate Benjamin B. Odell in 
supremacy in New York politics is regarded here 
as only one factor in the great game of the polit- 
ical financial giants which will become more ap- 

parent as the months develop between the pres- 
ent time and the next Republican National Con- 
vention. There is high authority for the state- 
ment that the Rockefeller-Harriman interests in 
the financial world which just now are seeking 
to throttle the Morgan-Hill interests in the rail- 
road world are determined to force the nomina- 
tion of Charles W. Fairbanks, the present Vice- 
President, as the next Chief Executive of the 

Politics to-day, as all readers know, depends 
largely upon the game of finance as played be- 
tween the moneyed kings. Piatt and Depew are 
Morgan pawns in the United States Senate. Root 
also would be a Morgan pawn. Cortelvou, who is 
to be the Secretary of the Treasury on March 4, 
if confirmed by the Senate, will be another Mor- 
gan pawn. Long months ago the Republican 
national organization cut loose from the Rocke- 
feller-Harriman outfit and made its political bed 
with that of the Morgan-Hill interests. There is 
in this statement perhaps an intimation of why 
Leslie M. Shaw will retire from the Cabinet on 
March 4. 

Mr. Roosevelt, who believes in his own right 
that he is the leader of the Republican organiza- 
tion of New York, has determined that Elihu 
Root shall be the next United States Senator 
from New York — that is to say, according to 
advisers of the President, who, of course, wish 
it to be understood that the President shall not 
be quoted. Timothy L. Woodrufl', Prank S. Black, 
J. Sloat Fassett, and all the others who had be- 
lieved that they might be in the running for 
Senator when "Old Man" Piatt should quit, will 
have their trouble for their pains if the Ad- 
ministration program is carried out. Roosevelt 
insists again, it is said, that Root shall be the 
next Senator from New York if Piatt is to give 
up his toga. There is the hitch in the problem 
of Piatt's resignation from the Senate. Piatt 
personally does not prefer Root. Many Repub- 
licans will remember the night of the 'Amen 
Corner' dinner, when Piatt was the guest of 
lionor and Root, as Secretary of War, made an 
effusive reponse to a toast in Piatt's honor. 

Root for years had been Piatt's factional 
enemy in the Republican organization in New 
York. He had been a 'reformer' in organiza- 
tion politics. When, after making his flattering 
speech in Piatt's honor, Piatt was asked what 
he thought of Root's effort, he replied: "In 
vino Veritas," but Piatt has not long to serve in 
public or private life. 


Says Ship-Subsidy Petitions Are Forgeries De- 
vised by a Corrupt Gang. 
That there is ample ground for the fear of 
disclosure and punishment on the part of the 
moneyed interests is evident from the fol- 
lowing from the Washington Post: 

In the January issue of the American Feder- 
ationist, the official organ of the American Fed- 



eration of Labor, President Samuel Gompers 
makes the charge that the petitions signed by 
labor organizations urging the passage of the 
ship-subsidy bill, that were poured in upon Con- 
gress just before the holidays, were obtained 
through fraud. 

Mr. Gompers devotes several pages to a dis- 
cussion of this subject and tells how the matter 
was investigated and the alleged fraud proven. 
He says that in all the country ' ' there is not a 
more corrupt gang than the well-organized coterie 
who engaged in the scheme to 'promote' ship- 
subsidy legislation." He says the promoters of 
this proposed legislation were well aware of the 
attitude of organized labor on this bill and un- 
dertook to deceive members of Congress and 
labor organizations through practices that have 
laid some of them liable to prosecution in the 

From Mr. Gompers' recital it appears that 
the request that labor organizations sign and 
transmit these petitions to Congress was repre- 
sented to have been initiated by the '(Marine Trades 
Council of the City of New York. Believing that 
this organization had not taken a part in this 
matter, Mr. Gompers tells how he instructed 
General Organizer T. E. Flynn, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, to go to New York and investigate the 
whole subject, cautioning him to be sure of his 
facts and make a full report. 

This report was submitted to Mr. Gompers un- 
der date of December 13, 1906. Mr. Flynn re- 
ports that copies of the petitions to be signed 
were sent throughout the country in the name of 
the Marine Trades Council, and that "after their 
examination by the delegates of the council they 
denied absolutely their authorization. A reso- 
lution to this end was unanimously adopted by 
the council." 

Mr. Flynn says he discovered the printer of the 
documents, who declined to make public the name 
of his customer. The matter was taken before 
the District Attorney of the City of New York, 
who summoned the printer and others and ob- 
tained the information. Mr. Gompers names as 
the alleged guilty person a man in Cleveland. 
The entire lot of petitions and documents are 
shown by Mr. Gompers to be forgeries. 


Republican Leaders Fear Changes Would Be 
Fatal to Party Success in Next Campaign. 

The one line along which as yet the ad- 
ministration of Mr. Roosevelt pleased the 
Vested Interests is shown in the following 
from the Chicago Tribune : 

Washington, D. C— In spite of vigorous pro- 
tests by the agricultural implement men of the 
West and the shoe and leather manufacturers 
of the East, there will be no step taken toward 
tariff revision during the life of the present or 
the next Congress. 

It may be that President Roosevelt next year 
will think it wise to refer to the tariff revision 

sentiment, but there is not the slightest chance 
of ■any attempt by Congress to change the exist- 
ing schedules. Even the men who are in favor 
of tariff revision admit that the time has now 
gone by when it can be safely undertaken from 
a political point of view. If the tariff was to be 
revised at all it should have been done at the 
long session of the present Congress. In that 
way conditions would have been adjusted to the 
new rates long before the next Presidential elec- 
tion, and there would be no question at that time 
as to whether the change in the tariff was good 
or bad. 

Serious Demands for Revision. 

There have been some serious demands made 
for tariff revision within the last six months or 
year which have not reached the public. Speaker 
Cannon and other prominent Republican leaders 
have at one time or another met representatives 
of various important industries which claimed 
they are being discriminated against under the 
existing tariff schedules. The shoemen of Mas- 
sachusetts have a thorough organization, and 
they have presented the cause of free hides not 
only to their own delegation but to influential 
Republicans from other sections as well. The 
protest of the agricultural implement men is not 
a new one. It has been presented privately to the 
President and to a number of Republican leaders. 

There will be no legislation in Congress until 
after the next Presidential election, whether the 
President recommends it or not. There is a good 
deal of tariff revision sentiment scattered about 
the country, but the trouble is it is not cohesive. 
The Massachusetts men want free hides, but the 
Western cattle growers paw the ground when 
such a thing is even suggested. The people in 
the treeless, semi-arid belt of the Middle and 
Southern West have presented a petition for a 
reduced rate on lumber, but the representatives 
from Washington, Oregon, and the panhandle of 
Idaho, where they still have valuable forests, 
can not be induced to look at the situation from 
the same point of view. The Southerners who 
were once rampant free traders are now gradual- 
ly becoming protectionists all along the line in- 
stead of for their own local products. 

In coming to their decision regarding the tariff, 
which practically is positive now, the Repub- 
lican leaders are united in the belief that it 
would be political suicide for them to attempt 
to touch the tariff schedules at the next session 
of Congress, either at an extra session or other- 


"Who Asked Government to Interfere, Any- 
way?" Say the Simplified Spellers. 

"Although Congress nailed 'Thru' along with 
the other simplified words to the mast on Fri- 
day," said Dr. I. K. Funk, "the work of keeping 
the 'three hundred' in style will go merrily 
along, and in the course of time our efforts in 
this great saving of time and energy in letter- 
writing will be appreciated." 

Dr. Funk, of the Funk & Wagnalls Company; 



Henry Holt, the publisher, and Charles Sprague, 
president of the Dime Savings Bank, who are a 
committee to stimulate the use of the simplified 
form of spelling, asserted that their ardor had 
not diminished. 

"We never asked that the National Govern- 
ment," said Dr. Funk, "assist us in the under- 
taking. To have the National Government take 
up the simplified spelling at this time would only 
be putting the cart before the horse. What we 
must first do is to prevail upon the business men 
to adopt it in their letter writing, and in this 
way the new method will get a steadfast grip 
and unconsciously all will gradually drop in 

The Missionary Review, the Literary Digest 
and the Circle, three publications of the Funk 
& Wagnalls Company, observe the simplified 
spelling, and, unless the authors object, it is also 
observed in the books printed by that company. 
— New York World. 


Morocco's Sultan Can Give Cards and Spades 
When It Comes to 'Jollying.' 

Washington. — President Roosevelt has received 
a letter from the Sultan of Morocco expressing 
gratitude for the appointment of Samuel R. 
Gummere as Minister to Morocco. The letter is 
written in Arabic. 

The Sultan addresses the President as "The 
Beloved, the Most Cherished, the Exalted, the 
Most Gracious Friend, Most Honored and Excel- 
lent President of the Republic of the United 
States of America, who is the pillar of its most 
important affairs, the most celebrated preservier 
of the ties of true friendship, the faithful friend, 
Theodore Roosevelt." 

Minister Gummere, the letter says, will be 
shown every courtesy and attention by the Gov- 
ernment of Morocco. — New York World. 



AN INTIMATE glimpse of the ambitions 
and fighting plans of the Business 
leader, Mr. Harriman, was given recently in 
Pearson's Magazine, from which the follow- 
ing is an extract: 

In an article in Pearson's Magazine for Janu- 
ary, James Creelman tells some news about Presi- 
dent Roosevelt's fight to smash the control of 
Wall street in the National Government. He 
writes : 

"In the back rooms of Wall Street Theodore 
Roosevelt is known as a meddler. Pale, wrinkled 
captains of speculation and great arch million- 
aires, upon the waving of whose hands the tide 
of prices rises or falls, will tell you to-day bitter- 
ly that he is the most meddlesome President the 
country has ever had, either in peace or war, 
and that his meddling has unsettled the existing 
order and loosed upon the American continent 
wild forces of political, economic, and social revo- 

"Mr. Roosevelt is a meddler. It is in his blood. 
He has been a meddler since boyhood. He has 
meddled with the predatory elements of life, 
four-legged and two-legged; the crack of his 
rifle in the West has been no more destructive 
than the whisk of his official pen in the East; 
he has trailed his game as faithfully in Wall 
Street as in the mountains of Colorado or the 
Dakota Bad Lands; nor has he failed to bring 
down the big beasts of polities. 

"It is not so many weeks since Edward Henry 
Harriman, president of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Company and overlord of countless Ameri- 
can corporate combinations representing, literal- 
ly, a billion of dollars, said privately that Presi- 
dent Roosevelt must be got rid of politically at 
any cost. Mr. Harriman is a Republican and 
has secretly exercised great power in his party. 
Preferred Bryan or Hearst. 

" 'But if you put Roosevelt out of power, you 
will have to take Bryan or Hearst. Are you pre- 
pared for that!' 

" 'Yes,' said Mr. Harriman, passionately. 




— Duluth News Tribune. 



'I'll take Bryan or Hearst rather than Roosevelt. 
We can not be worse off than we are now with 
that man in the White House. I'll take any one 
rather than Roosevelt; for, if it comes to that, 
we can get at the other crowd.' 

"Mr. Roosevelt has meddled with financial- 
political plans of Mr. Harriman and his accom- 
plices — therefore the forked fingers and the hissed 
anathema maranatha. 

"Mr. Harriman is the successor of Jay Gould 
in the field of manipulative finance. He is a 
small, spectacled man, with a large forehead and 
slight, narrow chin. He has deep-set gray eyes 
and a dark-skinned, expressionless face. His 
jaws are short and wide; his nose is straight, 
thin, and pointed. 

"He looks like a Frenchman of the small pro- 
fessional type. His manner is cold and dry. But 
for the lines of muscular contraction on either 
side of the chin, ninning almost from the cor- 
ners of the secretive mouth to the thin, wiry 
neck, and an occasional bunching of muscles at 
the tight-gripped angles of the jaws, it would be 
hard to reconcile the weakness of Mr. Harri- 
man 's dwindling lower face with the terrific 
force which he sometimes displays in his cease- 
less struggle for money and power. 

Harriman Tempting Hill. ^41^' 

"Mr. Harriman is a man of black vindictive- 
ness and remarkable energy. He can fight open- 
ly, but his great strokes are delivered in secret. 
On the day of the great 'corner' of Northern 
Pacific stock, when Wall Street staggered under 
the blows of the contending Harriman and Mor- 
gan forces and thousands of men and women 
were ruined in a few hours, Mr. Harriman sat 
on a sofa in New York and tempted James J. 
Hill, president of the Great Northern Railroad 
Company, to surrender stock control of the 
Northern Pacific line, promising to pay for the 
treachery by making him president of the Union 
Pacific Railroad Company. 

" 'Then there will be two railroad men in the 
country — Cassatt in the East and Hill in the 
West,' said Mr. Harriman, watching the massive 
countenance of Mr. Hill for a sign of weakness. 

"That was a critical moment in the history of 
the country, for upon Mr. Hill's answer hung 
the whole future of transcontinental traffic in 

"Mr. Hill told Mr. Harriman that the owner- 
ship of the Northern Pacific line by the Union 
Pacific interests — a device to destroy competition 
— was forbidden by law, and declared that the 
thing could not be done. 

Tried It Himself. 

"Yet, forgetting that memorable scene, Mr. 
Hill later on, in company with J. Pierpont Mor- 
gan, attempted to unite the Great Northern and 
the Northern Pacific lines in one ownership 
through the Northern Securities Company — the 
very thing in principle which he had warned Mr. 
Harriman against as a lawless act — and - when 
President Roosevelt interfered with the at- 
tempted monopoly and smashed it in the courts. 

Mr. Hill, too, cursed him as a meddler, a dema- 
gogue, a reckless enemy of private wealth. 

' ' So that to-day the Harrimans and Hills and 
Rockefellers and all their like are planning the 
end of Rooseveltism, and the cry of predatory 
Wall Street is that the President has deserted 
those who raised him to honor and power and 
has become a desperate enemy of legitimate busi- 
ness, a menace to prosperity, a fomenter of class 
hatred — in short, that he is a violent radical 
who stole into office disguised as a conservative. 

"But J. Pierpont Morgan knows that he can 
go to the White House and be as welcome as 
Chief Stone, of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, but not any more welcome. Mr. 
Rockefeller knows that he can get as fair, but 
not fairer, hearing from the President as John 
Mitchell, of the United Mine Workers. 

Fair Play for All. 

"The President has stuck to the idea which he 
uttered on a railroad train in California two 
years ago. 

" 'What message shall I take to organized 
labor?' asked one of his heartiest supporters. 

" 'Take this message to organized labor,' he 
said, clenching his hand and leaning forward : 
'I intend to give a square deal to oreanized labor 
and to unorganized labor and to capital, too.' 

"This last fierce struggle for mastery began 
when Mr. Roosevelt was Governor of New York. 
The corporations opposed the nomination of Mr. 
Roosevelt for Governor of New York, but the 
popularity earned before the trenches of Santi- 
ago made his nomination and election inevitable. 
Besides, Wall Street could not bring itself to be- 
lieve that a man born of a rich and distinguished 
family, a graduate of Harvard University, and 
an associate of the most substantial men in the 
community, would fail to recognize the estab- 
lished paramountcy of the great corporate in- 
terests in the State of New York. 

"They had a rude awakening when Governor 
Roosevelt took up the now historic franchise tax 
law [which the New York World originated and 
advocated. — Ed..] and persuaded the Legislature 
to pass it. 

Piatt's Vain Protest. 

"Senator Piatt, the party mouthpiece and 
champion of Wall Street, was stunned. Mr. 
Morgan, the suzerain of Wall Street, was in a 
rage. Mr. Ryan and Mr. Whitney, representing 
the street railway interests, were in a state of 
angry resentment. 

"Senator Piatt wrote a letter to Governor 
Roosevelt. The politician who brought this re- 
markable Piatt letter to Mr. Roosevelt told him, 
as an additional reason why he should not press 
the franchise tax bill, that certain great cor- 
porate interests not affiliated with the Republican 
party had contributed $60,000 to his campaign 

"Mr. Roosevelt replied that he had been as- 
sured that these particular interests had paid 
$100,000 into the campaign treasury of his op- 
ponent, Mr. Van Wyck. The politician admitted 
that that was probably true, but that if such 



measures as the franchise tax bill were pressed 
too far, these interests would, in the future, con- 
fine their large contributions to the Democratic 

"That settled it. The Governor saw at once 
that he was dealing with a question that trans- 
cended all party lines, and was face to face with 
a power that was asserting itself against people 
and Government alike. He struck again and 
again, and did not cease until the franchise tax 
was a fact, and not a theory. 

Morgan Baffled. 

"The Governors of six Northwestern States 
appealed to the President for relief from the 
Northern Securities railroad merger, which de- 
stroyed competition between the Great Northern 
and Northern Pacific lines. The President re- 
ferred the matter to Attorney-General Knox, 
with instructions to deal with the case without 
fear or favor. The Attorney-General reported 
that the merger was a clear violation of national 
law. He was ordered to bring suit at once. 

"Down went J. Pierpont Morgan to the White 
House, wrathful, but wary of the President's 

" 'It's all a mistake, Mr. President,' he said, 
with a wave of his hand. 'The whole thing is 
simply a misunderstanding. We can easily com- 
promise the matter. Let us get together and 
there will be no difficulty about a satisfactory 

"Mr. Roosevelt bared his teeth. 

" 'I'm afraid that you do not understand my 
viewpoint, Mr. Morgan,' he said. 'I am here to 
enforce the laws of the United States.' 

" 'But there has been no violation of law.' 

" 'Then you can not be hurt.' 

" 'Yes; but the affair should be compromised.' 

" 'I am not here to make compromises,' said 
the President. 'There can be no compromise in 
the enforcement of the law.' 

No Favoritism for Either. 

"The man at whose nod Wall Street smiled 
or trembled went back to New York burning with 
anger. So Samuel Gompers recently retreated 
from the White House after practically threat- 
ening the President with the political vengeance 
of organized labor. 

"Other representatives of the Morgan-Hill 
merger interests went to the White House. At- 
torney-General Knox was present with the Presi- 

"'You should have given private notice be- 
fore filing a bill in the courts against the North- 
ern Securities Company,' said one. 

" 'Why?' asked the President. 

" 'We were taken by surprise and the action 
of the National Administration suddenly knocked 
the prices of our stocks to pieces in the market. 
You should have given notice for the sake of the 
innocent widows and orphans whose money was 
invested in stock.' 

" 'I would like to ask you,' said Attorney- 
General Knox, heartlessly, 'whether you gave ad- 
vance information to the widows and orphans 
when you cornered Northern Pacific stock?' 

"Again the President showed his teeth. 

" 'The Government doesn't give notice,' he 
said. 'When it believes that a man has com- 
mitted a crime, it arrests him, and then notifies 
him of what he is accused. Why should the 
Government give notice to one man and not to 

They Wanted a Chance. 

" 'But you might at least have notified five or « 
six of the biggest men in Wall Street.' 

"The President smiled and, rubbed his hands 
together softly. 

" 'I'm afraid that the little men would not 
have appreciated it,' he answered with cruel 

" 'I'll say this for the President,' exclaimed 
the Attorney-General, leaning back in his chair. 
'There is no stock ticker in the White House. 
That might as well be understood right now.' 

"Whereat the President had to struggle to sup- 
press his laughter, so stricken were his visitors 
by the unfeeling remark. 

"Before permitting the Government to regu- 
late freight rates, Mr. Roosevelt had consulted 
the most experienced railroad men in the country 
in order to do no injury to legitimate business. 
He sent for President Cassatt, of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, and let him read it. 

" 'It's perfectly sound/ said Mr. Cassatt 
heartily. 'I approve of it. I see no reason why 
the Government should not regulate the railroads. 
The rebate system is ruinous as well as unfair. 
The Government should break it up by enforcing 
the law against everybody.' 

"Then the President asked for the criticism 
of President Ripley, of the Santa Fe system. He, 
too, indorsed the plan, declaring that it was to 
the interest of legitimate railroad enterprise as 
well as the general public, that the rebate sys- 
tem should be ended, and all discrimination in 
favor of large shippers made impossible by means 
of enlarged Governmental powers strictly ap- 

Morgan Played Politics. 

"But Mr. Morgan opposed the President's 
recommendations to Congress. He could see 
nothing in them but an encouragement to the en- 
croaching forces of radicalism, a vicious med- 
dling with vested property rights. Living in the 
narrow spaces of Wall Street, he failed to see 
the black cloud on the horizon that signalled the 
approach of a hurricane of popular wrath. 

"There was a meeting of railroad presidents 
at the Metropolitan Club in New York. Mr. 
Harriman and Mr. Hill were there; so were Mr. 
Cassatt, of the Pennsylvania Railroad; Mr. Rij)- 
ley, president of the Santa Fe system ; Mr. Spen- 
cer, president of the Southern Railroad Company ; 
Mr. Newman, president of the New York Rail- 
road Company, and several others of the most 
f)owerful railroad corporation representatives in 
the country. Mr. Ripley urged that the railroad 
companies should throw aside all minor consid- 
erations, recognize the sound reformatory na- 
ture of the President's ideas, and earnestly sup- 
port and promote the policy of Government regu- 
lation of railroad rates and the extinction of the 
rebate system. Mr. Cassatt also pressed the 



President's plan upon his associates. But the 
others shook their heads and declared their un- 
alterable opposition. 

"Those who are in the habit of doing rever- 
ence to the judgments of "Wall Street might 
naturally suppose that those powerful men, rep- 
resenting hundreds of millions of dollars' worth 
• of property depending upon the prosperity and 
peace of the Nation, would have entered into a 
conflict with the President only on the theory that 
he was wrong in principle. Alas, that was not 
the ground of their opposition. One after the 
other said frankly that the railroad interests 
could beat the President in Congress, and that, 
as they did not have to make concessions, they 
should stand up and fight. 

"Now, when Mr. Roosevelt became aware in 
this unmistakable way that there was a private 
power in the United States which held itself to 
be greater than the law or the President or Con- 
gress, he made it known to his advisers that he 
considered the issue thus deliberately raised as 
a direct challenge to the Nation. 

Publicity His Best Weapon. 

"Mr. Roosevelt believes in publicity. It is his 
sharpest sword. When he finds a corrupt com- 
bination confronting him he makes the matter 
known, and leaves the rest to public opinion. 
No man can whisper a threat in his ears. He 
opens the doors, throws up the windows, calls 
in the crowd and shouts the secret out. It is this 
characteristic that embarrasses the stealthy ad- 
venturers of Wall Street. They dare not 
threaten. It will be in the newspapers next 

"No other President was ever compelled to 
face such an alliance of money power, backed 
by training and experience, as that which op- 
posed the proposed Bureau of Corporations. Yet 
it was Mr. Roosevelt's consummate ability to 
recognize opportunities and his instinct for swift, 
ruthless action that won this memorable struggle. 

"John D. Rockefeller's son sent a telegram to 
several Senators calling upon them to defeat the 
President's bill. It exposed the Standard Oil 
Company's desperate interest in the effort to 
prevent the Bureau of Corporations from com- 
ing into existence. 

"A copy of this amazing telegram fell into 
Mr. Roosevelt's hands. The moment he read it 
he snapped his fingers, leaped to his feet and 
cried, 'That passes our ear bill.' 

"So great was his joy that he snapped his 
fingers repeatedly, a sound as of a whip cracked 
over beaten curs, and laughed aloud. 

"Without a moment's delay the President 
sent for thirty newspaper correspondents and 
gave them the telegram. In an hour it had been 
flashed to all parts of the country. The Nation 
was thoroughly aroused by the revelation. 

"That very day Henry H. Rogers and John i). 
Archbold, the formidable and arrogant Rocke- 
feller regents of the Standard Oil Company, 
went to Washington personally to take charge 
of the flght against the President. But they ar- 
rived only to find that, by his simple device for 
calling the sentiment of the whole country to his 
aid, Mr. Roosevelt had passed his bill. Not a 
Senator dared to bat his eye after the fatal 
Rockefeller telegram had been published. 

" 'Never strike till you have to,' says the 
President, 'but then strike as hard as you can.' " 


Washington Says Harriman Merger Probe Is Ac- 
tuated, by Desire for Revenge. 

Washington, D. C. — E. H. Harriman is being 
punished by President Roosevelt because Harri- 
man harshly criticized the President. 

This action on the part of Harriman is de- 
clared, on reliable authority, to be responsible for 
the investigation which will be begun by the 
Inter-State Commerce Commission in New York 
January 4, which, it is believed, will lead to the 
dissolution of the Harriman railroad merger. 

During the late Congressional campaign Harri- 
man was not even lukewarm in his support of the 
Republican ticket and he supported the Hearst 
ticket in New York. Mr. Harriman, who is by 
no means an admirer of Roosevelt, not only de- 
clined to contribute to the Republican Con- 
gressional campaign fund, but he went to a 
member of the Republican Congressional Com- 
mittee and told that ofiicial what he thought of 
President Roosevelt. 

This opinion was anything but complimentary. 
In general, Harriman stated that Roosevelt was 
a firebrand; that he was irresponsible, and that 
his Administration of the office of President had 
been responsible for much trouble experienced by 
the business world. 

The member of the Congressional Committee 
lost no time in informing Roosevelt what Har- 
riman had said. This report displeased the 
President, and he shook his fist in the face of 
the member of the committee and asked: 

' ' Did Harriman say these things about me ? " 

Upon being assured as to the truth of the 
statement, the President said : 

"All right; I will attend to this matter." 

Shortly after this incident the Inter-State 
Commerce Commission ordered an investigation 
of the Harriman merger, and it is declared by 
the Administration that all the power at its com- 
mand will be exerted to bring about a dissolution 
of the merger. — Pittsburg Dispatch. 




IN CHARLES KLEIN'S new play, "Daughters of Men," at 
the Astor Theater, Capital and Labor are boldly treated. 
The Organizers of trusts and Leaders of labor are so boldly, 
so brutally portrayed that the New York World asked Samuel 
Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor, and 
the most widely recognized labor leader in the country, to 
see the play. The following is Mr. Gompers' review: 

The "Daughter^ of Men," now playing at the Astor Theater, is 
a great play. Mr. Charles Klein has not only added to his already 
well-deserved reputation, but he has also performed a great public 
service in the presentation of that play, and particularly its pre- 
sentation at a theater where the attendance is usually made up from 
the theater-going well-to-do and fairly well-to-do people. 

Having been asked to review the play, "The Daughters of Men," 
and record my opinion of its merits, if I were asked to epitomize its 
salient features, I would say that it is a play, clean, intensely in- 
teresting, of a high moral, public purpose with its characters at once 
boldly and clearly as well as delicately brought out. 







The play opens with a room 
in the Fifth Avenue mansion of 
the millionaires, Crosbys, who 
are principal owners in and di- 
rectors of one of the large coal, 
iron and transportation com- 
panies, of which so many exist 
in our time. 

Grace Crosby (Miss Effie 
Shannon), sister of Mathew and 
Reginald Crosby, and niece of 
Richard Milbank, the tempor- 
arily retired director of the 
company, and its chief owner, 
is deeply in love with John 
Stedman. Stedman, while so- 
cially and financially the equal 
of the Crosbys, has been 
^ won over to the cause of 

^^ labor and the people, and 
o at the opening of the play 
is the leader of the or- 
ganized workingmen who 
are engaged in strike in 
all the company's enterprises. ' 

Grace attended several meetings and listened with growing in- 
terest to the graceful oratory and earnest pleadings of Stedman, and 
learned to respect and finally to love him, to love him for his sin- 
cerity and the cause he so beautifully portrays. The love of Grace 
Crosby and John Stedman is of the highest and most ennobling char- 
acter. It is the love of and for the good and the true man and 

Their love and their characters are put to severe tests, by reason 
of their affiliations, their families and the divergent paths resulting 
particularly from the strike. In addition to the human interest and 
labor features of the play, it is a beautiful and thrilling love story. 
In the second act the strike is at its crucial point for both sides. 
The men are living on little, and the directors of the company are 
on the verge of financial ruin. The leaders of the striking work- 
men's organization are pitting the hungry stomachs of the men 
against the dire straits in which they know the company to be. 
Something is impending. Unless either or both bend a break must 
come somewhere. 

The manner in which Mr. Klein worked up to the situation which 
brought about the meeting of the board of directors of the company 
and the leaders of the workmen is not only happy but indeed little 
short of ingenious. Miss Crosby being forbidden by her family to 
see Stedman and not seeing him for weeks, visits his room at an 
'unconventional hour.' She makes this visit to plead with him to 
end the strike, which she urges he has fought more relentlessly be- 
cause she has been compelled to give him up. 

Louise Stolbeck (Miss Dorothy Donnelly), the daughter of Louis 
Stolbeck, a theorist and revolutionist and member of the workmen's 
leaders, loves Stedman. She is jealous of and hates Grace Crosby. 



The scene between Louise Stolbeck and Grace Crosby is beyond 
doubt one of the strongest and of the deepest human interest, not 
only in this play, but of any play I have seen in many years. The 
ribaldry, frivolity, hate, anger, passion, bravado, daring, anguish, 
and despair are all portrayed by Miss Donnelly with a sincerity so 
convincing as to thrill her audience to the very core. 

It is not my purpose to speak of the ability of the company, of 
the exceedingly capable players which interpret their several parts. 
I could not resist the temptation to express my great appreciation 
and the evident great appreciation of the audience of Miss Don- 
nelly's splendid work. 

Quite apart from the sterling character of John Stedman, the hero 
of the play, there are two characters the very antitheses of each 
other. One, Mathew Crosby, the other James Burress. In one 
feature alone are they similar, the dogged determination to dominate. 
Crosby, the member of the "Federated Companies," whose men are 
on strike; Burress, one of the "Federated Brotherhood." 

Crosby typifies that cold-blooded, determined man who looks 
upon the masses of workei-s as so many instruments to yield him and 
his their labor for his own personal aggrandizement, who has no 
conception that the labor and the man are one; who is scornful of 
the fact that the laborer is human, that he has the same loves and 
affections, duties and obligations to himself; that he is made warm 
by the same summer sun and chilled by the same winter's blast, and 
that after all the laborer is a human being with a soul and heart 
as well as possessing the power to produce wealth. 

Crosby is the cold, cruel type of man who could witness with in- 
difference and without turning scarcely, without the quiver of a lip 
or causing a tremor in his entire being, the crushing of human hearts 
and human souls. He is bereft of all moral responsibility and con- 
science for the well-being of his fellows. 

Burress, on the other hand, is that type of brutal ignorance 
brought about by the worst conditions under which workmen toil 
for just such employers as Crosby. 

Such as Burress, thanks to the growing power of the labor move- 
ment, are fast disappearing from any position of influence in the 
real labor movement of our time. He has been fed upon the cold in- 




difference and brutal course of the Crosby regime, and he would, 
out of sheer force of powei-, annihilate Crosby upon the first impulse. 

Mathew Crosby would put to work all the secret machinations 
which money could employ. He would not stain his hands even 
though he would his deadened conscience with human blood. He 
fights with the rapier, Burress with the battle-axe. 

The "Daughters of Men" is a tribute to the well-ordered trades 
union movement of America as understood and represented by the 
American Federation of Labor. It demonstrates that labor, to be 
respected and to have consideration given to the attainment of the 
rights to which it is entitled and to the abolition of the wrongs from 
which it has suffered, must organize and possess power. 

The assertion of the aged Richard Milbank, the temporarily re- 
tired chief of the board of directors of the Federated Companies, 
that he will resume his old position of authority, that he is in ac- 
cord with Stedman, with the intelligent, kind-hearted McCarthy, 
president of the workmen's organization, that both Stedman and 
McCarthy realized that it is not only power, but consideration and 
love, that will win — it is Milbank 's splendid declaration that helps 
in the magnificent denouement when he says : 

"A little sentiment and a little compromise is an absolute neces- 
sity — damn it, let's be human!" 

Lines Gompers Listened to in the Play. 

MILBANK — Mathew, I don't want to even criticize; you and 
Thedford are handling the Federated properties very skilfully. The 
dividends are splendidly large and all that, but the workmen were 
more satisfied with their lot in your father's day. I don't know — 
you young business men are all business. There's no sentiment, no 
compromise. Good God, we're only here for a hundred years, more 
or less. Can't something be done for 
the men? I thought when I retired 
from business that I should be free from 
responsibility, that I should enjoy peace 
and happiness — instead of 
which what happens? At this 
moment over a million men are 
arrayed against us in a struggle 
for supremacy; my nephew 
married to a woman who 
squanders his patrimony and 
disgraces our family name; and 
my niece in love with a stump 
orator who publicly denounces 
us — our business methods — our 
very existence. A 
pretty kettle of fish. 
And you two stand 
there like a pair of 

Stedman) — You, the 
leader of a band of 
malcontents whose 
sole purjiose in life 

(Continued on-page 189) 



is to sow seeds of discord among the working 
classes, to get them to rebel against established 
conditions! You, an agitator, the friend of Jem 
Burress, an Anarchist of the worst type 1 

STEDMAN — The great masses are utterly 
ignorant of the real conditions of life and they 
need some one in whom they trust to show how 
to progress without destroying everything in their 
eagerness to attain their object. If I — if I re- 
sign my position in the Interstate Federation and 
become a corporation lawyer- — if I help the cor- 
poration to evade the law as your uncle has sug- 
gested — don't you see how it would hurt the 
cause — of the people. It would look as though 
none of their leaders could be trusted — as if we 
were as lacking in sincerity as the men we ac- 

BURRESS (To Martin)— You needn't mister 
me. I know who you are, and I want to tell 
you, my friend, right here — if you ask me to 
sign any more petitions opposing the action of 
the General Council you'll lose your standing. 
See? I don't want to interfere, understand — 
all men have equal rights and privileges, but we 

want no anarchy — no kickers — you trust your 
leaders, don't you? 

STOLBECK— We know more than you do or 
we wouldn't be leaders. Instead of studying 
your Bible, study your Karl Marx — your Jack 
London — ^your Eugene Debs — and you will know 
something, too. 

LACKETT — Intellectual energy, my dear fel- 
low, is what qualifies a man for leadership. We 
have intellect, plus energy — you men have energy 
but nothing to direct it— you must follow those 
who have. 

BURRESS — ^We have an equal right to hap- 
piness and we claim that right. Our political 
democracy is a mask behind which industrial 
plutocracy tries to hide itself. We produce 
everything and get nothing — you produce nothing 
and get everything. 

M'CARTHY— Come now, we've got this far 
— let's go on — leave the question of recognition 
to the last. 

BURRESS — No — we have them whipped now 
— the bottom is out of the stock market — there 
is nothing doing and we've got 'em going, I tell 

Rockefeller as "King of the Republic" 


STUNG by unceasing criticism and appar- 
ently astonished that his character and 
motives should be impugned, Mr. Rockefeller 
comes before the public more and more, either 
thru a regular press agent or thru his own 
power to command attention, in the light of 
his religious piety, his personal companion- 
ableness and his other attributes which are 
inconsistent with the black lines in which he 
has been painted hitherto. Here, however, 
follows an imaginary view of the Oil King 
as Maxim Gorky sees him. It is from the 
New York American: 

London. — Maxim Gorky has begun the publica- 
tion of a series of imaginative interviews here. 
The first is entitled "One of the Kings of the 
Republic. ' ' 

"The steel kings, petroleum kings, and all 
other kings of the United States have always 

been confused in my imagination, ' ' writes Gorky. 
"I couldn't think of such persons as being or- 
dinary men." 

Then Gorky depicts his conception of the 
American millionaire as a Gargantuan person of 
extraordinary appetite, with an inordinate desire 
to possess everything in the world. From 
Gorky's description of his millionaire it is easy 
to see that he is personifying John D. Rocke- 

"Face of a New-Bom Child." 

"My astonishment may be imagined," says 
Gorky, "when I found that this millionaire is 
one of the simplest of men. In an easy chair 
before me sat this long, thin, old man, who 
clasped his wrinkled hands on his waist. 

' ' The withered skin of his face was carefully 
shaven. His lower lip, drooping in tired fashion, 
disclosed a pair of well-made jaws, with golden 
teeth. His upper lip is cleanly shaven, 
bloodless and thin, and clung close to his 
teeth, hardly moving when the old man spoke. 
His lusterless eyes have no brows, and his head 
was bald. It seemed as if this face lacked 



skin. Ruddy, motionless, and shining as it was, 
it reminded one of the face of a newborn child. 
It was hard to determine whether this human 
being was beginning life or approaching the 

Makes Money to Make More. 

After expressing his astonishment on learning 
that the millionaire ate frugally, Gorky con- 
tinues : 

" 'Then, what do you do with your money?' 
I asked. He shrugged his shoulders and an- 
swered: 'I make more money with it.' 

" 'Why?' I asked. 

" 'To make still more,' he answered. 

" 'Why?' I repeated. 

"He leaned toward me and asked, 'Are you 

" 'And you?' I answered, interrogatively. The 
old man bowed his head and muttered : ' Strange 
man. It is, perhaps, the first time I've seen 
such a one.' 

" 'What do you do?' I asked. 

" 'I make money,' he said, bluntly. 

" 'How do you make money?' I asked. 

" 'Oh,' he said, nodding, 'it's very simple. I 
possess railways. Farmers produce goods. I 
put these on the market. Now I must see how 
much money to leave the farmer so that he will 
not starve, and will continue working, and I 
take the rest as my tariff for transportation. It 's 
very simple.' 

" 'Are the farmers satisfied?' I asked. 

" 'Not all I think,' he said with childish 
simplicity, 'but it is said men are always dis- 
satisfied with everything. There are funny fel- 
lows everywhere who are always grumbling.' 

" 'Doesn't the Government prevent you?' I 
asked modestly. 

" 'The Government?' he repeated thought- 
fully. Then he nodded as if a fine idea sudden- 
ly had struck him. 'Ah, the people in Washing- 
ton? No, they don't hinder me; they're nice 
young fellows; some belong to my club, but I 
do not often see them, so I'm apt to forget them. 
No, they do not hinder me,' he repeated, and 
then asked, 'Are there any governments which 
hinder people from making money?' I felt eon- 
fused in my heartlessness and his wisdom. 

"Idealism Doesn't Work Here." 

" 'No,' I said. 'You see, I only thought gov- 
ernments sometimes must forbid open robbery.' 

" 'Ahem,' he said, 'that's idealism. It doesn't 
work here. The Government has not the right 
to interfere in private affairs.' 

" 'Then, if many people are ruined by one, is 
that a private affair?' I asked. 

" 'Ruined?' he repeated. 'Ruined? Yes, if 
workmen are dear and if they strike; but there 
are immigrants here. They always reduce work- 
men's pay and take the places of strikers. 
When there are enough of them who work cheap- 
ly and buy necessaries largely everything is all 

"He became somewhat livelier. His harsh 
voice sounded more quickly. 'A good govern- 
ment,' he went on, 'is a necessity. It solves 

problems. There must be as many people in the 
country as I need in order that they buy what 
I want to sell. There must be so many work- 
men that I shall not lack any, but not one too 
many. Then there would be a socialistic gov- 
ernment. The government must not tax peo- 
ple highly. 

"Soldiers to Enforce Laws." 

" 'I take everything the people can give. 
That's what I call a good government. It is 
necessary for me that order should reign. Gov- 
ernment at small cost engages various phil- 
osophers, who teach people at least eight hours 
every Sunday to obey the laws. If philosophers 
do not suffice, they use soldiers. The method is 
of no consequence, but the result is important. 
The consumer and workman must be obliged to 
keep the law, that's all.' 

"I asked, 'Are you satisfied with the present 

"He did not answer immediately, then said: 
' It does less than it can do. I say immigrants 
must be allowed to come in. We have political 
freedom, which they enjoy, and that must be paid 
for. Each immigrant should bring in $500. A 
man with $500 is ten times as good as a man with 
only $50. Tramps, beggars, invalids and other 
sluggards are not wanted anywhere.' 

' ' Enough Americans Now. ' ' 
" 'But that lessens the number of immigrants,' 
I interposed. The old man nodded, answering, 
'Yes, I propose to close the country to them 
altogether, in time. Now everybody may bring 
money. It is useful for the country. Then we 
ought to increase the time required for becoming 
a citizen. Afterward we must abolish natural- 
ization altogether. Let those work who want to, 
for the Americans, but it doesn't follow that 
they ought to get the right of American citizen- 
ship. There are enough Americans. The Gov- 
ernment must be differently organized. All mem- 
bers of the Government must be stockholders in 
industrial undertakings, then they'll understand 
the country's interests quicker and easier. Now 
I'm obliged to buy senators in order to convince 
them of several details necessary to me.' 

Tells of Religious Belief. 

"Now that his political views were clear, I 
asked what he thought of religion. 

" 'Oh,' he replied, clapping his knee, 'I think 
religion is necessary for the people. I believe in 
it entirely. I even preach myself on Sundays. 
I say to them: "Dear brothers and sisters, all 
this life is an empty void. If we do not love our 
neighbor, whoever he may be, don't leave your 
hearts in the power of evil spirits of envy. Of 
what should you be envious? Earthly goods are 
illusions, instruments of the devil. We must all 
die. Rich and poor, kings, miners, bankers, are 
sweeps in paradise. Perhaps the miners will be 
the kings, and the kings the sweeps. Don 't listen 
to men who arouse sinful feeling of envy and 
show you the poverty of one and the riches of 

" 'These men are ambassadors of the devil. 




MOT Tor 

' WT/wr NOT m 

MeAttM OR FOfl. 
ANt ^DY clue's 

Ol' THE 


SAFE But Too expen- i 

SIVE. they'd CUT OUR 

The Master Pays Too Much Attention to It. 

The Man Pays Too Little. 

— Chicago Tribune. 



Don't listen to sermons about equality and other 
inventions of the devil. What's the meaning of 
equality here on earth? Only to strive to equal- 
ize each other in purity of soul, to bear your 
cross patiently. Obedience will lighten your 
burden. Heaven's with you, my children; you 
need nothing more.' 

"The old man became silent; looked at me 
triumphantly, his golden teeth glittering. 

" 'You understand how to make use of relig- 
ion,' I observed. 

" 'Yes, I know its value,' he said. 'Religion 
is necessary for the poor. I like it. Religion is 
an oil. The more we oil life's machine with it, 
the less friction we will have, and the easier will 
be the engineer's work.' 

" 'You think you are a Christian?' I asked. 

" 'Of course,' he answered, 'but I am an 
American at the same time, and as such, a strict 
moralist. ' 

"Millionaires Ought to Govern." 

" 'What do you think about the socialists?' I 
asked. 'They're servants of the devil,' he re- 
plied. 'There should be no socialists in good gov- 
ernment. They originate in America. People 
at Washington do not understand their task 
clearly. They ought to refuse civil rights to 
socialists. A government must have the interests 
of life more at heart. All its members ought to 
be chosen from the ranks of the millionaires to 
fight socialists. We must have more religion and 
soldiers' religion against atheism, soldiers 
against anarchy. Krst we pour the lead of ec- 
clesiasticism into his head. If that doesn't cure, 
then soldiers pour lead into his body.' 

Buys Art, Like Poetry. 

" 'What do you think of art?' I asked. He 
looked at me childishly. 'What do you say?' he 
asked. ' I asked what you thought of art. ' ' Oh, ' 
he answered, quietly, 'I don't think about it. I 
simply buy it.' 

" 'How do you like poetry?' I asked. 'I like 
poetry very well,' he said. 'Life is jolly when 
they write advertisements in verse.' 

" 'What's your favorite book, excluding, of 
course, the check book?' I asked. 'I love two 
books,' he said, 'the Bible and my general ac- 
count book. Both raise my spirits. ' 

"I stood up to go. 'Tell me,' I asked, 'what 
is there in being a millionaire?' 

" 'It's a habit,' he answered. 

" 'Do you think tramps, opium smokers, and 
millionaires belong to the same order of crea- 
tion,' I asked. That offended him and he said: 
'You're an ill-mannered person.' 

"I started to leave. 'Are there any super- 
fluous kings in Europe?' he asked. 'They're all 
superfluous,' I said. 'I should like to hire a 
couple of kings,' he said. 

" 'What for?' I asked. 'For fun,' he an- 
swered. 'What do you think it will cost to have 
two kings box here half an hour daily for three 
months?' " 


Our laws are being Bryanized, 

and Ryanized 
and Zionized. 

Our sports are being candified 

or dandified 
and Andified. 

Our art is all a mockery 

of Bokery — 

Good words that Shakespeare credited 
are edited 
and Teddited. 

We're cursed with Castellanity, 
and vanity. 

Our industries are dustifled 

or trustified 
or bustified. 

Or else they're superorganized 

and Morganized 
and gorgonized. 

But courage! heart, and do not fret; 
Depew and Piatt are with us yet. 

— New York Times. 


De rich man eat his 'possum. 

En Latherus at de gate; 
De rich man say: "Dis 'possum good — 

I'll set up wid him late!" 

De Night, hit keep a-comin' — 

De shadders creep en creep; 
01' Latherus so hongry 

He dunno whar he'll sleep. 

De rich man say: "Dat Latherus 

Hez got ter go his ways ; 
I'll sen' him ter de stockade, 

En give him thirty days!" 

En den all er a sudden 

01' Satan's voice he know; 
He says: "Put by dat 'possum — 

Hit's come yo' time ter go!" 

En den, whar wuz de rich man? 

Oh, ever' sinner knows! 
He in de fire department 

Whar dey don 't turn on de hose. 

— Atlanta Constitution. 









IF OBJECT lesson were needed to impress 
the critical nature of the issue between 
Harriman and Roosevelt, as outlined in the 
preceding symposium in this issue of The 
Pandex, the amazing conditions in the west- 
em coal fields, in the national arena of 
prices, and in the atmospheric world of 
climate have served to drive the considera- 
tion of the hour home to everyone. While 
the "prosperity" of the country has been 
creating an alleged shortage of transporta- 
tion equipment those who use the misfortune 
of others to increase their own wealth have 
been giving the car shortage as an excuse for 
a widespread and cruel famine and advance 
in prices of fuel ; and it appears to have mat- 
tered little to them that the season has been 

unduly cold and miserable. Selfishness has 
had its full sway; and the only forceful 
enemy of it has been the redoubtable occu- 
pant of the White House. 


Farmers in Northwest to Ask for Troops to Save 
Them from Freezing. 

Something of the tragic possibilities of the 
selfishness in the coal fields was reflected in 
the reports of the New York World, as 
follows : 

Minneapolis, Dec. 14. — With the cold-wave 
signal flying, the coal shortage in the Northwest 
becomes not only a cause of severe suffering, but 
an absolute menace to human life. 

Glenburn, N. D., is seriously considering an 
appeal to the governors of North Dakota and 



Minnesota to employ the state militia in forc- 
ing the movement of coal trains. Eveleth, Minn., 
faces darkness and suffering through deprivation 
of coal and apprehensive reports have come from 
many other places. 

The Glenburn situation is summed up in a 
statement from the Glenburn Commercial Club 
as follows : 

"The dealers advise that the situation is en- 
tirely up to the railroads, as shippers are unable 
to obtain ears to load with coal. To-dav we will 


Export Coal to United States While Hundreds 

That the range of the fuel famine was 
more than national was reflected in the fol- 
lowing from the Chicago Tribune : 

Ottawa, Canada, December 13. — In the discus- 
sion in the House of Commons on Saskatehe- 

The Employer — Be grateful! See how I'm raising you that you may keep up with my In- 

— International Syndicate. 

wire Governor Searles requesting him to take 
up the matter with Governor Johnson, of Minne- 
sota, and if necessary call out the militia of the 
two states to run coal trains. 

"The situation all through this section is des- 
perate, and with the liability of blizzards at any 
time many may freeze to death if fuel is not 
available soon. Farmers are already coming to 
town with reports of burning sheds and other 
out-houses for fuel." 

wan's coal famine, President Roosevelts' refer- 
ences to government ownership in his recent mes- 
sage to Congress were cited by Mr. Roche, con- 
servative, as an example Sir Wilfrid Laurier 
would do well to adopt in regard to Canada's 
vast unworked coal areas in the West. 

The discussion arose in a motion by Mr. Heron, 
conservative, declaring that the coal lands 
owned by Canada should only be alienated under 
such conditions as would insure a supply of coal 



As Some Railroad Companies Appear to Apply It. 

— Chicago News. 



to the people at all times adequate to their re- 
quirements. It was shown that the coal famine 
had caused great suifering to thousands of set- 
tlers, and this, coupled with the scarcity and 
heavy cost of lumber for building, resulting from 
combines and the car famine, had brought about 
conditions so serious as to endanger the develop- 
ment of the country. 

Thousands of tons of Canadian coal were being 
exported from the Alberta mines to the United 
States by J. J. Hill and other American million- 
aires while the families of settlers in Saskatche- 
wan were in danger of freezing to death for want 
of fuel. The majority of settlers, even the com- 
paratively well to do, are forced to live in 
houses, according to Mr. Heron, that do not 
protect them from the weather. 


Suffering Northwestern Cities Faced Shortage in 
Food Supply. 

Still another picture of the scope and sig- 
nificance of the coal shortage was shown in 
the following in the Chicago Record-Herald : 

Minneapolis, December 19. — Danger of starva- 
tion is now added to the horrors of the fuel 
famine in the Northwest. The already inade- 
quate railroad service has been interrupted by 
the cold and blizzards on the western prairies, 
and now several towns are not only suffering 
from lack of fuel, but are short of food. The 
situation at Ambrose, N. D., is declared to be 
desperate. A telegram from the Citizens' Com- 
mittee there, received to-day, says: 

"Ambrose is without coal and provisions. 
Twenty cars of fuel and food in the hands of the 
railway company must be brought here by special 
train at once in order to relieve the situation or 
great suffering will result. Have wired the gen- 
eral manager of the Soo Line, but no assurance 
of relieving present needs has been secured." 


Commissioner Declares That Northwest Dealers 
Are in Plot to Boom Coal. 

Up to the time that The Pandex went to 
press nothing conclusive had been offered in 
evidence as to the manner in which the coal 
shortage was brought about, but the general 
consensus of opinion was that it was en- 
tirely artificial and uncalled for. The fol- 
lowing from the New York Herald reflected 
the ofiScial view of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission : 

Washington, D. C, January 3. — "Throughout 
this inquiry the thought has repeatedly sug- 

gested itself that many of the problems pre- 
sented must rest in the character and intelli- 
gence of the railroad managers — their foresight, 
initiative adaptability, and public spirit." 

This paragraph, written by Commissioner 
Lane, epitomizes the report which the Interstate 
Commerce Commission has rendered to the Presi- 
dent on the subject of the car shortage in the 

The fuel famine in North Dakota is attributed 
to a conspiracy of wholesale and retail dealers 
to "maintain prices and boycott all who do not 
agree." The indisputable proof which the Com- 
mission says it has of this will be handed to the 
Department of Justice, which, it is expected, will 
be at once directed to bring proceedings under 
the Sherman Law forbidding combination in re- 
straint of trade. This combination operates in 
North Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. 

The fact that but thirty-eight per cent of the 
grain crop of North Dakota has been shipped to 
market and that millions of bushels lie under 
snow on the fields is laid to the policy of the 
railroads of the Northwest, including the Great 
Northern and Northern Pacific, in showing pref- 
erence to long hauls and in subordinating time 
of transportation to tonnage transported. 

Commissioners Lane and Harlan conducted 
the investigation at Minneapolis and Chicago. 

Referring to the report that the coal shortage 
was due to the presence of a trust or combination 
between dealers in coal who fixed prices in the 
Northwest and refused to sell to 'outsiders' and 
'irregulars,' the report says: 

"The Commission has gained indisputable 
proof of an agreement between coal dealers to 
maintain prices, and to boycott all who do not so 
agree; but there is no evidence at all justifying 
the contention that this combination is charge- 
able with the coal shortage prevailing nor that 
the railroads were party in any way to such a 


Lumber, Cotton, and Other Products Piled Up 
at Every Siding, Shippers Say. 

Another picture of the extent of the disas- 
ter wrought by the fuel famine was given- as 
follows in the St. Louis Republic : 

The hearing conducted by Interstate Com- 
missioner C. A. Prouty, assisted by P. J. Farrell, 
relative to the general freight congestion, brought 
out statements by shippers that strikingly re- 
sembled the complaints in the North and the 
Northwest about the fuel famine. 

While the reports from North Dakota and 
other states emphasize physical suffering and 
want, however, the testimony at the hearing 
here charged the railroads with responsibility 
for great financial losses to farmers, manufac- 
turers, cattle men, cotton growers, lumber deal- 
ers, and merchants. The relators declared that 




— Bellingham Bay Herald. 

the losses caused by freight congestion are ines- 

The car shortage in Texas has paralyzed the 
grain industry of the state and practically 
ruined, in several instances, dealers and growers, 
who are considering the advisability of discon- 
tinuing business, according to the testimony of 
W. 0. Brackett, chairman of the Arbitration 
Committee of the Texas Grain Dealers' Associa- 

Mr. Brackett read a series of letters from firms 
in various cities. He blamed not only the lack 
of transportation facilities, but the policy of cer- 
tain railroads in refusing free interchange of 
cars at junction points. This, he stated, causes 
the most aggravating and costly delays, and he 
suggested that the Commission evolve some 
method by which it may be eliminated. 

Mr. Brackett told of one grower in Oklahoma, 
who for two months had had stored in temporary 
bins on the ground sixty thousand bushels of 
corn, representing $20,000. This man wrote that 
he expected "comparative ruin," as he was abso- 
lutely unable to obtain cars in which to ship his 
crops to market, and must hold his corn until 
proper transportation is available. 


Chairman of Commission Asserts Roads Can Not 
Handle Traffic. 

Distribution of fault, of course, always is 

to be found in any crisis, and that blame 

attaches other than to the railroads in the 

car shortage is set forth in the following 

from the Philadelphia North American: 

Washington. — Shippers of the country, accord- 
ing to Chairman Knapp, of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, are quite as much to blame 
as the railroads for the shortage of freight cars 
which has created such a furore throughout the 
country during the past few weeks. 

Judge Knapp said that, while the acute stage 
has been passed in the Northwest and in the 
southwestern states, the situation is still very 

"In that growing region," said the Chief Com- 
missioner, "prosperity is so great and crops so 
heavy that the railroads are swamped. They 
have often neither cars nor track facilities to 
handle the traffic offered for transportation. But 



lack of ears, although not the only difficulty, is, 
of course, the greatest. 

"If the shippers would load and unload cars 
with less delay, the car shortage question would 
be solved, to a great extent. 

"Co-operation on the part of the shipper in 
avoiding all unnecessary delay in loading and 
unloading is absolutely essential, therefore, to 
even an approximate solution of the vexatious 
problem of ear shortage." 

In fact, since Congress has called upon the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to suggest leg- 
islation which will prevent car shortage, and 
since investigation has disclosed the responsi- 
bility of the shipper in the matter of delays, in 
order to eradicate the evil it would seem that the 
National Government might have to go into the 
business of regulating shippers as well as rail- 
roads. While this may seem absurd, yet on the 
face of the returns there is ample ground for the 


He Says That a Storm and Zero Weather at First 
Delayed Trains. 

An ex-parte view of the whole situation is 
the following interview with James J. Hill, 
taken from the New York Sun : 

Washington. — James J. Hill, president of the 
Great Northern Railway Company, in a letter 
received by a friend in Washington throws 
additional light on the cause of the alleged coal 
famine in the Northwest. The letter says: 

"The commission was here and after three 
days' investigation they found that in a very 
stormy week, with the thermometer at from 
thirty-five to thirty-eight degrees below zero, it 
was difficult to move trains and to keep open 
some of the branch lines. Our company has 
moved into the section affected this year nearly 
ninety thousand tons more coal than last year. 
Yesterday the Commission received reports from 
all points from which complaints have been re- 
ceived to the effect that coal was being supplied 
rapidly. Speaking for the Great Northern, I 
think to-day there are from sixty thousand to 
eighty thousand tons of coal in loaded cars west- 
bound from the head of Lake Superior which are 
rapidly reaching destination. This would supply 
North Dakota at the rate of any previous con- 
sumption until March 1, but the people in that 
section have been very prosperous and those who 
have heretofore used local lignites, which are 
mined in their neighborhood, have changed to 
better qualities of coal." 

Mr. Hill enclosed a letter which he had re- 
ceived from a merchant in Staples, Minn., in 
which the writer said: 

"If the coal dealers in the Northwest would 
prepare for winter as the dry-goods dealers do 
there would not be such a howl about car short- 
age. I buy my winter stock in July, August, and 

September. The coal man waits until November. 
I am surprised that the railroads have handled 
traffic as well as they have, considering the de- 
mands made upon them. When retail coal deal- 
ers refuse to lay in a supply of fuel early the 
wholesale dealer should sell direct in car lots to 
the consumer. This they refused to do in the 
past. It would be the solution of the whole prob- 


Universal Cry for Relief From Additional Bur- 
dens Upon Reasonable Existence. 

While the coal situation was so pressing, 
and while in all parts of the country people 
were complaining of the pinch of rising 
prices and the inadequacy of the rising 
wage, the New York World, thru its mul- 
tiple correspondents, was able to present the 
following comprehensive survey of the Amer- 
ican field: 

Investigation by World correspondents in all 
parts of the country as to the increase of wages 
and salaries as compared with the increase in the 
cost of living indicates that generally the wage 
increase has not kept pace with the cost of the 
necessaries of life. It is also shown that while 
incomes have been liberally advanced within only 
recent months, the cost of living has been increas- 
ing for five or six years, and has now reached 
the maximum for a quarter of a century. 

The people of some of the states are extremely 
prosperous and satisfied, but the cry from nearly 
every section is that present incomes are not 
sufficient to meet the reasonable demands of liv- 

Fails to Better Conditions. 

Cleveland.— Despite the large number of work- 
ing men who have received an advance in wages 
in the last year, industrial conditions are pro- 
nounced but little better than they were a year 
ago. According to reports in the hands of Harry 
D. Thomas, secretary of the United Trades and 
Labor Council, the larger cost of living more than 
counterbalances the increase paid to union men. 

In order to equalize the differential between 
the cost of living and wages, a campaign of or- 
ganization is being conducted with the intention 
of uniting the independent workers and strength- 
ening the movement for better conditions. 

Hoosiers Ahead of Expenses. 

Indianapolis. — Experts declare that the ad- 
vance in the cost of living is going on in such a 
way that it will demonstrate itself in the figures 
of future statistics in an alarming manner. At 
present, taking the entire state, inquiry shows an 
average advance in wages of about ten per cent, 
and an advance in living hardly six per cent. 





Chicago May Come Out on a Level. 

Chicago, December 26. — Professor Albion W. 
Small, head of the Sociology Department of the 
University of Chicago, says: "Living expenses 
are higher now than for any other period within 
twenty-six years. In 1881 they reached a level 
in many channels as high as to-day. Then there 

from every city in the state, and by a system of 
points has worked out a percentage by which, in 
a report just issued, it is shown that the net in- 
crease in the price of these commodities is ap- 
proximately 20.38 per cent. 

A comparison of prices between October of this 
year and the corresponding month two years ago, 
shows that eighty-two articles of food show an 


-Pittsburg Gazette Times. 

was a gradual decline until ten years ago, when 
the advance set in. During that time the wages 
of skilled labor have advanced in even greater 
proportion than living expenses. The wages of 
unskilled labor have not had the same advance. 
"For the last three years the railroads have 
been advancing wages of employees that always 
have been paid below the percentage of increase 
of living expenses, and this year the indication 
is that the increase in railroad wages will equal 
the percentage of increase of living expenses." 

Foods Cost 20.38 Per Cent More. 

Boston. — The Massachusetts Bureau of Statis- 
tics of Labor, investigating the increased cost of 
living, has obtained prices on necessary food 

increase in price, fifty a decrease, and nine no 
change. In the increased list are buckwheat, rye 
and Graham flour, black tea, cut loaf sugar, mo- 
lasses, vinegar, butter, cheese, eggs, kidney beans, 
rice, sago, meat of all kinds, several varieties of 
fish, vegetables, and fruit. 

In the decrease list are bread and pastry flour, 
meal, coffee, green and mixed tea, cheaper grades 
of sugar, the better grades of butter, medium and 
pea beans, split peas, starch, oil, pickles, coal, and 

Rents Up in Denver. 

Denver. — John C. Gallup is authority for the 
estimate that house rents have increased during 
the past year in Denver about eight to ten per 



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cent. The cost of provisions of all kinds has 
been also materially advanced in the year. Fuel 
is about the same as in 1905. Flour is slightly 
higher. Sugar and meats have been uniformly 
five per cent hisrher during the whole year. Some 
of the staple meat products of the best grades, 
especially those shipped from the East, have 
risen eight to ten per cent. Poultry and green 
truck retained the high prices of last year till 
Thanksgiving, since when there has been a slight 
decrease. Clothing and all other dry goods have 
not decreased any from the marked advance of a 
year and a half or two ago. 

Increase in Michigan Only Three Cents. 

Detroit. — In the race between wages and the 
cost of living in Michigan honors went to the lat- 
ter during the last year. The Wolverine State 
is prospering, as the great increase in the number 
of employees attests, but the manufacturer, capi- 
talist, farmer, are reaping the benefit rather than 
the wage earner or the man on a small salary. It 
is estimated that the increase in wages for the 
year will average less than three cents per day, 
obviously an insufficient advance to meet the cost 
of living. 

Wages and Cost Unequal in Ohio. 

Cleveland. — Union labor in Ohio is receiving, 
according to figures by H. D. Thomas, secretary 
of the United Trades and Labor Council, twenty 
per cent more in wages than they were five years 
ago; on the other hand, his statistics show that 
provisions, shoes, clothing, and rents have ad- 
vanced more than thirty-five per cent within five 

Balance Against the People. 

St. Paul. — Incomplete reports of the State La- 
bor Commission show that the increase in wages 
in Minnesota mines and factories has been 8 per 
cent during the past year, mostly in the mining 
and lumbering regions. The statistics of the cost 
of living, says the Labor Commission, are not yet 
complete, but they show that the increase in 
wages has not kept pace with the increased cost 
of living, not mentioning the item of room, flat, 
or house rent, which has increased tremendously. 

The balance is against the workman, trades- 
man, and professional man by a five-per-cent in- 
crease. Rents have advanced twenty to twenty- 
five per cent, though building operations have ad- 
vanced thirty-three per cent. 

Can't Meet Their Expenses. 

Lewiston, Me. — It is announced by the mail 
agents here that beginning December 31 the 
wages in all of the Lewiston cotton mills will ad- 
vance five per cent, the second increase of wages 
in these mills within six months, as last August 
the wages were voluntarily advanced five per 
cent. This makes a total of ten per cent increase 
during the last half of the year, and still many 

of the employees claim that their income is insuf- 
ficient to properly support their families, since 
the cost of living has increased double the in- 
crease in wages. 

Many of the operatives are running behind 
this winter, and hope to be able to pay next sum- 
mer for fuel and other articles now being bought 
on credit. 

The wages in the Edwards mills at Augusta, 
the Biddeford mills, and other smaller manufac- 
turing towns have been recently advanced, mak- 
ing the total increase for the year about ten per 
cent. In all of these places careful investigation 
shows the increase of living to be not less than 
twenty per cent. Many of the mill operatives 
have gone into the woods to work this winter at 
good pay and reduced cost of living; 

Increase in Wages Comes All at Once. 

Milwaukee, December 26. — Statistics prepared 
by Labor Commissioner J. D. Beck show that 
practically all of the increase in wages in Wis- 
consin in the past ten years has come within the 
past three months, while the increase in the cost 
of living has been gradual, or at a rate of a little 
under four per cent a year for the past five years. 
The increase in wages per man since 1900 has 
been, in factories, 18.2 per cent, and for salaried 
employees ten per cent. The cost of living has 
increased ten per cent in five years. 

Big Jump Upward in Maine. 

Lewiston, Me. — ^While wages to employees of 
the leading industries of the state have been 
advanced from five to ten per cent during the 
past year, reliable estimates of the increased 
cost of living place the increase from fifteen to 
twenty-five per cent higher than it was a year 
ago. Canned goods, fruits, meats, and provisions 
of all kinds, with the possible exception of flour, 
have advanced upward of twenty per cent dur- 
ing the last twelve months; clothing is from fif- 
teen to twenty per cent higher, and all other ne- 
cessities ten per cent or more. 

Prices High; Wages Not EquaL 

Atlanta. — That even in Atlanta, the most pro- 
gressive city of the state, the increase in wages 
during the past year has not kept count with the 
increase in cost of living, is the statement of ex- 
perts, while the rest of the state has not fared 
so well as has Atlanta. All over the state the 
living price has greatly increased. In Atlanta 
rent has gone to the skies, and both luxuries and 
necessities in food have vastly increased. 

Nym McCullough, wholesale merchant, ^ays 
that foodstuffs are far more expensive, but thinks 
that the increase in cost of living is only slightly 
in advance of the increase in wages. Mayor 
Woodward declares that the increase in both has 
been equal. Jerome Jones, editor of the Journal 
of Labor, says that within the last five or six 
years wages have increased at the rate of twenty 
to thirty-five per cent, but that the starting point 



was unequal, very poor wages being paid before 
that time. He says that rent costs at least five 
per cent more in Atlanta than in Nashville, and 
figures an increase in living in advance of the 
increase in return for work done. Everything 
costs more. 

Costs $1.66 Now for Tood Once Costing $1.00. 

St. Louis. — Inquiry as to the increased cost of 
living among merchants of all kinds, including 
those who fit out the house and supply the table 
wants, indicates it costs as much now to feed 
three persons as it did to feed five persons five 
years ago. In other words, the food that $1 
bought five years ago costs $1.66 now. 

. Virginia's Increase Pitifully Small. 

it may be said that the purchasing power of a 
dollar is not so gi-eat to-day as it was the first of 
the year, notwithstanding the apparent increase 
in the business prosperity of the state and of the 

Prices in New York. 

Richmond. — The increase in wages in Virginia 
in the past twelve months is conservatively esti- 
mated at not more than two per cent. In no. case 
has there been an increase by any large corpo- 
ration or firm in excess of ten per cent. Two 
railroads have announced a ten-per-cent raise 
this year. One or two large manufacturing con- 
cerns have made a similar announcement. The 
greater number of railroad employees and fac- 
tory workers have received no increase at all. If 
the total increase in the few instances mentioned 
were apportioned among all the men and women 
who work for wages the average increase would 
probably not exceed one per cent. 

The cost of living, the cereals, dairy products, 
vegetables, house rents, and fuel have increased 
certainly ten or fifteen per cent in twelve 
months. In this city, for instance, milk is re- 
tailing at forty per cent increase over the year 
before, and wood for fuel has increased nearly 
fifty per cent. 

Dollar Buys Much Less in Hampshire. 

Concord. — According to figures of the State 
Labor Commissioner, the only general advance in 
wages in the state during the year has been in 
the cotton and woolen mills, where the operatives 
have been granted an increase of ten per cent. 
In other industrial lines wages remain about the 
same. Laborers employed in mill and at other 
work have benefited by a shortage of supply, and 
have thus been able to command an increase 
from the $1 per day to $1.75, and in some cases 

Estimates furnished by large retail houses 
show that the cost of living has gone beyond any- 
thing that has come to the worker in the way of 
better wages. In groceries alone, taken as a 
whole, a dealer estimates the increase during the 
year at eight per cent. In beef and its products 
the margin of increase has been small, but in 
pork and pork products there has been a heavy 

Farm products are held at a somewhat higher 
figure than at the commencement of the year, 
but by reason of the drought conditions butter 
and eggs are now quoted at figures that put them 
beyond the reach of many families. To sum up, 

There has been an average rise of twenty per 
cent in the price of food, clothing, and building 
material in New York during the last year. Flour 
is almost the only article of food that has de- 
clined. Fresh and salt meats, dairy products, 
cotton and woolen goods, lumber, furniture, steel 
— all have gone up in price since the first of the 

The following table, compiled from data gath- 
ered by the Bradstreet Company, shows the 
wholesale prices of many leading articles as com- 
pared with those of twelve months since. The 
advance in the wholesale prices has been less 
than that in retail, as a rule. The average retail 
advance has been twenty-five per cent: 

Commodity. Dec. 1, '06. Dec. 1, '05. 

Flour, per barrel $3.40 $3.85 

Beef, per pound 09 .08l^ 

Pork, per pound 09 •071/2 

Mutton, per pound IO14 -091/2 

Milk, per quart 041/2 .041 

Eggs, per dozen 37 .33 

Bread, per loaf 04 .04 

Pickled beef, per barrel 13.50 11.50 

Bacon, per pound 09 .08 

Ham, per pound I31/2 -101/2 

Lard, per pound 09 .07 

Butter, per pound 30 .24 

Cheese, per pound 14 -13% 

Coffee, per pound O814 .O71/2 

Sugar, per pound ,047 .046 

Tea, per pound 17 .161/2 

Molasses, per gallon 30 .30 

Salt, per sack 93 1.00 

Potatoes, per barrel _. 1.50 2.50 

Apples, per barrel 1.50 2.50 

Tanned leather, per lb 38 .38 

Raw cotton, per lb 11 2-10 11 6-10 

Wool, Australian, per lb 86 .85 

Print clothes, per yard 03 9-10 .03 6-10 

Gingham, per yard 06% .05% 

Pig iron, per ton 26.00 18.87 

■Steel beams, per ton 34.00 32.00 

Silver, per ounce 69% .65i/g 

Copper, per pound 22% .17 6-10 

Hard coal 5.00 5.00 

Brick, per 1000 5.25 9.00 

Window glass, per box 2.42 1.91 

Pine lumber, per 1000 ft 32.00 26.00 

Timber, per 1000 ft 22.00 20.00 

Alcohol, per gallon 2.47 2.51 

Wheat and rye are the only cereals that are 
cheaper. That was due to the enormous crops 
of those grains. Corn, oats, and barley are all 
higher priced. Live sheep are a little cheaper. 
Horses are $2.50 apiece lower. The wholesale' and 
retail prices of bread are the same, although flour 
has gone down. 



Alcohol is lower but whisky is higher, due to 
increased consumption. The report everywhere 
is the same — the consumption of whisky is in- 
creasing. Mackerel are $7 a barrel higher. Cod- 
fish has gone up $1.50 a barrel. Rice is un- 
changed. Dried beans have declined from $3.25 a 
bushel to $2.50. Dried peas have declined 
slightly. Potatoes are considerably lower. Cran- 
berries are lower; peanuts are higher; lemons 
are the same as a year ago. The California earth- 
quake doubled the price of raisins and raised 
dried currants fifty per cent. 

Shoes, owing to the increased cost of hides, are 
now fifteen to twenty per cent higher than a year 

Ten years ago cotton was worth 7 4-10 cents a 
pound. To-day it is worth II14. Although this 
is a slight shading down from the price a year 
ago, cotton goods, except sheetings, have heavily 
advanced, owing to an alleged combine among 
the big mills. The same is true of woolen goods. 
Wool was worth less than 5 cents a pound in 
1906; now it is worth 8 6-10 cents. Though this 
is a rise of only a tenth of a cent a pound in the 
last year, the retail cost of woolen garments has 
risen on an average fifteen per cent within eight- 
een months. According to the retailers, the 
manufacturers have not only put up the price 
all they thought the market could stand, but have 
skimped on the size of the garments. Cotton be- 
ing now higher than wool, there is less than the 
usual amount of adulterating woolen goods with 

The advance in the price of building materials, 
coupled with the general advance in wages in New 
York City, has nearly doubled the cost of build- 
ing operations in the last five years. Many skilled 
laborers can now make $40 to $60 a week nearly 
the whole year round. This applies to masons 
and structural steel workers especially. Last win- 
ter was so open that scarcely a day was lost to 
the contractors and their men. 

The beef trust has boosted up cottonseed oil 
per gallon from 27 to 44 cents. All naval stores 
have gone up, including rosin, turpentine, and 
tar. Chemicals and drugs are about the same 
price now as a year ago. Hops are cheaper, rub- 
ber is higher. Tobacco is unchanged. Paper has 
gone up. So has hay. 

Thirty-six Items Cost Twenty- four Per Cent More. 

Philadelphia. — Commercial reports and census 
figures now at hand show a general increase in 
the state in the cost of food-stuffs amounting to 
more than twenty-four per cent upon thirty-six 
items of food rated necessities. In Philadelphia 
there has been marked increases in house rents, 
and a proposition to increase the tax rate from 
$1.50 per $100 to $1.65 per $100 promising still 
higher rents. 

Not Unlikely. 

Charley Vaudeville (at the classical concert) — 
This music by the old composers may be all 
right, in some respects, but it strikes me as be- 
ing too reminiscent. 


"Well, I seem to have heard snatches of it 
before, somewhere. ' ' — Puck. 

The Wasp Waist Again. 

Women, it is reported, are returning to small 
waists. There are one or two of our acquaint- 
ances who are going to have trouble in getting 
back. — Puck. 

Good Old Days. 

"I can't help longing for the good old days," 
said the engineer. 

"The good old days?" repeated the eminent 

"Yes; the time when the work of building 
the Panama Canal seemed half completed when 
you had drawn a line with a blue pencil across 
the map of the isthmus." — -Washington Star. 

The Anatomy of Jocosity. 

"I say, D'Orsay, have you ever heard that 
joke about the guide in Rome who showed some 
travelers two skulls of St. Paul, one as a boy 
and the other as a man?" 

"Aw, deah boy — no — aw, let me heah it." — 
Boston Transcript. 

When We Are Civilized. 

Public servants will devote more time to duty 
and less to politics. 

Big criminals will be pursued as relentlessly as 
little criminals. 

There will be truth in trade. 

There will be more art and less commercialism. 

There will be fewer moral cowards. 

There will be greater effort to obey and less 
effort to evade laws. 

Wealth will be less arrogant. 

There will be no favored classes. 

Pain will make fewer tyrants. 

Men will be as anxious to pay debts as to col- 
lect them. 

Advantage will not be taken of ignorance. 

Man will not fear the truth. 

Hypocrisy will be a lost art. 

Manhood will take precedence over position. 

Men will not submit to wrongs to avoid effort 
and trouble. 

There will be as much patriotism in time of 
peace as in time of war. — H. C. F., in Life. 



h A 
















days on the At- 
lantic, fifteen days 
without eating at a 
table, three days sub- 
sisting on hardtack and 
canned goods because 
fires could not be 
started in the galleys; 
those were some of the 
trials of the men who 
took the United States 

floating drydock Dewey from Newport to 
Manila. In addition to these physical discom- 
forts, the sailors faced death with their ships 
on more than one occasion, and with the excep- 
tion of two weeks, the first part of the journey 
around the world, the trip from the Chesapeake 
Bay to the Canary Islands was spent in a con- 
stant struggle with some of the worst storms 
that ever ravaged the Atlantic. 

One Cleveland man was aboard the convoy, 
and he has just returned from Manila after a 
trip that lasted ten months. J. C. Tressel of No. 
3080 East Sixty-fifth Street enlisted in the navy 
two years ago as a third-class electrician. When 
the Government decided to send the Dewey to 
Manila and undertake a feat the world said was 
impossible, Tressel was serving on the auxiliary 
ship Glacier as a first-class electrician. The 
Glacier was detailed as supply ship to the Dewey 
and the tugs Potomac and Caesar, and accom- 
panied the dock and the tugs to the Orient. 
Seven months were consumed in the trip to 
Manila, and the Glacier cruised home by way of 
the Suez Canal, stopping at all the important 
ports en route. 

The newspapers told how panicky the Gov- 








,^^' r^.^^^> ^^ ^'t -Cleveland 

■ '^i T, 




Plain • 

ernment grew when the dock had been seven 
weeks on the Atlantic without being sighted by 
passing craft, and what a sigh of relief went 
through the Navy Department when at last a 
message came that the convoy had reached Las 
Palmas harbor in the Canaries. The relief was 
but slight, however, when compared with that 
experienced by the oflBcers and men on board the 
supply ship and tugs. The forty days of storm 
had worn them out. From midnight to the next 
midnight, day after day, it was a constant strug- 
gle against winds and waves, contrary currents 
and accidents the elements caused. 

Fight With the Elements. 

"For hours at a time, in the worst weather 
our ship careened forty-five degrees. For two 
weeks it was impossible to eat at a table because 
no matter what the precaution, nothing would re- 
main where it was put," said Tressel a few days 
ago. "Two of the fourteen days the seas ran so 
high that it was impossible to put a fire in the 
galley stoves, and to cook food was impossible. 
Men and oflScers ate when they could from boxes 
of hardtack and tins of prepared food. To walk 
the deck meant death if no guiding ropes were 



at hand, and even" then it was sometimes neces- 
sary to crawl on hands and knees. 

"In the midst of the worst weather, the fifteen- 
inch cable attached to the dock broke one night 
at midnight. The dock could not be located by 
the searchlights, and the convoy steamed around 
for hours looking for the tow. It was daylight 
when we again picked up the dock, and then it 
was found thirty miles away. Its immense bulk 
had taken the place of sails and the wind carried 
it rapidly. 

"During the trip across the Atlantic, our 
fifteen-inch cables broke five times. It was neces- 
sary to stop the ship and pull in the ends for 
splicing, and in a rough sea the task was not a 
little one. The dock was more than the tugs 
could manage, and on occasions it threatened to 
destroy us. In one collision the Glacier was so 
severely wrenched that a two-days' delay re- 

Blown to the Equator. 

"When we reached Las Palmas, after having 
been blown several hundred miles off our course 

and running as far south as the equator, we tied 
up for supplies and a fresh breath before put- 
ting off for the Mediterranean. The Mediter- 
ranean is usually quiet enough, but we struck 
one of the worst storms there we had experienced. 
We got to the Suez and took two days to run 
through. At Port Said our captain was warned 
not to attempt to run through the Indian Ocean, 
as typhoons and hurricanes had been frequent. 
We had already lost so much time that the of- 
ficers thought we could not wait, so we entered 
the Red Sea. There the water was as quiet as a 
mill pond, and we only had one stirring experi- 
ence in the Indian Ocean. The sea was smooth 
and we were making good time, but one after- 
noon the lookout discovered three water spouts 
running toward us. The call was sounded and 
the guns manned, the intention being to shoot 
the spouts and break them up before they reached 
us. About half a mile away they were exhausted, 
and the only difficulty we had with them was a 
solid sheet of water that fell about two inches 
deep over everything." 
— By Rae D. Henkle in Cleveland Plain Dealer. 






Goldfield, Nevada, December 18. — If anyone 
wants to get a single impression of the real value 
of the golden bait that has lured fifteen thou- 
sand men to a bleak, barren, windswept, frozen 
desert where three years and a half ago there 
was nothing but sagebrush and coyotes, let him 
consider the fact that at the present moment the 
day-wage mine workers employed in the various 
Goldfield mines are getting away with precious 
ore at the estimated rate of about $150,000 a 

In plain words they are stealing that amount 
from their employers, and so rich is the property 
on which they are working that their thefts are 
blandly winked at by the men they daily rob. 
To come down to figures again, the theft of gold- 
bearing ore at the rate of $2,800,000 a year is 
regarded as mere peculation, so vastly greater 
is the ore that remains. 

This daily stealing on the part of the miners 
is called high grading, for the reason that all the 
ore stolen is selected in small lumps from the 
richest ore in the mines. It is a comparatively 
simple matter for a miner who is working in a 
rich vein of ore to sneak two or three lumps into 
his pocket when the foreman isn't looking, and 
when the ore runs its best it takes only two or 
three little lumps to make a total of from $15 to 
$20 in value. 

So general is the practice of high grading 
among the mine workers that the mere day's 
wage of $5 or $5.50 is scarcely an object. Many 
of the mine superintendents have difficulty in 
getting the men to come around to sign the pay 
roll and get the money at the end of the week. 
What are wages with high grading so profitable ? 

Little secret is made of this practice. The 
owners and superintendents all know about it. 



Some of them even joke the miners about it and 
tlie workers laugh about it and discuss it among 
themselves quite openly, regardless of who is 
about to hear them. 

It's "Well, Jack, what did you do to-day, 
hey?" and "Oh, just fair, just fair; two or 
three nice ones to-day. How did they run fer 

This thieving could be stopped and would be 
stoDDed if it were not for the strength of the 
miners' union. It could be stopped by having a 
dressing room and compelling the mine workers 
to change their clothes there on emerging from 
the mines at the end of their day's work. 

But any attempt to put such a rule in force 
would undoubtedly precipitate a strike that 
would tie up every mine in Goldfleld. This, the 
mine owners think, would cost them so much 
more than the miners steal that in the end they 
would be the losers. So they shut their eyes 
and the daily robbery goes merrily on. 

Of course it is only in the richest mines that 
high grading can be made to pay and in these 
mines the foremen are overrun with applicants 
for work, while some of the others can scarcely 
get men enough to keep things moving. Most of 
the mines are now being operated by lessees. 

In the case of the Mohawk, for example, the 
lease runs out January 1. Here time is money, 
as it seldom is on- this earth and with the ore 
coming out at the rate of perhaps $1,600,000 a 
month, the lessees are not going to chance stop- 
ping the work for a paltry loss of say $25,000 
a week. There is some talk that when the leases 
expire and the real owners of the mines take 
control there will be some organized effort to 
stop the high grading, but that it can be done 
without a fight with the union is very generally 

Goldfleld is probably the most optimistic 
mining camp that ever existed. Everybody is 
booming Goldfleld. Everybody is excited and 

There are so many new-made rich in town 
that everybody else expects his turn will come. 
Of course, it won't come for all of them, but it 
is safe to say that the majority of the 15,000 
who have rushed to Goldfleld and kept their eyes 
open, worked hard and used horse sense have 
made money. 

A good many have made money out of Gold- 
fleld who never saw the town and never will see 
it. But a good many more in this class will lose 
money through lending a credulous ear to the 
sweet songs of promoters and fakers who trade 
upon the genuine success of the really valuable 
properties to boom enterprises whose sole assets 
are a name, a few acres of sterile rock and end- 
less adjectives displayed in big type. 

That Goldfleld contains some of the most valu- 
able mining properties the world has ever seen 
can not be doubted, and is so declared by scores 
of mining experts who have made impartial in- 
vestigation, and most of them say that the ground 
has only been scratched as yet. The result of 
this sincere and well-informed opinion is visible 
in the fact that from October 7 to November 7 

the stock market values of the shares of thirteen 
Goldfleld companies increased over $30,000,000. 
Naturally somebody made a heap of money out 
of this phenomenal jump. 

In one of the little banks of Goldfleld are 
stacked tiers of bags of ore. They look for all 
the world like bags of oats. 

Late every night, when most places are fast 
asleep, but when Goldfleld 's tenderloin is just 
beginning to get lively, a two-horse team comes 
in from the mines with a new load guarded by 
three men who know how to shoot and shoot 
straight. Thus the heap grows, tier by tier. 

Of course it isn't oats at all, but some of the 
richest gold ore the world has ever known. It is 
the selected high grade of the richest of the Gold- 
field mines, set aside especially for shipment in 
one carload. The owners of the mine say that 
bv Januarv 1 there will be a carload of it and 
that it will be worth $1,000,000. So far as is 
known it will be by far the most valuable car- 
load of gold-bearing ore ever shipped to the 

In the first two weeks of October seven leases 
on one mine produced gold ore estimated to be 
worth $670,000. In the single week ending Oc- 
tober 20, Goldfield mines shipped ore worth 

Some of the richest ore has been assayed to 
run at the stupendous rate of $300,000 a ton. 
Of course there is very little of this or gold would 
soon be as cheap as tin. One of the Goldfleld 
banking houses displays in its window a lump of 
ore which, if broken up, would scarcely fill a 
peck measure. Yet the assayers appraise it at 

The Sun correspondent was allowed to inspect 
the workings of the Mohawk mine, whose shares 
were vainly hawked about a few months ago 
at 25 cents and are now selling at anywhere from 
$16 to $18. The Mohawk is out on the bare side- 
hill of Columbia Mountain, like all the others 
in this district. 

You put on an old jacket and a cap, take a 
candle and get into the huge bucket that swings 
at the top of the shaft. Somebody pulls a rope 
and down you go, slowly and circumspectly. It's 
not exciting. A ride in a Syndicate Building 
elevator beats it to death for sensation. 

At the bottom of the shaft you find yourself 
at the beginning of a crooked tunnel just high 
enough to walk in. You light your candle and 
follow your guide. 

The ore along here, he tells you contemptuous- 
ly, is low grade — only about $20 a ton. ■ You 
contemplate the soft gray rock on either side of 
you and you believe him. If you found it in a 
New England pasture you wouldn't give ten 
cents a mountain for it. 

Presently you hear the sound of picks and 
shovels and you come upon a little group of men 
digging in the side wall. Here, says your guide, 
the ore gets pretty fair — say $100 a ton. You 
look at it as closely as you can and you can't 
see any difference in it. 

You go along a little further and you find 
two or three men boring into the rock with dia- 



mond drills run by compressed air. Here, you 
are told, is ore mounting to $1000 a ton. Your 
guide calls your attention to it and picks at it 
with a chisel. 

You stare at it dutifully and here and there 
you see a shiny dot which, you hear, is almost 
free gold. But it isn't free to you, and for all 
you can tell it might be mica or tin. Your heart 
doesn't beat a single stroke faster. 

Dodging a man pushing a handcar full of 
steam yachts and Fifth Avenue houses over a 
narrow trolley road, you turn another corner and 
slide down a dimly lighted gorge between stacks 
of heavy timber cribs built up to retain the roof. 
Presently you emerge into another level tunnel. 

Your guide lifts his candle and traces a nar- 
row, triangular vein that somebody has gauged 
out for twenty-five or thirty feet. You are told 
what the stuff is worth that filled that vein. It 
is a stupendous sum. 

You wonder why it doesn't excite you. But 
it doesn't. All you see is a gouge in a dirty 
gray rock. 

On you go, slipping and stumbling, your con- 
ductor talking the while of stopes and winzes 
and tellurides and things till you come to a fore- 
man who says that they're going to shoot pretty 

You ask what that is and you find out it's 
blasting. Then you remember about a man on 
whom the roof fell last week when they fired a 
blast in that very mine. You discover that you 
are very tired. Moreover, you have to see a man 
at some place in Goldfield within the next half 

As you reach the foot of the shaft once more 
and gaze anxiously up the 280-foot hole to see 
if the bucket isn't coming down, you hear half 
a dozen muffled booms that shake the ground 
under your feet and the walls and the roof above 
your head, and you try to guess how many thou- 
sand dollars each blast meant. 

Once on the surface again, you find that your 
low shoes are full of tiny fragments of rock. 
You start to take them off and empty them. 
But you don't do it. You reflect that they are 
full of money and you craftily resolve to wait 
till you get home. 

Just outside the shaft is a big heap of broken 

' ' How much gold is there in that pile of ore 1 ' ' 
you ask. 

"About $250,000 worth," says your guide. 
"We haven't been able to get cars enough to 
haul it away." 

' ' Ah ! ' ' you say politely. " That 's a nuisance. ' ' 

But it doesn't excite you a bit. If you saw a 
trainload of it on the railroad somewhere you'd 
probably wonder where the macadam road was 
going to be built. 

Yet that 'S the sort of stuff, taken from that 
black, damp, smelly hole you've just left and 
, that you're so mighty glad to be out of, that has 
already ftiade at least four millionaires. Prob- 
ably th* most remarkable of them is George 
Wingflilld, and inasmuch as America is in all 
probability going to hear a good deal of this 

young man and his wealth, it may be as well to 
tell what manner of person he is. 

George Wingfleld is to-day the most powerful 
and notable figure at Goldfield. His present 
wealth is variously estimated at from $12,000,- 
000 to $15,000,000, with infinite possibilities of 

He has made nearly all of it in the last eight 
months. Less than a year ago he was vainly 
trying to sell a big block of Mohawk shares at 
15 cents. They are worth nearly 200 times that 

One day about eight years ago a young man 
walked into the little bank that George S. Nixon, 
now United States Senator from Nevada, was 
running in the town of Winnemueca, Nev. Tak- 
ing from his finger a diamond ring, he threw it on 
the counter, and remarking to the teller: 

"Say, pardner, I'm broke and I'd like to get 
$75 on that ring." 

"You've got into the wrong shop," replied 
the teller. "This isn't a pawnshop. We don't 
do that kind of business." 

It happened that Mr. Nixon himself was be- 
hind the counter. Something in the young man 's 
manner took his fancy. 

Turning to the teller, he instructed him to give 
the penniless one the $75 he asked and charge 
it to his account. Moreover, he declined to take 
the ring. 

"How do you know I'll ever pay you?" said 
Wingfield, for it was he. 

Senator Nixon smiled. 

"Oh, I guess I'll take the chance," he said. 

They say in Goldfield that George Wingfield 
never forgets a friend or forgives an injury. 
Certain it is that his liking for Nixon began at 
that time and when he made his big strike in 
the Mohawk the Senator was the first man he 
let in on it. 

To-day the firm of Nixon & Wingfield con- 
trols not only the Mohawk, but also the $50,000,- 
■000 merger of that and four other Goldfield 
mines. They are in addition the most powerful 
factors in all the Nevada mining fields. 

Wingfield is only 29. The son of a Nevada 
cattle man, he has in his few years seen a good 
deal of the seamy side of life. He has herded 
sheep, ridden cattle ranges, prospected and 
tended bar. Practically all of his life has been 
spent in the wilds of the West, in cattle towns 
and mining camps. 

When things began to boom in Tonopah a few 
years ago Wingfield drifted in and got a job 
as faro dealer. He had acquired a little cash 
and soon bought an interest in the place. 

The game prospered and he put in a roulette 
wheel. Other gambling devices followed, and it 
wasn't long before Wingfield was $100,000 ahead 
of the game. 

Then he went in prospecting, and after Harry 
Stimler, the Indian, had located the now famous 
Sandstorm claim, first of the Goldfield strikes, it 
wasn't long before Wingfield located the Mo- 

Not for three years later did he know whether 
he had a mine or a heap of worthless rock. But, 



though he no longer deals the faro game at 
Tonopah, he still owns an interest in the place. 

Of medium height and build, this young min- 
ing king is a singular mixture of attraction and 
repulsion. Anybody's first guess would be that 
he was shrewd, and he has the quiet deadly readi- 
ness, the cold, half furtive, almost fishy, eye of 
the professional gambler. He looks like a bad 
man to pick up carelessly. And so he is. Gold- 
field has had evidence of both his shrewdness 
and his courage. 

Last September there was a labor fight on 
against the Goldfield Sun. People who entered 
its office were photographed and their pictures 
posted outside the miners' union hall. In fact, 
the most active kind of boycott was declared. 

One night a crowd of miners were annoying two 
newsboys who were selling the boycotted paper. 
Hearing the uproar, Wingfield stepped out of his 
office. Seizing one of the fleeing boys, he took a 
paper from him and gave him a quarter. The 
crowd advanced threateningly and at its head 
was a huge fellow who made a rush at the mining 

Like a flash Wingfield whipped a gun from his 
pocket, smashed the big man full in the face with 
its butt, and, so quickly that nobody could see 
how it was done, and had him covered with a sec- 
ond gun produced with miraculous speed from no- 
body knew where. 

In three seconds there was nobody in the street 
but Wingfield. Since then no one in Goldfield 
questions what he does. 

Yet there is nothing of the braggart or the 
bully about him. Only once in a great while 
does he seem to remember the wild days of 
the past. 

Then for twenty-four hours or so Goldfield 
makes bibulous holiday at his expense, and if 
there's a constant rain of twenty-dollar gold 
pieces about his head, why — so much the better 
for those who scramble for them; and if 300 
men in Tex Rickard's northern saloon are all 
drinking champagne together at his expense, 
who's to find any fault? Certainly nobody in 

But the next day it's all over. Unassuming, 
reserved, almost diffident — the newest, and prob- 
ably before long one of the biggest of American 
millionaires, goes quietly about his work as if 
the world had no such things as roulette wheels 
or bubble water or .44 " sawed-offs. " 


Chicago, Dec. 18. — The Chronicle to-day 
says : Edward H. Harriman has repaid James 
J. Hill in his own coin by wresting victory 
from him in the shadow of defeat through 
one of the most effective coups ever executed 
in financial battles. The control of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
which Morgan and Hill confidently believed 

to be theirs, yesterday morning, is still 
lodged with the Harriman-Standard Oil in- 
terests and will be strengthened. 

As Hill threw Harriman out of ownership of 
Northern Pacific in the Christmas season of 1901, 
so Harriman ousts Hill from an ownership in St. 
Paul this year. Hill executed his flank move- 
ment by retiring the preferred stock of Northern 
Pacific, in which his opponent's control cen- 
tered; Harriman and his friends maintain St. 
Paul by issuing two-thirds of a $100,000,000 
stock increase to the holders of the preferred. 
Hill's Control Only Ashes. 

While Hill's control of Northern Pacific com- 
mon was a golden apple, his control of St. Paul 
is but ashes. For a month there has been a 
Titantie struggle for the ownership of St. Paul 
in the open market. Quietly and almost unsus- 
pected, the Morgan-Hill people have been buying 
St. Paul in the hope of getting control and turn- 
ing the Pacific Coast extension southward into 
the Harriman territory. In the last week this 
battle for stock has been acute and a disturbing 
feature to Wall Street and the money market. 

Much of the old bitterness had been aroused. 
The attack of Jacob H. Sehiff upon banks charg- 
ing excessive money rates for stock loans was 
directed against Morgan institutions. For several 
days the Morgan banks were calling loans as the 
money was needed to buy St. Paul stock, the 
high rates and the calling of loans forcing out 
large blocks of this security, keeping down the 
price, and, to some extent, deceiving the trained 
speculators as to the real purpose. 

Yesterday the crucial point was reached. 
The Morgan-Hill interests . were within safe 
grounds; they could count on enough stock to 
swing the management of the road, and they 
reached for a god margin over actual control. 
To their surprise stocks came from quarters 
known to be friendly to St. Paul interests. There 
was a hesitation in the purchases, a searching in- 
quiry and the information from friends in the 
enemy's camp that there would be a coup in the 
announcement of a stock issue of $100,000,000, 
which was $25,000,000 more than was expected 
at this time. Then the contest was given up 
and the stock broke and weakened the market. 

The official announcement betrayed the cun- 
ning of the Harriman forces to make safe their 
agreement to make sure the extension of St. 
Paul into Hill territory. Of the $99,511,000 new 
stock the preferred is $66,327,000, or 135 per 
cent of the present issue of $49,654,000. There 
is to be $33,184,000 new common, or 40 per cent 
of the present issue of $83,183,000. 

Subscriptions to this new stock at the rate of 
75 per cent of present holdings of preferred and 
common are given to shareholders of record 
to-morrow (December 19), and the first install- 
ment of 10 per cent must be paid Friday, De- 
cember 21. In other words, subscribers who own 
the stock, or who buy to-day, must exercise their , 
right by 3 o'clock Friday at the place of regis- 
tration in New York. All stock not taken at 
that time reverts to a syndicate which has been 



formed, and this syndicate consists of friends 
of the present management, or of Harriman and 
the Rockefellers. 

Standard Oil in Evidence. 
Owing to the short notice not half the share- 
holders outside the warring factious will be able 
to avail themselves of the opportunity to sub- 
scribe. It is reported that the Morgan-Hill in- 
terests hold $48,000,000 of the common stock, 
which would give them the privilege of taking 

$33,750,000 of the $99,511,000 new securities and 
make their total holdings $78,750,000. 

The Standard Oil men own $30,000,000 of the 
preferred issue and $30,000,000 of the common. 
Their proportion of the new stock would increase 
their holdings to $95,000,000. Through the short 
notice they will profit by securing $25,000,000 
more of the new stock, which would give them 
$120,000,000, or a clear majbrity of the $230,- 
348,000 of stock, as increased. 

Song of the Wild Chauffeur. 

I want to go out in my automobile. 

My automobubblety-bobblety-bubble. 

And rattle and roar till I run against trouble; 

I want to cut loose with the Gabriel tooter, 

To skip and to scamper about with my scooter, 

My howler, my yeller, my shrieker, my hooter. 

My automobubblety-bobblety-babble. 

That roars at the rubbering rig of thejabble. 

My triple expansion and forty-horse double, 

My automobubblety-bobblety-bubble, 

With honkety-honkety, honkety-bing ! 

And tootlety-tootlety-tootlety-spring! 

My automobipper — 

My automozipper — 

Ker-smash I 

I want to whop out and go whirling and whizzing 
And scooting and tooting and fizzing and sizzing 
And flipping and flashing and fussing and flying 
And gliding and sliding and shooting and shying; 
I want to go tilting around every corner, 
A-honking and honking my Gabriel warner; 
I want to scare dogs till they s^eem to have rabies ; 
I want to bewilder nursemaids with their babies; 
I want to whir past the old men with their 

crutches ; 
And call back their youth with my hair-raising 

touches ; 
I want to go puffing and panting, pell-melling 

And coughing and crying and screaming and yell- 

By street and by store and by doorway and dwell- 

To ride in my automobubblety-bebble. 

Surrounded by dust and by smoke and by 
pebble — 

My automorammer — 

My automoslammer — 

Ker-smash I 

I want to wind up with a tire on my collar. 
To face a repair bill that takes my last dollar ; 
I want to go smash in the smashest of smashes — 
The end of the worst of all death-daring dashes; 
To fly in the air and come down in the stubble, 
Commingled with all of my automobubble. 
Mixed up and mixed in and securely entangled, 
With all the machinery hopelessly mangled, 
The Gabriel horn in a twist beyond tooting, 
The wheels past all chances of skidding or scoot- 
Oh, let me go out in my automobobble. 
My automobubblety-wibblety-wobble. 
My honkety-honkety-honkety-bang ! 
And sizzlety-fizzlety-whizzlety-whang ! 
My automobipper — 

My automozipper- - 

Ker-smash ! 
— San Francisco Trade Journal. 



Aftermath of a Sensation 

-New York World. 


THE first sensation caused by newspaper 
reports of Secretary Root's speech had 
scarcely spent itself when it became evident 
that the thing said by the President's con- 
fidant was not a challenge of the rights and 
powers of the States, but an intimation of 
the great necessity that confronts them, as 
it does the Federal Government, of broaden- 
ing and strengthening their laws and ad- 
ministrations if they are to grow in accord- 
ance with the growth of the problems with 
which they have to deal. So interpreted, the 
address deprived the administration's op- 
ponents of much of their political thunder, 
and cleared the atmosphere to such an ex- 
tent that the various States could the more 

intelligently face the Secretary's criticism 
and shape themselves' either for improve- 
ment or for reaction. 


Believe Opportunity is Afforded to Make Capital 
by State Eights Cry. 

Naturally enough the Democrats-, who have 

gradually been depleted of their most vital 

issues thru the radical policies of President 

Roosevelt, grasped at the possibilities that 

lay in a State Rights campaign. Said the 

Chicago Inter-Ocean : 

AVashington, D. C.^No annoimcement coming 
from President Roosevelt's administration has 
created a deeper stir than the 'centralization' 



speech made by Secretary Root at New York a 
few days ago. In coming out flatly for the 
broadening of the federal powers the long-smoul- 
dering opposition of Congress to President Roose- 
velt has been kindled into active revolt. 

In sending Mr. Root to New York to proclaim 
publicly what nearly every member of Congress 
has charged for a long time, the President has 
crystallized the issue that is at the bottom of the 
real conflict between the Senate and the House 
on one side and President Roosevelt with all the 
prestige of his great office on the other. 

At last the Republican leaders, who have not 
sympathized with many of the policies inaugu- 
rated by the President, believe they have an issue 
on which they can get a rational hearing before 
the people of the country. They have' been much 
in the same position as the Democrats who have 
been without an issue ever since Mr. Roosevelt's 

The Democratic leaders in Congress have 
eagerly grasped the opportunity presented by 
Mr. Root's presentation of the President's posi- 
tion as at last giving them an issue on which to 
go before the country. With them it is a rever- 
sion to. an old cry, that of states ' rights, but for 
all its antiquity, it is being hailed from their 
viewpoint as a saving gift from the enemy that 
may go a long way toward rehabilitating the 
Democratic party. 

In their calculations the Democrats foresee a 
split in the Republican party along these lines, 
and they hope to get a lot of recruits from that 
section of the Republican party that believes the 
limitations of the federal power and that of the 
states as laid down in the constitution should be 
left as they are. 


Denies Assaulting Constitution and Defending 
Doctrine of Absolutism. 

Secretary Root's own explanation of his 
Philadelphia utterances was given as follows 
in the Record-Herald: 

Washington. — A speech made by Secretary 
Root at the annual dinner of the Pennsylvania 
Society in New York has created an almost uni- 
versal sensation throughout the country and has 
been favorably or unfavorably commented upon 
by almost every newspaper. 

Secretary Root said in reply to a question: "Of 
course, I am surprised at the outcry. 

"It was not a constitutional speech. I dis- 
cussed no questions of constitutional law or con- 
stitutional rights; I certainly did not 'rip the 
constitution up the back,' as has been asserted. 
It was a historical review followed by certain in- 
ferences as to what will be the future of the 
United States under our dual form of constitu- 
tional government. I described the changed con- 
ditions since the writing of our constitution to 
which the provisions of that document have to be 
applied, and the causes of those changes : 

"1. The growth of national sentiment, which 

is due to the intermingling of the people and our 
material development. 

"2. People of distant communities are more 
intimately acquainted to-day than those of ad- 
joining communities were in the days of the 
fathers, and have become knit together by bonds 
of mutual interest and social connections. 

"3. The practical obliteration of state lines 
in travel and communication arising from the ex- 
tension of railroads, mail facilities, telegraph and 
telephone wires. 

"All these causes have resulted in a change of 
habits of thought, in a rearrangement of busi- 
ness methods and social customs, as distinct a 
the departure from the post-chaise and stage- 
coach period to the limited express and the auto- 
mobile. Our producers no longer provide food 
and clothing for their own neighborhood, but for 
consumers thousands of miles away. The manu- 
facturer no longer sells his wares to the people 
of the town in which they are made, but ships 
them to centers of trade, sometimes thousands of 
miles away. Some of our merchants have cus- 
tomers in forty states; when we get up in the 
morning we dress ourselves in clothing that was 
manufactured in distant places and eat for break- 
fast food which came many miles. 

"The process that interweaves the life and 
action of the people in every section of our coun- 
try with the people in every other section con- 
tinues and will continue with increasing force 
and effect. We are forging forward in develop- 
ment of business and social life that tends more 
and more to the obliteration of state lines and 
the decrease of state power as compared with 
national power. The relations of the business 
over which the Federal Government is assuming 
control; of interstate transportation, with state 
transportation, of interstate commerce with state 
commerce, are so intimate, and the separation of 
the two is so impracticable, that the tendency is 
plainly toward the practical control of the na- 
tional government over both." 


Beginning of End of Chicago Traction Horrors 
Dawns With Use of Through Boutes. 

Of the many local committees which are 
doing their best not to deserve the name of 
being reactionary, none have been more pro- 
gressive than Chicago. One phase of this 
city's efforts is reflected in the following 
from the Chicago Tribune : 

By all odds the most interesting phase of the 
settlement to the public is the prospect of a brand 
new street-car service, promised to be the best 
in the world, which will gradually evolve itself in 
the next three years. From $40,000,000 to $50,- 
000,000 will be spent on this rehabilitation under 
the direction of a joint board of engineers. The 
work is to begin as soon as the ordinances are 





Democrats here, who are somewhat at sea for an issue, are thinking of taking up Secretary 
Root's speech on state rights. — Washington Dispatch. 

— Chicago Inter-Ocean. 



passed by the Council and accepted by the com- 

Whatever flaws critics may pick in the general 
scheme of the proposed franchises, it is conceded 
on every hand that the outlook for Chicago's 
long-suflfering traveling public could not be 
brighter. The transformation of the street-car 
service has been plannec^ on broad and compre- 
hensive lines and with an attention to detail that 
is amazing. 

Under the plans of the rehabilitation work on 
the improvements is to be completed within three 
years. Through routes from one end of the city 
to another will be established at once, universal 
transfers will be exchanged, and new cars are to 
be added as rapidly as possible, so that at least 
two thousand up-to-date vehicles will be in ser- 
vice at the close of the rehabilitation period. 

Real comfort is to supplant the disagreeable 
conditions now obtaining in most of the dilapi- 
dated, ill-cared-for street cars in all parts of the 

The cars are to be an improvement in many re- 
spects even on the best type now in operation on 
the Indiana Avenue line. They are to be of the 
big-vestibuled, double-trucked variety, with cen- 
ter aisles and cross seats facing forward. The 
style and finish, exterior and interior, are to be 
of the most approved design, as detennined by 
the board of engineers. 

Every car, it is provided, shall be large enough 
to comfortably seat from forty to fifty persons. 
An ordinance prohibiting the crowding of a car 
with more than seventy-five persons will be 
passed by the City Council. The maintenance of 
the ears in a strictly clean condition will be en- 
forced, the ordinance providing for a reconstruc- 
tion of the present ear barns so as to permit of 
the installation of a thorough cleansing equip- 

The promise is held out that there will be no 
more cold cars in Chicago. The companies obli- 
gate themselves to heat the ears by electricity or 
hot water, and to maintain a temperature of fifty 
degrees in the winter. 

Outside the cars signs, illuminated at night, on 
the sides and ends will describe the route and 
destination. Inside the cars the route will also 
be designated. Push buttons at every seat will 
make it possible for passengers to signal for a 
stop without hunting up the conductor. 


Many Illinois Attorneys Want Statutes Modi- 

Still another phase of Chicago and Illinois 
progressiveness is shown in the following 
from the Chicago Inter-Ocean : 

The right of the state to appeal in cases where 
a prisoner is released on a writ of habeas corpus, 
permission under the law for the state to amend 
in criminal cases indictments or information in 
which formal defects are discovered, a provision 

enabling the state to appeal from final judgment 
in motions to quash indictments, and fewer per- 
emptory challenges of veniremen, were some of 
the recommendations made at the meeting of the 
Legislative Committee of the Illinois State's At- 
torneys' Association, held recently in the office 
of State's Attorney John J. Healy. 

All of the recommendations will be drawn up 
in the form of bills and will be presented to the 
Legislature for passage when it meets. 


St. Louis Assesses Telephone Devices as Well as 
Merchandise Sellers. 

In Missouri, where Governor Folk has been 
making notable success in his fight to en- 
force existing statutes, the following further 
development of the anti-gambling fight is 
given by the St. Louis Republic : 

The bill putting a tax on all slot machines used 
in the city, which has had a stormy career since 
its introduction into the House of Delegates, was 
passed last night against the opposition of Dele- 
gate Coale, of the Twenty-eighth Ward, who 
wished to make an amendment exempting tele- 
phone slot machines. Speaker O'Brien ruled 
against him. 

All slot machines containing merchandise, mov- 
ing pictures or scenes, and all machines for the 
collection of money for services, or for telephone 
or telegraph devices, are taxed $2 per year under 
the ordinance. A fine of from $5 to $2,5 is made 
the penalty for each violation of the measure. 


Principal Planks in the Party Which Controls the 
State Legislature. 

In the mountain state of Colorado where, 
as previously stated, a preacher-governor 
has recently been installed, the following 
are some of the respects in which better 
legislation was promised on the platform on 
which the Reverend Buchtel was elected: 

We recommend the enactment of a law govern- 
ing the railway commerce of the state along the 
lines of the national rate law, and the establisli- 
ment of a railway commission elected by the peo- 
ple for the enforcement of the same. 

We favor a measure which will provide for the 
expression by the people of their preference for 
candidates for the United States Senate. 

We recommend the enactment by the Legisla- 
ture of an anti-trust law which will prohibit com- 
binations in restraint of trade, and we would sug- 
gest for the consideration of the Legislature the 
provisions of the Ohio anti-trust law, which has 
recently been sustained by the courts. 

The practice of permitting lobbyists to haunt 
the State Capitol and the legislative halls is un- 



dignified and vicious, and the next Legislature trust companies, and loau associations may be 

should enact such measures as will do away with frequently examined, and the result of such ex- 

this pernicious custom. Our present insurance amination published, giving the condition of such 

laws are crude, conflicting, and incomplete, and offices or institutions and the business methods 

we pledge our party to revise them along con- employed therein. 


-St. Louis Republic. 

servative and progressive lines, to the end that 
greater protection may be afforded the public. 

We recommend the enactment of a law which 
will provide a uniform system of accounting for 
public offices and the creation of a state examiner, 
under whose direction all public offices handling 
public funds, and all state banks, savings banks. 


Legislatures of Many States to Enact Measures 
Making Changes. 

The following somewhat comprehensive 
survey of the general state legislative out- 



look in the West was given by the St. Louis 
Republic : 

Chicago, 111. — Legislatures of the western states 
are preparing for the hardest fight they have ever 
made for the "square deal." 

Advance information from the various state 
capitals indicates that more vital legislation for 
reform of public abuses will be enacted this year 
than during any previous year in the history of 
the West. There promises to be more spectacular 
battles on the floors of state assemblies than ever 
before. The year 1907 is to be the beginning of 
a new epoch in curbing the rapacious, and in eon- 
serving the welfare and rights of the everyday 

The steam railways and insurance companies 
are to be the main targets for reform and reme- 
dial laws. Bills offered for enactment will range 
from the timidly conservative to the limit of radi- 
calism, with prospects that several states will 
take advanced ground and establish novel prece- 

Governors to Wage War. 

Governors, in most instances, will make the 
declarations of war in their messages, but battle 
cries will come, as well, from legislators and from 
administrative department chiefs. 

Aroused by fuel famines and the inability to 
foi-ward grain, live stock, and other commodities 
to market, the legislatures of a dozen states will 
assail the railroads on the car-shortage problem. 
State railroad commissions will be clothed with 
greater power to deal with this evil, or remedial 
laws will be enacted dealing directly with the 
problem. Of the many measures proposed, that 
for a reciprocal demurrage change is the main 
reliance of lawmakers. 

Bills covering railroad regulation will be many 
and diverse. Several states will create railroad 
commissions with broad jurisdiction in dealing 
with rates and service. Existing commissions in 
other states are to have their hands strengthened, 
that they may successfully handle new problems 
that have arisen in transportation affairs. 

Two-cent Fare Coming. 

There is a wide-reaching demand for a two-cent 
passenger rate, for an anti-pass law as broad as 
the recent act of Congress, and for a heavier 
taxation of railroad properties. Around these 
proposals some hot fights will revolve. 

Four state legislatures are pledged to enact a 
broad primary-election law, covering Congres- 
sional, state, and county ofl5cials. Political lead- 
ers are rounding up their forces to antagonize 
these measures, and there will be hot fights. The 
governors of several states will emphasize in their 
messages the crying need of nominating candi- 
dates by popular vote, instead of by snap con- 

Bills regulating insurance promise to be as 
plentiful as those relating to railroads. Valued 
policies, curbing of premiums, distribution of 
accumulations, adjustment of table rates for the 
better protection of the insured, and require- 

ments regarding investments of earnings are 
some matters to be considered. 

Bills relating to taxation will be dictated by 
local needs in the various states, but most of 
them will be aimed at railroads and other corpo- 

Texas must revise her system to get revenue to 
meet a $4,000,000 deficiency which is imminent. 
She pi-oposes getting a big percentage of it from 
the railroads. Wisconsin has similar aspirations. 

The Stensland and other bank failures have 
called forth new efforts to protect depositors in 
state and private banks. Illinois will enact more 
rigid regulatory laws, and Kansas talks of re- 
quiring all banks over which it has jurisdiction, 
to deposit sufficient security with the state treas- 
urer to protect all depositors. Governor Hoch 
will advocate such a measure in his message. 


Member of Missouri Legislature Introduced 
Measure to Check the "Nuisance." 

Another incident of legislation in the West 
is the following, as reflected in the St. Louis 
Republic : 

Jefferson City, Mo.— Doctor Alonzo Tubbs, of 
Gasconade County, reached the city with 
a new anti-tipping bill in his pocket, which 
he will introduce in the House soon after organ- 

"This measure will catch 'em coming and 
going," said the doctor. "The bill I introduced 
two years ago imposed a fine upon the propri- 
etor of a place who permitted his employees to 
solicit or accept a tip. That measure was not 
broad enough in its scope. My new bill covers 
the greund completely, so far as the tipping evil 

"I propose to place a penalty not only on tht' 
man who permits his employees to solicit or 
receive tips, but also on the employee who ac- 
cepts a tip, and the one who offers it. The pen- 
alty will bfc a fine, the exact size of which I have 
not determined, but not less than $5." 


Anti-Pass and Two-Cent Measures in Eight 
Western States. 

Chicago.— The Chicago Record-Herald says: 
A mighty din from legislative forces will begin 
to echo throughout the West early in January, 
when general assemblies convene and lawmakers 
take up the sledges to hammer out reform enact- 
ments. Few states are without live issues of a 
varied and sweeping character, and the year 
1907 promises to be prolific in new laws more 
or less drastic. 

Railroad reforms stand foremost among the 
questions that confront the legislators. The 
movement in favor of rigid restriction is general 
in its scope and the anvils will ring with the 
beating out of statutes that range from anti-pass 
measures to acts establishing a two-cent fare, 

















the latter foiining the chief issue in at least 
eight Western states. 

Corporations in general are in for treatment 
more or less severe, agitation being on for new 
banking laws that will protect depositors more 
adequately, for new insurance laws that will 
bring fire and life companies more directly under 
the supervision of state commissions and for 
new taxing schemes. 

Changes in the political system are up for 
action in several commonwealths, four of which 
are pledged to follow the lead of Illinois and 
Wisconsin in the enactment of a law that will 
give direct primaries, and that will give the elec- 
tors a chance to scalp party bosses and stifle 
ring rulfc'. 

The liquor traffic, too, will be an important 
part of the year's reforms. In five states local 
option laws are to be presented. 


President Seeks a Final Test of Constitutionality 
of Employers' Liability Law. 

As might have been expected, the mis- 
understanding of Secretary Root's speech 
created much ill-feeling, leading in one or 
two instances to such unfortunate conse- 
quences as are reflected in the following 
from the New York Herald : 

Washington, D. C. — In accordance with orders 
from President Roosevelt, Attorney General 
Bonaparte will move to obtain from the Supreme 
Court of the United States an interpretation of 
the constitutionality of the Employers' 
Liability Law. The decisions just ren- 
dered by Federal Judges Evans in the 
Western District of Kentucky and McCall in the 
Western District of Tennessee, declaring the law 
unconstitutional, are severe blows to the ad- 
ministration. President Roosevelt threw the 
whole weight of his influence behind the liability 
bill and helped its passage last June. 

Moreover Judge Evans expressed views which 
were the very antithesis of the argument recently 
made by Secretary of State Root in favor of 
extension of the federal powers. Judge Evans 
is now known throughout the country as a 
"States' Rights" judge. Officials at the Depart- 
ment of .Tustice accept his decision against the 
Employers' Liability Act as a reflection of sen- 
timent in Kentucky and Tennessee. For this 
reason the appeal of the cases to the Supreme 
Court will afford the first legal test of the radi- 
cal legislation which President Roosevelt has 
obtained from Congress at the last session. 


Governor of New York Says Complacent In- 
activity Is Without Excuse. 

Of the many states which are confronted 
by legislative and administrative difficulties. 

none has so much to contemplate as the Em- 
pire State. The ensuing article from the 
Philadelphia North American shows what 
may be expected from the newlj' inaugur- 
ated Governor Hughes: 

Albany, N. Y. — Charles Evans Hughes, in his 
inaugural address on assuming office as Governor 
of the State of New York, declared that many 
of the evils of which the people complain have 
their sources in privileges, carelessly granted, 
that permit private aggrandizement at the ex- 
pense of the public. 

He added that when the power thus derived 
from the State is turned against the State there 
is urgent need for the State to enforce the com- 
mon law. 

After complimenting his predecessor in office, 
he addressed himself to his "fellow-citizens," 
saying, in part : 

"We have reason to congratulate ourselves 
that coincident with our prosperity, there is an 
emphatic assertion of popular rights and a keen 
resentment of public wrongs. There is no 
panacea in executive or legislative action for all 
the ills of society which spring from the frailties 
and defects of the human nature of its mem- 
bers. But this furnishes no excuse for compla- 
cent inactivity and no reason for the toleration 
of wrongs made possible by defective or by ad- 
ministrative partiality or inefficiency. 

"Whether or not we have laws enough, we cer- 
tainly have enough of ill-considered legislation, 
and the question is not as to the quantity, but 
as to the quality of our present and of our pro- 
posed enactments. 

"Slowly but surely the people have naVrowed 
the opportunities for selfish aggression, and the 
demand of this hour, and of all hours, is not 
allegiance to, but sympathy with every 
aspiration for the betterment of conditions and a 
sincere and patient effort to understand every 
need and to ascertain, in the light of experience, 
the means best adapted to meet it. It is the 
capacity for such close examination, without 
heat or disqualifying prejudice, which dis- 
tinguishes the eonsti'uctive effort from vain en- 
deavors to change human nature by changing 
the forms of government. 

"It must be recognized that many of the evils 
of which . we complain have their source in the 
law itself, in privileges carelessly granted, in 
opportunities for private aggrandizement at the 
expense of the people recklessly created, in fail- 
ure to safeguard our public interests by pro- 
viding means for just regulation of those enter- 
prises which depend upon the use of public 

"Wherever the law gives unjust advantage, 
wherever it fails by suitable prohibition or regu- 
lation to protect the interests of the people, 
wherever the jjower derived from the State is 
turned against the State, there is not only room 
but urgent necessity for the assertion of the au- 
thority of the State to enforce the common law." 




A Threat to Put Roads in Receivers' Hands if 
Relief Is Not Forthcoming. 

One of the most progressive of the States 
in the matter of railroad and trust legisla- 
tion is Texas. But Texas has .struck a snag. 
Said the Kansas City Times : 

Austin, Texas. — In a letter to W. C. Preston, 
general freig:ht agent of the St. Louis & San 
Francisco's Texas lines, one of the State Rail- 
road Commissioners stated that if the railroads 
of the State do not relieve the car shortage with- 
in a reasonable time the Commission would 
put several of the roads in the hands of a re- 
ceiver and let the courts run them for a while. 

He says that Commissioner Allison Mayfleld al- 
ready has made motions to put several roads in 
the hands of receivers and that he will vote for 
the motions unless the situation is remedied 
without delay. 


Increased Tax on Saloons Is Sustained by the 
Superior Court. 

In the last election, Ohio's deciding factor 
was the prohibition vote. The following from 
the Chicago Record-Herald shows the status 
of liquor legislation in that State : 

Cincinnati. — The validity of the Aikin law, 
which raised saloon licenses from $300 to $1000 
a year, has been sustained by the Superior 
Court. On the fate of this case depended an 
extra session of the Legislature to act on scores 
of other new laws, as the main point of the op- 
position was the claim that the late Governor 
Pattison was not in a condition of health to 
know the contents of bills when he signed them. 
The saloon men will take the case to the Su- 
preme Court. 


New Legislature Opens With Pledges That 
Promise Decent Administration. 

None of the commonwealths has been more 

open to the charge of legislative corruption 

than Pennsylvania, but if one is to judge 

, from the following from the Philadelphia 

North American, a new regime is impending : 

Harrisburg. — With formalities, both necessary 
and ornamental, measuring nearly, if not quite, 
up to the standard to be expected of a body 
housed amid the splendors of Architect Huston's 
$13,000,000 art, the Pennsylvania Legislature 
put itself in working order. 

While the Senate is well under Republican 

organization control, though savored with more 
good intent than in the past, the new House, 
composed in greater part of new members, is 
regarded as a body with which it will not be 
safe for any political combination to take lib- 

Speaker McClain knows this, and the organi- 
zation leaders are studying just how much party 
influence they can bring to bear without cross- 
ing the danger line. . 

Woods and McClain were elected on strict 
party votes in the respective houses. The for- 
mer was seated by 38 to 10 over Senator Web- 
ster Grim, Democrat, caucus nominee, and the 
latter by 157 to 50 over Representative John M. 
riynn, of Elk. The Lincoln Republicans voted 
with the regulars. 

Speaker McClain 's speech, containing re- 
newed promises of a 'square deal' from the 
chair, was well suited to the ticklish humor of 
the House. In part, he said : 

"I want your confidence and co-operation, and 
I am going to give you mine. I want to give it 
to you, regardless of party or faction or pres- 
ent or past political affiliations. The Speaker's 
room will have no lock on the door, and the 
Speaker's ear will be closed to none. Therefore, 
let us be frank with each other, and at the same 
time frank with the people of Pennsylvania. 

"Speaking figuratively, and in language which 
I think most of us understand, let me say: 
'Play this game of legislation with hands above 
the hoard, and no dealing from under the table. ' 

"There are certain kinds of legislation that 
have been long demanded by the people, and, 
permit me to add, in my humble judgment, too 
long denied. Let us not be restrained by either 
corporate or political influence from putting 
such legislation on the statute books before we 
adjourn. ' ' 


Solicitor-General Hoyt in Supreme Court Argues 
for Federal Authority. 

Another phase of the conflict between 
Federal and State authority is given in the 
following from the New York World : 

Washington. — In explaining to the Supreme 
Court the Government's attitude in the suit of 
Kansas to compel Colorado to submit to a 
division of the waters of the Arkansas River 
for irrigation purposes, Solicitor-General Hoyt 
made an argument in support of national inter- 
ference in State matters. 

"The extreme Colorado claim based upon her 
sovereignty and constitution must fall," he said, 
"because she is a sovereign State and not a sov- 
ereign nation. In the last analysis, the claim 
means the right to make war, which was sur- 
rendered by the States along with the power of 
compact. The very fact that the controversy 
is justifiable in this court is proof that a State 



has no such absolute right to do what she pleases 
with what she conceives to be her own." 

He contended that where there is, as in this 
ease, a conflict of authority, the National Gov- 
ernment should compose the differences. True, 
there is no Federal police power, but if there is 
no Federal power there is no power at all. 

"There is a sovereign power in the Nation 
here not enumerated but not denied, and not 
reserved to the States, because from its very 
nature it could not be. Some power at this point 
is essential. If it does not exist we are in a 
vise — both the States and the Nation powerless 
at the very point where competent power is most 
essential. In the nature of things the States 
can not have this power, being the power to 
effectuate or restrain the State power when by 
its necessary effect it passes beyond its own 
borders. ' ' 


Canadian Province Won't Stand Poor Service 
and High Rates. 

That elsevphere than in the- United States 
portion of the Western world there is pres- 
sure to escape the power of monopolies may 
be gathered from the following from the 
Philadelphia North American : 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. — By a sweeping ma- 
jority the electors of Manitoba have declared in 
favor of government owned long distance tele- 
phone lines, with municipal control of local ex- 

Within a year lines are expected to be work- 
ing which will cut the Bell rates completely in 
two and in many cases make a still greater re- 

Commencing at Winnipeg the new lines will 
go south to connect with the Tri-State system at 
the boundary and west to Portage la Prairie and 
Brandon, northwest by way of Neepawa and 
southwest to points in Southern Manitoba. 

For years the people, of the province have 
been in the grip of one telephone company. A 
poor service and high rates have been the chief 
grievances alleged against the monopoly. With 
the notable exception of Portage la Prairie the 
larger centers have declared unmistakably in 
favor of public ownership. Though small isolated 
communities have failed to make themselves 
eligible for a municipal telephone system, the 
province, as a whole, has strongly indorsed the 
government's policy. Nearly 65 per cent of the 
total vote is in favor of the public ownership. 

R. P. Roblin, Premier of Manitoba, when asked 
what the government 's plans were, said : 
■ "I have instructed the Provincial Public 
Works Department to at once secure sufficient 
material for the building of 1000 miles of line 
as early as possible in the spring. 

"Next summer we will build at least 1000 
miles of line, and more, if possible. We shall 
start work as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground. ' ' 

"What about municipal exchanges in the 

"They can only be constructed when a suf- 
ficient number of subscribers have been received 
to justify the installation of the system. In 
other words, neither the government nor the 
municipalities will proceed with the work until 
every possible financial safeguard has been 

"Before this time next year we expect to have 
lines working for which we will charge 25 cents 
for a three-minute conversation over a 100-mile 
wire. The Bell rates will be completely cut in 
two in every case, and in many instances the re- 
duction will be much greater." 


New York Street Car Lines Have Found 
Municipality an 'Easy' Creditor. 

Taxation, of course, is one of the gravest 
difficulties with which states from now on 
will have to do. Said the New York World 
concerning one phase of this subject : 

The street railway companies owe New York 
City $23,875,293.79. 

These figures, tabulated from the city's books 
in a half dozen departments, where they have 
been accumulating since 1886, tell for the first 
time the full story of the street railways' in- 
debtedness to the city. 

If the coming Legislature investigates street 
railroads, as is suggested, these figures may be 
inquired into, together with the reasons for their 
being overlooked by city officials. 

Not even an effort has been made by the city's 
employees to keep a complete record of the sums 
these companies owe. The accounts are in half 
a dozen departments. The accounts for over- 
due taxes are kept in the Tax Arrears Depart- 
ment, those for street repaving and repairs in the 
Borough Presidents' offices, those for percent- 
ages on gross receipts in the City Revenue Bu- 
reau, and claims on which suits have been 
brought in the Corporation Counsel's ofiice. No 
attempt has ever been made to assemble all these 

Only with the greatest difficulty were the 
figures got together from the various sources, 
where, covered with dust or hopelessly tangled, 
they have been lying for years. 

A fair example of the way these records are 
kept is furnished by the experience of Corpora- 
tion Counsel Ellison, who, on taking office three 
months ago, found the papers relating to street 
railroad claims dumped in a big heap in a cor- 
ner of a room. 


Contest Between City and Private Telephone 
Companies in Richmond, Ind. 

As the contention for and against public 
ownership gave promise to develop into con- 













stantly greater magnitude, the following two 
items, one from the St. Louis Republic, and 
the other from the Chicago Record-Herald, 
have significance: 

Richmond, Ind. — There are two interesting in- 
dustrial contests on in this city. One is be- 
tween the Bell and Independent telephone in- 
terests, and the other is between the Municipal 
Lighting and Power Plant and the Light, Heat 
and Power Company, a private concern that for- 
merly had the contract for lighting the streets. 

The city's plant, which now i-epresents an in- 
vestment of $235,000, is having a hard row to 
hoe as it finds itself unable to keep its prices for 
commercial business as low as the private com- 
pany puts them. 

The private company would like to buy the 
city plant, it is understood, having made one 
offer for it, and urges as an argument that it has 
been fully demonstrated that private plants can 
furnish light cheaper than the municipal plants. 

The city is just completing a $30,000 addition 
to its plant, and the private company is rebuild- 
ing, so that it appears a tug of war is coming 
in this field. The municipal authorities are de- 
termined to make a success of the city's plant, 
if possible, notwithstanding the many handicaps 
that a plant of this kind is necessarily under. 

It is expected that another offer for the city's 
investment will be made and a liberal contract 
offered by the private interests, but it is not be- 
lieved it will be considered. 

In the telephone field the struggle is a bitter 
one and apparently it is to be a case of survival 
of the fittest. The Home Company is erecting 
a handsome exchange building and placing its 
wires under ground and the Bell Company is 
reconstructing its system and getting ready for 
increased At the present time the 
Home Company has the bulk of the local busi- 
ness. It will install an automatic system. 



Kenosha Water Works Report Shows Profit of 
$26,000 for Year. 

Kenosha, Wis. — The success of the Kenosha 
municipal water plant was shown by the filing 
of the annual report recently. The report shows 
a net profit to the city for the year just closed 
of $26,311. Added to this it is shown that 
the company has retired bonds during the year 
to the amount of $5000 and has spent moi'e than 
$17,000 in extensions. 

The company was formed ten years ago and 
at that time the bonded indebtedness was $137,- 
000. In the ten years $50,000 of this has been 
paid and the directors of the company claim 
that the remaining debt will be liquidated as 
fast as the bonds come due. Water is sup- 
plied at the rate of 12 cents per 1000 gallons. 

He Makes Emphatic Protest Against Centraliza- 

Lincoln, Neb. — W. J. Bryan, commenting on 
Secretary Root's recent speech, enters emphatic 
protest to the declaration of centralization 
which, he says, Mr. Root indorsed. Mr. Bryan 
says in part : 

"He seems to rest his argument upon the old 
idea of destiny — the refuge of the man who 
wants to do a thing which he can not defend. 

"The division of the powers of government 
was founded upon the doctrine of self-govern- 
ment and the preservation of the Nation depends 
upon the careful observance of the limitations 
between the things that are local and the things 
that are National. 

"If Secretary Root has in mind the Japanese 
question as it presents itself in California he 
will find the American people unwilling to turn 
the school system over to the Federal Govern- 
ment merely to please a foreign nation, however 

"However, if he has in mind the elimination 
of the trusts, he will find it necessary to deprive 
the States of present powers to make Congres- 
sional action effective." — New York Times. 


Prominent Publicists Consider San Francisco In- 
cident as Anachronism. 

The question of States' rights in the United 
States is occupying the attention of prominent 
European publicists, stress being laid upon the 
San Francisco school incident. 

European observers regard the present form 
of the American Constitution as an anachronism. 
The Spectator in a long leader, under the head- 
ing, "The Coming Struggle in the United 
States," says: 

"The incident is the beginning of the strug- 
gle of a nation entering into self-conscious life 
to free itself from the fetters of particularism 
which a constitution more than a century old 
has riveted upon it. Splendid instrument of 
government as is the United States Constitu- 
tion from many points of view, it has certain 
very serious demerits. 

"It was framed to provide safeguards against 
dangers which have long since disappeared and to 
encourage certain forces which today are more 
in need of control. The States are given wide 
autonomy; the Nation is checked on every hand 
by ultra-vires provisions. 

"This was well enough so long as the States 
were little countries by themselves, cut off by 
economic and social gulfs from each other, but 
now that there are common problems and com- 
mon perils throughout the whole Union, to arm 
localities with obstructive powers is to play into 
the hands of reaction and dishonesty and to 



make any continuous national policy impossible. 
"The people in America have scarcely as yet 
grasped the whole meaning of nationality. The 
spirit wakes in them with magnificent fire and 
energy at a' crisis, but they go back to their daily 
work and forget about it." — Philadelphia North 


How Thaddeus Stevens and 'Pig-Iron' Kelley 
Fought for High Tariff. 

Ida M. Tarbell, who is relating the dramatic 
story of "The Tariff in Our Times" in the 
American Magazine, passes, in the January 
number, to an account of the outbreak of high 
protectionism which followed the Civil War, and 
of the success of certain special interests in ob- 
taining favors from Congress. 

The struggle which characterized the period 
between 1865 and 1872 was between those who 
wanted to reduce the duties to ante-bellum pro- 
portions and those who wanted to preserve the 
high schedule made necessary by the war. The 
fight was a bitter one, and the wool and iron 
and cotton men won. 

Among the interesting figures introduced in 
this chapter of the narrative are Thaddeus Stev- 
ens and 'Pig-Iron' Kelley, who fought passion- 
ately in Congress for high protection; David A. 
Wefls, William B. Allison, James F. Wilson, 
and John A. Kasson, who led in the fight against 
the outbreak of high protection which followed 
the war; Andrew .Johnson, who vetoed the cop- 
per bill; John L. Hayes, one of the most wonder- 
ful lobbyists that ever frequented Washington; 
John Sherman, Senator Morrill, Henry Ray- 
mond, 'Tax-Fight-Emancipation' Pike and oth- 

Of the raid on Congress just after the war 
Miss Tarbell gives this graphic picture : 

"It was demonstrated that any private inter- 
est which could secure the backing of a power- 
ful Senator or Representative like Sherman of 
Ohio, Chandler of Michigan, Kelley of Pennsyl- 
vania, could obtain what it wanted from the 
Congress of the United States, though that favor 
might raise prices to consumers without giving 
them compensation in other directions, might 
destroy established industries and injure an es- 
tablished commerce. 

"By 1870 the tariff was a conglomeration of 
special favors. These unjust and unscientific 
duties had not been laid without protest. Men 
like Morrill, Garfield, Fessenden, Allison, Kas- 
son, Raymond, and Sumner had warned against 
the outbreak. 'It smells of monopoly,' they said 
again and again, and yet most of them when it 
came to the test voted with their party. Many 
of the ablest Republican newspapers, especial- 
ly those in the West, harangued incessantly 
against the unfairness of the legislation. But 
remonstrance, even an attempt at discussion, 
only aroused the angry cry of 'free trader' from 
the dominant faction in Congress. 'It has be- 
come impossible,' said Mr. Wells, in his report 
of December, 1869, for any one 'to suggest any 

reduction or modification whatever looking to 
the abatement of prices artificially maintained 
in the interest of special industries without be- 
ing immoderately assailed with accusations of , 
corrupt and unpatriotic motives.' , , ; 

' ' The tariff legislation was but a part of the , 
deplorable and general attempt which followed 
the war to make Congress do for the individual 
what it was his business to do for himself. Men 
seemed to believe that their future depended on 
legislation — to have forgotten or never realized 
that legislation can do nothing more than dis- 
tribute wealth — it can not produce it, and that 
the only way you can get money to legislate 
into the pocket of one individual is by taking 
it out of the pocket of another. Washington had 
come to be filled with as fine a band of plunder- 
ers as ever besieged a National Congress, tax 
swindlers, smugglers, speculators in land grants, 
railroad lobbyists, agents of ship companies, 
mingled with the representatives of industries 
seeking protection, until it seemed as if Congress 
was little more than a relief bureau. At one 
time in 1869 there were forty-one railroads, or 
would-be railroads, seeking aid in the House and 
thirty-seven in the Senate. What was to be the 
effect of this outbreak of protectionism? Many 
sober people asked themselves the question in dis- 
may. But at the moment everybody was look- 
ing to Grant. The new President would certainly 
help the situation — bring back Congress and the 
party to candid discussion, institute economies, 
clear Washington of the self-seekers." 


Missouri's Governor Plans a Busy Session of the 

Jefferson City, Mo. — In his message trans- 
mitted to the Legislature, Governor Folk felici- 
tates the State on its prosperity, calls attention 
to the condition of the Sate Treasury, which 
shows a cash balance of $2,222,310, an increase 
of $335,850 since January 1, 1906, and estimates 
the receipts for the coming two years from tax- 
ation at $7,165,000. 

He recommends placing get-rich-quick con- 
cerns and fake mining companies under the build- 
ing and loan departments for proper restraint; 
prohibition of rebating between agents and 
policyholders; a standard act for life insurance 
companies; an act requiring life insurance com- 
panies to distribute dividends actually; an act 
prohibiting insurance companies from making 
political contributions; an act prohibiting insur- 
ance companies from paying any official more 
than .$50,000 annually; an act requiring foreign 
companies to keep at least 70 per cent of prem- 
iums invested in the State; a law making it a 
crime for any person to lobby for special inter- 
ests for pay and compelling all lobbyists to file 
printed briefs and arguments for public inspec- 
tion; abolishment of railroad passes and the en- 
actment of a two-cent rate law; a tax of one- 



fifteenth of 1 per cent on the capital stock of 
each corporation in the State; requiring corpora- 
tions to sell goods at a uniform price through- 
out the State; prison punishment as a penalty 
for violation of anti-trust laws; maximum 
freight laws and State railroad rebate laws ; laws 
to give cities full power to regulate tolls, charges 
and rates for gas and other public utilities; a 
law preventing one corporation from owning 

stock in another; a blow at holding companies 
like the one owning gas and street car monopolies 
in St. Louis ; a law making it a felony to register 
a bet upon a horse race; suppression of bucket 
shops; resolution calling on Congress to call a 
convention for the purpose of proposing amend- 
ments to the National Constitution looking to the 
election of United States Senators by popular 
vote. — New York Sun. 

Heroes of the Philippines. 




THE recent proposal from Washington to 
reduce the standing army in the Philip- 
pines to ten thousand men is, if correctly 
reported, not only an amazing commentary 
upon the prevalence of peace conditions 
throughout the archipelago as a whole, but 
is in part a testimony to the remarkable 
efficiency of the Philippine Constabulary, an 
organization whose methods are little known. 

The Constabulary for the past six or seven 
years has been quietly at work all over 
the islands anticipating the crime naturally fol- 
lowing in the wake of war by arresting malefac- 
tors, making friends with and educating them 
industrially by showing them "how the white 
man does things," and, in fact, contributing to 
peace by constructive efforts as well as by limita- 
tion of crime. 

The Philippine Constabulary is the great or- 
ganization by which Uncle Sam has enlisted the 
Filipinos in his service and turned these native 
troops, under the American officers, into excel- 
lent soldiers. The enlisted man in the Constabu- 
lary compares favorably with any native troops 
in the world. He is superior to Britain's native 
army in Africa, and has even been praised by 

some of the few military experts who have 
watched the work of the Constabulary in the 
Philippines, as excelling in devotion and bravery, 
though perhaps not in drill and appearance, Eng- 
land 's famous regiment of Sihks in India. 

An All-round Organization. 

The Constabulary is an all-round organization, 
and the American officers in charge have to be 
all round good men. Here is a jingle called "The 
Constabulary Man." It would make Kipling 
weep, but at the same time it is immensely in- 
forming as to the divers duties of the American 
Constabulary officer: 


Do you know the careworn fellow with the shoul- 
der straps of red. 

With leather puttee leggings and campaign hat 
on head? 

Whose wayworn suit of khaki shows of service 
in the brush. 

And who walks as if some tired, but trying hard 
to rush? 


Oh, it's boot man, bike man. Constabulary man. 
Half police and soldier, who does the best he can ; 
He is always in for fun or fight, and doesn 't care 

a d ; 

Foot or mounted, dry or wet. Constabulary man. 



When the country was turned over to the gov- 
ernment civil 

And the insular police began its journey long 

Its road was rough and rocky, but was followed 
with a will. 

And those of them who yet remain are following 
that road still. 

His clothes they may be ragged and his spirits 

may be low ; 
His stomach may be empty and his pocketbook 

But when there's trouble in the wind or an 

enemy ib sight 
You'll find liim always ready and willing for a 



— Chicago Record-Herald. 

He's a doctor and a lawyer and apothecary, too; 
He's a teacher and a padre, with everything else 

to do; 
He's artillery, cavalry, infantry, and sailor on 

the shore; 
He's sure a United Service man, the member of 

this corps. 

Schermerhom's Great Fight. 

Amazing adventures have occurred to some of 
the officers of the Philippine Constabulary; in 
fact, they are occurring every day. For a cold- 
steel, painful experience, that of Lieutenant Wil- 
liam Schermerhorn "takes the cake." Scher- 
merhorn is a big, strong, resolute, twinkle-eyed 



Scotchman. He stands six feet two in liis stock- 
ing feet, and is slender, wiry, and a well-built 
mass of bone and sinew. Down on the north 
coast of Mindanao once, Schermerhorn, with sev- 
eral prospective Constabulary recruits, was fol- 
lowing a narrow trail through a dense jungle of 
cane. The path was not more than a foot wide, 
and the thick jungle on both sides of the trail 
was dark at midday. Schermerhorn was pro- 
ceeding at the head of his men. Suddenly, 
without the slightest warning, a black arm with 
a terrible knife slipped out of the thicket. 

Knife Struck Him on Head. 

The knife struck Schermerhorn on the side of 
the head, almost cracking the skull, and cutting 
a fearful gash from his cheekbone to his mouth. 
Simultaneously another hand grasped the Con- 
stabulary officer's revolver, leaving him without 
weapons. Schermerhorn wheeled around and 
called to his men, but they had deserted in a 
panic on the back trait. He had grasped the 
hand of the man who struck him, and, like a 
vise, he wrenched his opponent's arm until the 
fellow stood between him and his assailants. 
Quicker than words can tell, Schermerhorn made 
a desperate effort to get the huge bolo knife. In 
doing this he was compelled to grasp the blade, 
and by his own action cut three tingers from his 
left hand and made a fearful cut along the palm 
of his hand. He secured the knife, killed the 
man whom he still grasped and tive men who at- 
tacked him, took two prisoners, but two others 
escaped. To-day Schermerhorn is well and 
strong. He has left the Constabulary and is now 
manager of a great plantation in the peaceful, 
far-away Cagayan Valley. But he has spent 
months in the hospital, and his body is a mass of 
seams and scars. Needless to say that the pros- 
pective recruits were not enlisted. 

General Wright's Suggestion. 
The Constabulary was organized in August, 
1901, at the suggestion of General Luke E. 
Wright. The idea was to have an efficient patrol 
system of the entii'e islands, which could be 
cheaply administered through the use of native 
troops, American officers being in charge of the 
natives. There are at present two hundred and 
fifty American officei's in the Constabulary, and 
five thousand native enlisted men. The total 
appropriation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1906, was $1,646,000. This includes a vast num- 
ber of expenses, policing, jails, building and 
maintaining of telegraph lines, et cetera. Even 
including these, the total cost per man per year 
of the Philippines Constabulary is but a trifle. 
One great feature of the Philippines Constabu- 
lary is that just as soon as you put an American 
uniform upon a native you make a different man 
of him. When he wears Uncle Sam's uniform 
the native soldier will follow his American offi- 
cer to the last ditch. I was down at the battle 
of Dajo Hill, on little Sulu Island, March 6. 7, 
and 8, 1906, where forty Constabulary troopers, 
under Captain White and Lieutenant Sowers, 
cleared the trail for the first charge against the 
bandits in Dajo crater. Out of the forty Con- 

stabulary soldiers almost fifty per cent were 
killed or wounded. The Moro Constabulary, with 
their American uniforms, fought as desperately 
for Uncle Sam against the bandit Moros, who 
were of their own blood, as any soldiei's in the 
field. Of course the enlisted Malay does not 
equal the American soldier, who in headwork and 
individual initiative is undoubtedly the best sol- 
dier in the world, as he is also the bravest and 
most humane. They do not shoot as straight as 
Americans, but under American officers they 
fight desperately, and are frequently useful in 
bearing the brunt of the chai'ge and snaring the 
American troops. The Constabulary get thrown 
in the hot places. It is hard on the officers, for 
the officers are always conspicuous, being Amer- 
icans and in the lead, and are always targets for 

A Few Statistics. 

It is hardly possible to tell by statistics what 
the Constabulary, as an organization, has accom- 
plished. Their work in the field is really the 
least of what they do; but the following statis- 
tics give an idea of some of the field work for 
the four years to the end of June, 1905 : Ladrones 
and insuiTectos captured and surrendered, 9155 ; 
ladrones and insurrectos killed, 2504; arms se- 
cured, 4288; stolen animals recovered, 7895. 

"The Philippines Constabulary is no good," 
said a young West Pointer to the writer. 
"Why?"" I asked, "don't they do the work?" 
' ' Oh, yes ; they do the work all right ; they get 
through the country in good shape, but their 
drill is so sloppy; the men don't dress in good 

Yet up in Benaue, in the heart of Luzon, Lieu- 
tenant Levi E. Case, of the Philippines Constabu- 
lary, with forty Filipino soldiers, rules over and 
directs without friction one hundred and fifteen 
thousand Igorrotes, the most vigorous race in the 
entire Malay archipelago. When the Spanish 
sent up a thousand troops to Benaue in 1837 the 
Igorrotes killed off all but two hundred of them. 
But Case has them building roads, trails, and 
bridges, has got them to cultivating market 
truck, and putting up schools. Benaue is three 
days' strenuous travel from the nearest Amer- 
icans and twelve days' travel from Manila. Case 
is a little, quiet, modest fellow. He speaks the 
Igorrote dialect of his region, and if ever he car- 
ries a gun he shoots like Cooper's Leather Stock- 
ing. Case would not have said that the soldiers 
were "no good" because perhaps they did not 
dress in good line. He looks to their efficiency. 

How Fletcher Took a Ship. 

Of all the strange experiences that have oc- 
curred to Constabulary officers, perhaps none 
affords a more striking example of heroic bravery 
than the literally astounding adventure of Sec- 
ond Lieutenant (now Captain) Harrison 0. 
Fletcher. Accompanied by two native soldiers, 
Lieutenant Fletcher, then stationed at Virac, 
rowed out to the large steamer Dos Hermanos, 
of which a mutinous crew had taken possession, 
boarded the steamer single-handed in the face of 
rifle fire, and captured thirty-four insubordinates 



and one boy. The .circumstanees were these, and 
I do not believe that they ean be better presented 
than they are in Captain Fletcher's report to his 
superior officer. This report is as modest and 
concise as Fletcher's personality: 
"The Senior Inspector, Albay. 

"Sir: I have the honor to report that at 8.30 
p. m. on the 13th instant, I heard a disturbance 
aboard the steamer Dos Hermauos, which was 
anchored about two hundred yards from shore, 
near my quarters, and thinking that it was a 
drunken brawl I took two of the guards and 
started out in a small boat with the intention of 
reprimanding the ship's officers for not keeping 
better order aboard their vessel. 

"When I was about half way out the steam 
winch was started to raise anchor with all pos- 
sible speed. I then thought there must be a 
mutiny on board, and hurried on. On passing 
about midship I called out in Spanish to drop 
anchor, or I would fire. As an answer someone 
threw a chunk of coal at my boat, which fell 
short. I saw the man that threw the coal and 
flred at him. He was on the upper deck of the 
bridge and when I fired he either fell or jumped 
into the water on the opposite side. I and my 
two men then began firing at the steam winch 
where men were working. They all hid, and I 
passed around the prow of the vessel and came 
back to where the ladder was, but it was up, and 
I could only reach the lower part of it with my 
hands. The captain then began loudly calling to 
me to hurry aboard. I managed to get on deck 
by having my two men fire continuously over 
my head to keep anyone from cutting me as I 
climbed up." 

Under Fire. 

Captain Fletcher modestly does not mention 
the fact that he was fired on while boarding the 
. vessel. 

"Up to this time the officers and passengers 
were locked up in the staterooms, after being 
badly cut with bolos and knives. The guards 
over the staterooms, on seeing me come aboard, 
fled forward, and the captain and first mate and 
second engineer (all wounded) came out of the 
windows. I started forward then, and whenever 
I saw a man I fired. They all either jumped 
overboard or went below into the forecastle. I 
fired at three men who were hanging over the 
railing, apparently trying to hide. I had first 
told them to come up, but they would not, and 
at each shot one fell into the water. I got all 
corralled in the foks'le and put a guard at stairs 
and went back and called down to the engine- 
room to shut off steam from the winch and stop 
the machinery which was turning the propellor. 
After putting the other guard at the engineroom 
stairs with orders to kill anyone who tried to 
come up, I got the captain, who was very much 
excited, to go forward and shut off the winch, 
which I had tried to do, but could not find the 
lever. I then called ashore for more guards, who 
were already coming, and took control of the 
ship, as the captain appeared almost crazy, hav- 
ing been hit with an iron bar. The first mate and 

second engineer jumped overboard about the time 
I came on, the mate swimming ashore and the 
engineer being picked up by my boat. The chief 
engineer was killed at the beginning, having re- 
ceived ten stabs. The third engineer, who was 
one of the plotters, tried to come upstairs about 
that time and I knocked him down again. The 
major domo and Chinese carpenter were knocked 
overboard at the start, and up to this time the 
bodies have not been found. My men on shore 
picked up four men, sailors who had swum 
ashore, and held them. 

"The incidents occurring previous to my ar- 
rival on board were as follows : The officers and 
passengers had finished supper and were singing 
and playing the guitar in the very poop of the 
vessel and were taken at great disadvantage 
when they suddenly were attacked by about ten 
men with knives and bars of iron. The captain 
was stabbed in the thigh and hit on the head 
and left for dead. The mate seized one of the 
men and tried to take his knife away from him, 
but was badly cut, and another about that time 
hit the mate with a bar oji the head and knocked 
him senseless. The mutineers then went after 
the passengers, and the second engineer, who had 
taken refuge in the back stateroom, dragged the 
captain and mate in also. Then the mutineers 
came back and locked the door and placed two 
men to guard it. The passengers, four men and 
two women, all managed to get in one stateroom, 
one of the men receiving a bad cut on the arm. 
A sailor who was on watch at the time was asked 
by the captain to open the door. He started to 
do so, but the boatswain, who was the ringleader 
of the whole thing, almost cut his hand off with 
a bolo. The captain called to his muchacho to 
bring his revolver, but the revolver was taken 
from the muchacho by the boatswain. After I 
came on board the captain sent his boy for an- 
other revolver; the boy got the revolver, but did 
not bring it back, but took it forward, where I 
found him with it. 

All Confessed. 

"All confess that they knew of it beforehand, 
but were afraid of the boatswain, who threat- 
ened to kill anyone who did not comply. One 
sailor, who was sent ashore about 7.30 with a 
boat to bring out a guitar, remained ashore. He 
says that he knew what was going to happen and 
did not want to be in it. All the sailors, firemen, 
and muchachos knew of it beforehand, but some 
some of them were too scared to do anything. 
I think they had all been drinking bino (wine) 
to get up courage, as they immediately went to 
sleep after I corralled them. The officers can 
identify some of the men who assaulted them, 
and the second engineer knows the two men who 
killed the chief engineer. The boatswain and 
quartermaster are still missing. I think they are 
dead. Two bodies were picked up to-day, one 
lamp trimmer and one sailor, both shot through 
the head. I think the boatswain, who was the 
leader of all, was one of the men that I shot off 
the rail. By the time that I got out to the ship, 
which was moving, it was nearly three hundred 
yards from the shore, and it would take a good 



swimmer to swim ashore after having been fight- 
ing and working as they had. 

' ' I have thirty-four prisoners and one boy, who 
is acquainted with the facts in the ease, as a 
witness. I will let the latter stay with the cap- 
tain, who says he will be responsible for him at 
any time. There are only two of the robbers 
missing now, the boatswain and the quartermas- 
ter. They are the two men who killed the first 
engineer and did most of the fighting. I think 
they are dead, as the beach was lined with peo- 
ple, and no one was seen to swim ashore except 
the men who were picked up by my men and 

Planned to Kill All Officers. 

"If I had been five minutes later they would 
have been gone; they were already under way, 
but were going very slow, as the anchor was not 
entirely up yet. Their plan was to kill all offi- 
cers, run away with the ship, and take the 15,000 
pesos ($7,500), which was aboard, then wreck 
the ship and claim all were lost except them. I 
will send the prisoners over to-morrow on cus- 
toms launch Sora. The charges will be mutiny 
and piracy. 

' ' The two men who were with me behaved very 
well all the time — Privates Penaloso and Nolla. 

"The wounded were taken ashore and I had 
their wounds dressed with first-aid dressings. 
The consignee, Gil Hermanos, took charge of the 
ship until help arrived from Manila. 

"Second Lieutenant, P. C." 

Captain (then Inspector) Fletcher had an- 
other adventure exactly five months, less a day, 
after the affair of the Dos Hermanos. At the 
time it occurred Fletcher was riding a bicycle 
and was totally unprepared for combat. The 
affair is concisely stated in the following tele- 
gram, copied from the amazingly interesting files 
of the constabulary headquarters : 

"Albay, January 15, 1903. 
"Garwood, Constabulary, Manila. 

"Night 14th, 9:30 p. m.— Inspector Fletcher 
on his way to Camalig alone was attacked within 
a mile of Guinobatan by about thirty bolomen. 
Received bolo cuts in right shoulder, left jaw, 
and arm, killing five, wounding four, and captur- 
ing one with list of entire forces newly organized 
in pueblo of Guinobatan. Inspector Fletcher re- 
turned to Guinobatan with prisoner, and Inspec- 
tor Hester pursued them, killing six more. Col- 
lect at Polangui. 

"GALT, Supply Officer." 
— San Francisco Call. 

A Cry from the Heart 

Oh, tell me how to write the things 

That editors will buy. 
And I will try and try and try 

And try and try and try. 

I do not yearn to have my name 

On Fame's eternal scroll 
By writing things that move the heart, 

The liver or the soul. 

I do not yearn to be among 
The Shakespeares and the lot 

Who wrote the things which always will 
Keep permanently hot. 

Of course, if I should write such things 

I'd feel r. proper pride. 
But if I didn't strike their gait 

I'd be as satisfied. 

I only yearn to write the things 

That editors will buy. 
And if you'll tell me how I can, 

I'll love you till I die. 

Fame doesn't cut much ice with me, 

And I am not so sure 
I wish it said that I produce 

Homeric literature. 

But oh, I yearn to have a wad 

Like some successful" star. 
And let the whole world know I own 

A Big Red Touring Car. 

Gee whiz. 

What a dream that is! 
— W. J. Lampton, in New York Sun. 





-Pittsburg Gazette-Times. 





— Chicago Record-Herald. 





Sketched from life (so Bradford says) in the tent of the indomitable man who has reached 
Thirty-ninth and Market streets in his trolley expedition. 

— Philadelphia North American. 





— Chicago Record-Herald. 



Church and Morals 
in Government 

— Adapted from New York World. 


WHILE it has been the intense situation 
in France that has again signally sum- 
moned public attention to the inevitable in- 
termingling of church and state in men's 
affairs, the greater aspects of the rehabilita- 
tion of religious motif have received their 
emphasis elsewhere. In the United States 
the struggle to restrict the popular vices, 
such as gambling, libidinousness, and com- 
mercial dishonesty, has absorbed the energies 
of officials and stimulated the oratory of 
speakers and ethical culturists. In all sec- 
tions it has been recognized that some deeper 
note than patriotism is essential to economic 
improvement, and men of great prominence 
have been as earnest as men of lesser light 
in seeking to inculcate the higher moral prin- 
ciples which usually eventuate in religious 
formulae : 


France Declared to Have Outraged the Bights 
of Religion. 

Abroad in France, where the church and 

state issue has narrowly escaped critical 
political consequences, the Church has sought 
to raise the controversy to an international 
scope by the method reflected in the follow- 
ing from the Associated Press : 

Rome. — The note sent by the Vatican to all 
the papal representatives abroad protesting 
against the course of the French Government, 
after asserting that the rights of religion have 
been outraged by the French Government's ac- 
tion in preventing the head of the church from 
communicating with the French hierarchy and 
by the expulsion of Monsignor Montagnini, sec- 
retary of the papal nunciature at Paris, says: 

"The representatives of the holy see abroad 
have also received a circular in which are set 
forth the motives for the action of the Vatican 
regarding the application of the church and state 
separation law of 1905. These motives are so 
grave that it is evidently impossible to accuse 
the holy see of intransigence, or of unjust hos- 
tility to the French Government in condemning 
the cultural associations which disregarded the 
essential rights which the church derived from its 
constitution, such as maintaining an ecclesiastical 



hierarchy, established by its divine founder as 
the basis of the organization of the church. In 
fact, the law conferred on the cultural associa- 
tions rights which not only belong exclusively 
to the ecclesiastical authorities in the practice 
of worship and in possessing and administering 
ecclesiastical property, but the same associations 
were rendered independent of the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy and instead were placed under the 
jurisdiction of the lay authorities. The pontiff 
could not approve of such associations without 
being lax in his duty as head of the church and 
without trampling upon the fundamental do- 
mestic principles of the church. 

"The same can be said of M. Briand's cir- 
cular. The holy see could not admit the un- 
just and intolerable conditions which the circu- 
lar imposed upon the clergy in the exercise of 
their duties. 

"All this evidently shows that the holy see 
merely did its duty strictly in giving instruc- 
tions on the subject to the French clergy. If 
the French Government was animated by calmer 
sentiments, it could create for the church in 
France a situation which at least would not in- 
jure the essential rights of the holy see which 
might even, without admitting the principle of 
separation of church and state, tolerate such a 
situation in order to avoid worse evils, as it did 
in the case of other countries. ' ' 


Grieved at the French Priests Who Say "We 
Suffer," He Avows Desire to Feel Persecution. 

To the Pope, at least, the French situation 
has had in it much of the spirit that always 
makes religious conflicts the most grave that 
can occur to the human race. Witness the 
following from the New York World: 

Paris. — Pope Pius X is quoted in an inter- 
view published in the ultramontane journal, Le 
Croix, as being eager for martyrdom, if oppor- 
tunity offered. In this interview His Holiness 
discusses the church crisis in France with M. 
Franc, correspondent of Le Croix. 

The Pope, the interviewer says, spoke without 
harshness, but with great resolution, declaring: 

Mgr. Ireland First to Wire. 

"The first telegram I received protesting 
against the action of the French Government was 
from Archbishop Ireland. This was followed by 
many others from America and England. 

"The episcopacy of the whole world is with 
the Pope," added His Holiness, with an accent 
of joy in his voice. 

"The French episcopacy has a right to feel 
proud. Bishops have been evicted from their 
palaces, but they have given an example of sac- 

rifice for the right which fixes the attention of 
the whole world upon them." 

Speaking of the French priesthood, the Pope 
said : 

"The more completely they are deprived of 
the good things of this world the more these 
priests will turn to supernatural things and to 
the defense of principles. Besides, the more they 
are obliged to look to the people for the where- 
withal upon which to live, the more they will 
approach the people in their sympathies, thus ac- 
quiring an influence over them which formerly 
has often been seen to be wanting. 

"The movement of the separation of church 
and state in France is hard, but the morrow will 
be consoling." 

Pius went on to say that he knew some of the 
priests in France were saying, "It's all very 
well for the Pope to take this stand, but he does 
not suffer." 

' ' Most surely, ' ' commented the Pope, ' ' I de- 
sire to suffer for the cause they support. I 
would be glad to endure privations of all sorts, 
to be dragged before judges, to be thrown into 
prison, and even to give my head. 

"I should be happy to die a martyr to the 
faith, for I know I should go straight to 
Heaven. ' ' 

M. Franc inquired what attitude Catholics in 
France ought to assume toward the new measure 
prepared by M. Briand. 

The Pope's ideas on this subject were that the 
new measure, like the first law, being condemned, 
no Catholic, whether he be priest or layman, 
can be permitted to do anything directed by it, 
or which can be considered as even a partial 
acceptance of the new law. On the other hand, 
the Pope advised that the French clergy remain 
in their churches and continue to conduct the 
customary public services. 


Thousands of Men and Women Now Engaged in 
the Work. 

While the Catholic Church is seeking to 
make an international issue of the French 
Separation Act, the enthusiastic propaganda 
of the Protestant Church continues to carry 
that field of religion, whether it so designs 
or not, into the world wherein nations all too 
frequently fall into conflict. Said the 
Chicago Inter-Ocean: 

Boston, Mass. — .That foreign mi.ssions received 
a total income of .fl8,605,748 last year, wiiich 
went to the support of 29,386 stations and out 
stations, in which were 6750 men and 6039 women 



missionaries, is a statement of evangelical forces 
now engaged in efforts to evangelize the non- 
Christian world, made public here by Editorial 
Secretary Strong of the American Board of Mis- 

In these stations there are 70,735 native labor- 
ers, .1,349,008 eommnnicants, and 1,120,802 under 
instruction. These totals show an increase over 
reports of the previous year. 

Statistics of principal foreign missionary so- 
cieties of Evangelical churches of the United 
States show that women missionaries outnumber 
the men, there being 3031 of the former to 2043 
of the latter. Native contributions amounted to 
$1,282,299, and the total income was $8,26C,321. 

Great Britain is shown to have more men in 
the foreign field than women, with 3150 men and 
1990 women. The total income of the British 
societies is $962,224 below that of the American 
societies, amounting to $7,298,097. 

The last enumeration of missionaries in China 
gives their number as 3270. In Japan there are 
48,087 Christian communicants in the Protestant 

Eighty-nine societies are engaged in Christian 
work in India, of which thirty-two are Ameri- 
can. All of the societies have in this field 3447 
foreign missionaries. The 541 hospitals and dis- 
pensaries have within the year cared for 2,000,- 
953 patients. 


Plan Issue as They Think Disciples Would Under 
Present Conditions. 

Apparently in the consciousness that no 
weapon of the modern day equals the press 
in efficacy, the ministers of the Protestant 
churches frequently- are undertaking such 
movements as the following: 

Kenton, Ohio. — For one day Kenton is to have 
a newspaper conducted and edited as the dis- 
ciples of the Savior would have it. For the first 
time this city will have union revival services 
of all the evangelistic churches. 

The Ministerial Association regretted its lack 
of an official organ to help the services, where- 
upon the News, the local Republican daily, of- 
fered to turn over its office and paper to the 
Kenton ministers for Saturday, December 29, 
the preachers to have absolute charge of the en- 
tire issue. 

The preachers in session adopted the proposi- 
tion and will publish 3000 extras to sell at 10 
cents each to defray expenses. The ministers an- 
nounce: "The newspaper will be like we be- 
lieve the apostles of Christ would have it were 
they here to edit it under modern con- 


New York Playhouses Must Show Cause Why 
Licenses Should Not Be Revoked. 

The following from the Pittsburg Gazette- 
Times exhibits something of the movement 
toward moral rectification which may be the 
precursor of religious developments : 

New York. — The city administration will turn 
to the civil courts for assistance in putting an 
end to Sunday theatrical performances. It is 
proposed to make the first move in this direc- 
tion next week when Oscar Hammerstein will 
be cited to show cause why the license of his 
Victoria Theater should not be revoked. The 
action will be taken by request of the Actors' 
Church Alliance. 


Subject of Liberty on First Day of '^eek to Be 
Taken Through Chicago Courts. 

The pressure of the foreign-American ele- 
ment against the application of Sunday 
regulation is shown in the following from 
the Chicago Tribune : 

The Sunday closing fight in Chicago is on in 
earnest. It will be a fight to a finish, with neither 
expense, nor legal resource, nor popular appeal 
spared in testing the duty of the Mayor to en- 
force what he calls a dead letter. 

With the retaining of Levy Mayer as counsel 
for Alderman Michael Kenna in the mandamus 
proceedings brought by the Sunday Closing 
League the personal liberty organizations served 
notice of the opening of a determined campaign 
to uphold Mayor Dunne in his persistent refusal 
to enforce the law. 

Indirectly Attorney Mayer will represent the 
United Societies for Local Self-Government. 

In outlining his plan of attack on the Sunday 
closing advocates. Attorney Levy Mayer de- 
clared that Chicago is the center of a new and 
growing movement destined to sweep the coun- 
try, a movement for the establishment of a new 
liberty, the liberty of Sunday observance. On 
this ground he will seek to justify the non-en- 
forcement of the law, if not to prove the uncon- 
stitutionality of the statute. Another basis of 
attack will be the right of the courts to inter- 
vene in the administration of municipal govern- 


The Court Divided, All the American Judges 

San Juan, Porto Rico. — The Supreme Court 
of Porto Rico has rendered a decision favorable 
to the Catholic Church in the case of the Church 
versus the People as to the ownership of certain 



The court finds that properties valued at half 
a million dollars belong to the church and ac- 
crued rents and incomes since 1898, when the 
United States took the island from Spain and 
amounting to $100,000 are declared to be due the 

Of the five members of the court three fa- 
vored the decision for the church. The Ameri- 
can judges voted in favor of the Government. 
The case will be appealed to the United States 
Supreme Court. 


Rev. Madison C. Peters Says Classes Control 
Church Sermons. 

Altho the pulpit is taking such steps as 
those reflected in the preceding tvs'O items, 
there are still within the Church leaders who 
feel that there is a ministerial lethargy and 
indifference to be overcome before current 
social conditions can be adequately modified. 
Said the Chicago Inter-Oeean : 

New York. — Dr. Madison C. Peters, in his fare- 
well sermon as pastor of the Epiphany Baptist 
Church, said: 

"Every one who knows the emptiness of the 
pews in nearly all the Protestant churches in 
New York, knows that so far as Protestants are 
concerned. New Yorkers have ceased to be 
churehgoing people. The failure of the church 
to reach the people is not only a numerical fail- 
ure — numbers do not always represent power 
and influence — but it is a failure of quality as 
well as quantity. By far the vast majority of 
the people of this city never enter a Protestant 
church, except possibly to attend a funeral or 
witness a wedding. 

"Among those outside of the churches are a 
class of men and women who typify and embody 
the higher forces which are working for good 
or evil in American society. The non-ehurehed 
masses are not antagonistic to religion, and they 
often set a good example to professors them- 
selves. Some years ago at a great labor meeting 
in Cooper Union the name of the church was 
hissed, while that of Jesus was cheered. All 
the religious world outside of the church recog- 
nizes the fact that the traditions of the church 
and the teachings of Jesus are antagonistic. 

"Beyond the mere superficies, Christianity has 
not as yet been taught in the churches, and 
therefore it can not be truthfully said that Chris- 
tianity in New York is a failure, because it has 
never received a fair trial. Christianity in its 
last analysis is a social ideal. 

".Tesus seldom spoke about the church, but 
he spoke constantly about the kingdom; the ob- 
ject of his mission was not so much to assure 
us of a 'Sweet By and By' as to establish a de- 
cent now-and-now. 

"I am not leaving the church; I am simply 

seeking to accomplish the mission of Jesus, and 
I believe, as conditions exist in New York to- 
day, I can do so better outside a church building 
than in one. In the theater I have leased there 
will be a common meeting ground for all the peo- 
ple, irrespective of poverty or riches. 

"In the church the preacher is expected to 
conserve the heritage of the past. I believe the 
preacher should be a prophet, not a parrot, and 
should contribute both with pen and voice to 
the molding of the future. Christianity is ani- 
mated by a social spirit, but it is a fact of his- 
tory that the churches for full fifteen hundred 
years, as a whole, have been the allies of the 

"I believe with Carroll D. Wright that the 
adoption of the philosophy of the religion of 
Christ as a practical creed will be the surest and 
speediest solution of the difficulties which excite 
the minds of men. 

"I enter upon this new work because I long 
for a freedom which no man can enjoy in a 
pulpit where a few men pay his salary and prac- 
tically dictate what he shall say. 

"The pulpit in America, with here and there 
a notable exception, is a coward's castle. With 
my pen and my platform I can, if necessary, 
preach for the love of it, and I emphatically say 
that there will never be in any pulpit in America 
a free expression of honest opinion as long 
as the consciences of the preachers are held in 
bondage and thralldom by a paid salary." 


Jewish Rabbi Regrets Tendency to Forget the 
Human Side of Business. 

Something of the approach to the reform 
movement thru the avenues of public ex- 
hortation is given in the following from the 
Cleveland Plain Dealer. Coming as the utter- 
ance does from a member of the highly com- 
mercialized Jewish race, it has more than 
usual significance: 

Cleveland, Ohio. — In his sermon on "The Ma- 
chine and Man," at The Temple in this city re- 
cently, Rabbi Louis Wolsey of Little Rock, Ark., 
decried the tendency to place the machine above 
man, and declared they are but the distributers 
of man's energy, and that man is supreme above 
all elements. 

Rabbi Wolsey came here to occupy the pulpit 
for the day, but next September he will take 
charge of the Scovill Avenue Temple. 

"The statement of the Jewish sages that the 
patriarchs observed the Torah long before it 
was revealed," he said, in part, "puts man as 
the chief fact ever and above all Bibles, creeds 
and philosophies. He lived and moved before 
them all. He is the central phenomenon of the 
universe, more important than all the books 
which are his Bibles, more significant and power- 
ful than all the inventions upon which he so 



Apropos of the Recent Controversy Between President Roosevelt and the Storers in Regard to 
the Appointment of Archbishop Ireland as a Cardinal. 

— New York World. 



freely relies in the lioura of his laziness, in- 
dolence and luxurious ease. 

"The man in commerce greets one with the 
cold water statement that business is business, by 
which he means that industry and commerce are 
things from which the human is eliminated. He 
sees no human being before him and he cares 
not who or what you are ; he looks upon the form 
before him as a machine that either buys or sells 
and his one goal is to reduce all of the various 
departments of his activity into a system. The 
labor agitator, the socialist, the reformer, the 
statesman, and the publicist, have so tabulated 
men that they are simply denoted by a statistic, a 
tigure that can be manipulated by pressing a but- 
ton or be set in motion by belting them to some 

"But they who have forgotten and neglected 
the chief element of the universe, and that 
element is neither bow nor fire nor sword nor 
machine nor electricity, are dreamers, for the 
central thing is not a nameless slave, a drudge, 
a piece of property, but man, the being in whom 
there is something of God, the being who wishes 
and hopes and thinks and wonders, to whose 
divinity flesh and blood and fiber and bone ren- 
der the tribute of their all." 

knowledge that all Europe recognizes the neces- 
sity of some effective form of ethical instruc- 
tion in the public schools. The several coun- 
tries differ as to methods, but they are a unit as 
to the need. In America juvenile criminality is 
on the increase and there is not a doubt in my 
mind that this is the result of the disappearance 
of religious teaching from our public schools. 
The Bible is still read and prayers and hymns 
are still heard in the schools of the New England 
States, but education elsewhere throughout the 
country, so far as the public schools are con- 
cerned, is severely secular. I might mention 
some minor qualifications of this rule, but my 
statement is substantially correct. 

"America's responsibility in this matter is 
tremendous. It has more than 16,000,000 young 
people in its public schools. These schools repre- 
sent an investment of £120,000,000 ($600,000,- 
000) and cost yearly £50,000,000 ($250,000,000) 
of the hard-earned money of parents who want 
to see their sons and daughters amount to some- 
thing. We must crowd into their minds and 
drive into their hearts the moral principles upon 
which everv career must stand if it stands at 



Ethical Condition of the American People Is 
of the Gravest Concern. 

The still more strictly ethical exhortation 
is typified by the following from the Chicago 


London. — "After all, America's greatest prob- 
lem is not a material, but a moral problem," 
said Clifford W. Barnes, special commissioner of 
the Religious Education Association of the 
United States, to the correspondent of the Chi- 
cago Daily News. "From reading the news- 
papers one would infer that if we could settle 
our railway, trust, tariff, and other business 
questions we should be able to rest on our oars. 
The truth is that the ethical state of our people is 
our gravest concern. If we can put this right 
and keep it right everything else will be easy." 

Mr. Barnes is specially interested in that part 
of the moral problem of America which is in- 
dicated by the increase in general lawlessness, 
and particularly in juvenile criminality. He 
resigned the presidency of Illinois College a year 
ago and came to Europe for the Religious Educa- 
tion Association of the United States — an or- 
ganization formed at the instance of Dr. Butler 
of Columbia, the late Dr. Harper of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, and other men of like type — to 
study the religious and moral education of the old 
world for the guidance of the new. 

"I go home," he continued, "with the certain 

Dr. Fagnani, Addressing Workmen, Speaks for 
More Democracy. 

Stricture upon the worthiness of the 
Church and of its value in the current con- 
ditions of life is given in the following from 
the New York Times : 

Bishop Henry C. Potter of Manhattan pre- 
sided recently at a mass meeting under the aus- 
pices of the Brooklyn Central Labor Union, in 
Association Hall, that borough, at which the re- 
lations of labor and the church formed the sub- 
ject of discussion. The speakers included the 
Rev. Dr. Charles P. Fagnani of the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary and Frank A. Foster, president 
of the Massachusetts Federation of Labor. 

"The church believes in confession. So she 
tells the laborer to confess his sins to her. It 
is a poor rule which does not work both ways. 
The church might go to confession herself and 
confess her sins to the laboring man. The church 
has been too prone to place emphasis on the in- 
terests of the other world and to neglect the in- 
terests of this world. 

"The laborer is necessarily engrossed with 
the affairs of this world. Now the church is re- 
alizing she has neglected too much the worldly 
side. She is learning to leave Heaven and hell 
to take care of themselves and to look after the 
things in this life that are sending men to hell. 

"God is the God of progress and the church 
has told labor to be content with wages when 



she should have urged labor to demand higher 
wages. In that she misinterpreted God. She has 
not been Christian enough in her insistence upon 
brolherliness that the welfare of each is the 
concern of all. The earth is rich enough to 
gratify the desires of all. It is nothing but the 
lack of brotherliness that heaps up the wealth 
of a few while the many are impoverished. 
When the church and labor join hands the king- 
dom of God will come." 

Mr. Foster, speaking for labor, said it wel- 
comed the co-operation of the church and appre- 
ciated its sympathy. 

"Labor," he added, "realizes that it must 
satisfy the public conscience that its cause is 
that of equity and justice. With the co-opera- 
tion of the laborer, the farmer, and the church, 
the Republic is safe, no matter what danger 
threatens. The labor unions are as important an 
ethical factor in the community as the church, 
and the unions and the church should work to- 
gether. In the labor union is the opportunity 
for the working out of the ideas of fraternity — 
the teachings of Ch"i-ist." 

human nature would not be tempted beyond its 
strength, and make and enforce laws which shall 
forbid unscrupulous practices like the employ- 
ment of child labor or the adulteration of goods, 

"Among nations as among business corpora- 
tions," Professor Jenks concluded, "we may see 
that in the long run, if the moral sentiments of 
individual citizens are right, moral practices pay. 

"There is no reason for discouragement. 
There is still, however, much more to do for each 
of us in a way of seeking more clearly the ap- 
plication of the simple, old-fashioned principles 
of private honesty to the great transactions of 
corporate business and to the still greater prob- 
lems of statesmanship. It may seem a tame 
and impotent conclusion that there is no legis- 
lative panacea for our business ills, but that 
upon us as individuals rests the responsibility 
for our own improvement. The justification for 
the conclusion is human nature and the experi- 
ence of the ages." — New York Times. 



Professor Jenks Tells Economic Society Moral 
Awakening Is Needed. 

Providence, R. I. — At a joint meeting of the 
American Historical and American Economic As- 
sociations, Professor Jeremiah W. Jenks of Cor- 
nell University, president of the American Eco- 
nomic Association, delivered the annual address, 
his subject being "The Modern Standard of 
Business Honor." 

He said it must be confessed that acts of 
treachery are often condoned by the public -when 
committed by statesmen in the interest of their 
country. He added : 

"It is no less certain that these principles 
are often wrongly applied in modern business 
life by men who have in their hands the interests 
of stockholders. They separate their private 
morals from their business acts and excuse them- 

"The frequency of great fortunes, gathered, 
perhaps, legally, but in w-ays felt to be unjust, 
through the power of monopoly, has tended 
strongly to obscure the moral vision of many 
well-meaning men who have been thereby led to 
confound morality with social righteousness, and 
their acts have formed the excuse for many 
others to break laws which seem to them unjust. 
The profit from an unjust, though legal, stock- 
watering may well prove more demoralizing in 
business circles than the illegal freight rebate 
which saves from ruin a grain shipper caught at 
a disadvantage." 

Professor Jenks suggested as a remedj' that 
the State should make the conditions such that 

Police Enforce Every Blue Law Left in Statutes 
of Massachusetts. 

Occasionally the moral reaction harks back 
to "blue law" times. The following from 
the Chicago Record-Herald is an instance : 

Boston. — Every blue law remaining on the 
statute books of Massachusetts that Police Com- 
missioner O'Meare could find was enforced in 
Boston recently, and the police presented to 
the judges of the Municipal Court the names of 
about 400 men with requests that summonses be 
issued for them on the charge of violating the 
Sunday laws. 

No arrests were made, but in every case ob- 
served by the police the name and address and 
occupation of the offender were taken for pre- 
sentation to the court. 

Among those found to be violating the Sunday 
law, which forbids any except works of neces- 
sity or charity, were movers of theatrical scenery, 
teamsters, expressmen, agents of transfer com- 
panies, workmen on the Washington Street sub- 
way, attendants of fruit stands, stevedores, and 
other water front employees, window and side- 
walk washers, janitors of business buildings and 
scores of othere engaged in minor occupations. 

Perhaps the most serious etfect of the 'blue' 
Sunday from the standpoint of the citizens at 
large was the refusal of Superintendent of 
Street Cleaning Cummings to order out the usual 
gang to clean the streets in the business district. 
It has been the custom for years to give these 
streets a thorough cleaning on Sunday, as most 
of them are narrow and on week days are so 
congested that good cleaning is out of the ques- 
tion, though they are swept every night. 




Canadian Movement Toward Consolidation on 
Patriotic Grounds. 

Many church people of all denominations, 
realizing that the religious propaganda is 
much weakened thru scattering of forces, are 
engaged in promoting movements similar to 
the following, as reported in the Indianapolis 

Boston. — r. W. Burrows, writing in the 
Boston Transcript, says: 

The presence in Boston of the Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam T. Gunn, chairman of the Congregational 
Union of Canada, brings us in touch with the 
latest developments in that remarkable move- 
ment toward union which is enlisting the earnest 
co-operation of the Protestant denominational 
leaders of the Dominion. Prominently connected 
with them from the beginning in an official ca- 
pacity, no one can speak more authoritatively of 
the present status of the negotiations or with a 
clearer discernment of their probable outcome 
than Dr. Gunn. 

The movement in question is no less an under- 
taking than a complete amalgamation of the 
Methodist. Episcopal, Congregational, and Pres- 
byterian bodies within the boundaries of the 
Dominion of Canada. The Methodists in Canada 
number some 800,000 adherents, the Presby- 
terians about the same, while the Congregation- 
alists, not a native Canadian church, number 
about 30,000. By these denominations commit- 
tees have been appointed to draft a plan of 
union. They have met, reported progress and 
meet again within a few days to complete their 
work, the preliminary stage having received the 
official sanction of the governing bodies of their 
respective churches. And now into the midst of 
this forward state of the negotiations comes the 
extraordinary proposal to invite the Baptist and 
the Anglican churches to join in what is vastly 
more than a friendly conference — a serious ef- 
fort to accomplish an actual union, if they 
should accept the invitation of all of the Protes- 
tant churches of Canada. 


Chinese Edict Raises Him to Level of Heaven 
and Earth. 

At a time when ethics is being so widely 
discussed, it is of significance to note the 
renewed adherence of China to Confucius, 
who was perhaps one of the greatest of pure 
ethical teachers. Said the Washington Post : 

Pekin, December 31. — An imperial edict, pub- 

lished to-day, raises Confucius to the same rank 
as Heaven and earth, which are worshiped only 
-by the Emperor. 

It is believed that this action is in deference to 
the religious scruples of the Christian students 
in the Government colleges, who object to 'ko- 
tow,' an act required by immemorial custom be- 
fore the tablet of Confucius. 

Confucius, who, despite the age-long reverence 
for his teachings, has never been worshiped per- 
sonally as a deity, has been promoted by im- 
perial edict to the dignity of a god. He is given 
the same rank as Heaven and earth, which, in 
the Chinese system of religion, form a dual per- 
sonality, with the attributes of the supreme god 
ruling the lower world. They, however, are 
worshiped only by the Emperor. 

Confucius, who never arrogated to himself 
divine attributes, is now deified, according to 
general belief, for a curious reason, namely, in 
deference to the religious scruples of the Chris- 
tian students at the Government colleges, who ob- 
jected to complying with the custom of kotowing 
to the memorial tablet of Confucius, which is 
placed in all such institutions. 


Head of Fanatical Moslems, Who Was Believed 
Dead, Reported Alive. 

Another religion from which there prom- 
ises to arise the passion of religious zealotry, 
with a corresponding effect upon the politi- 
cal affairs of the world, is set forth in the 
following from the New York Herald : 

Alexandria. — Saleh el Khalidi, president and 
delegate of the Central Committee of the Islamic 
Union, who was recently expelled from Tangiet 
and Tunis by the French Government, arrive'd 
here from Benghazi, having traveled two months 
and a half overland by way of Jarabud. 

I have just interviewed Saleh. He declines to 
divulge the object of his visit, but holds creden- 
tials of the head of the Senoussi sect, which en- 
abled him to travel through Tripoli with the 
greatest facility. 

He reports that great excitement prevails 
throughout Cyrenaica owing to news that the 
Mahdi, who was believed to have died four years 
ago, is still alive. He showed me a copy of a let- 
ter addressed to all Senoussi monasteries, relating 
that the head of the sect had been seen recently 
in the guise of a Dervish in the neighborhood of 
Abecha, capital of Wadai. 

This letter sends a message of liope to the 
Senoussi, adding: "The time is approaching 
when Moslems will be rid of the Christians." 

Members of the sect are firmly convinced that 
their chief is still alive and will soon leave 
Kufra at the head of a large army to reconquer 
Algeria, Tunis and Egypt. 




• — Cleveland Plain Dealer. 


Novel Idea of Bishop Potter Adopted by Arch- 
deaconry of New York. 

New York. — Bishop Potter has just proposed 
a plan of remarkable changes in the methods 
of the Episcopal Church. It provides for serv- 
ices of the church in any language spoken by 
any large number of persons in New York. 

At the last meeting of the Archdeaconry of 
New York the Bishop offered a resolution, which 
was adopted, providing for the appointment of a 
committee of three to arrange for the holding 
of such services in different parts of the city. 

The rapid change in the character of the popu- 
lation of the city, particularly of Manhattan, 
is given as the reason for the adoption of this 
policy. It is pointed out that in the part of the 
city below Tourteenth Street there were five 
years ago four more Protestant churches than 
there are now. Notwithstanding the increase 
of 300,000 in the number of inhabitants in Man- 
hattan within the past five years, there are not 
as many Protestant churches by two as there 
were at the beginning of this period. The rea- 
son assigned is that most of the increase in 
population is made up of foreigners, who speak 

other tongues than English. While New York 
has the most polyglot population of any great 
city, including among its many nationalities 
400,000 Italians, 700,000 Jews and 30,000 Ar- 
menians, to mention only three of the large 
number the church at present makes no ade- 
quate provision for reaching these elements of 
the population. — St. Louis Republic. 


Seer Reveals His Identity to Band of Twenty- 
three Souls. 

Chicago. — A new prophet has arisen in Chi- 
cago to seize the throne vacated by John Alex- 
ander Dowie. The latest reincarnation of the 
seers of old is "Daniel II," better known to the 
outside world as Dr. William Daniel Gentry, a 
former State Street physician. The new prophet 
revealed his identity to a band of twenty-three 
souls at Central Mission Hall, No. 124 Clark 

The people of Chicago need worry themselves 
no longer over the project of a deep waterway 
from the lakes to the gulf, proclaimeth the 
prophet, who is a strictly up-to-date seer. In 



a very short time the earth is going to take a 
little jump of a couple of hundred miles, as a 
result of which the deep waterway and many 
other improvements in the terrestrial globe will 
be accomplished immediately. 

Ships to Sail Over City. 

As a matter of fact, it is hardly worth while 
for the citizens of Chicago to bother themselves 
about anything at all, for they and their city 
will soon be resting quietly under fifty feet of 
water, and the ships of the nations of the earth 
will sail quietly over the Masonic Temple. So 
saith the prophet. 

In the orthodox manner prescribed by iin- 
memorial tradition, the gift of prophecy and the 
revelation of his identity with the hero of the 
lions' den came upon the unsuspecting Daniel 
II like a flash. For nine years he had aband- 
oned the practice of medicine to take up the 
more lucrative business of faith healing and the 
easting out of unclean spirits, for this purpose 
traveling all over the continent. 

While passing near Hamilton, Ontario, recent- 
ly he fell into a deep trance, he declares. Be- 
fore his eyes stretched a great valley. At the 
same time his sight attained a remarkable per- 
spicuity and he gazed with eagle glance over the 
entire Continent of North America and saw the 
world as it had been in the days of the cave men, 
before even the Indian had seen the prairies. 

Simultaneously the seer heard a voice proclaim 
in his ear that he was Daniel, reincarnated to 
proclaim the truth to the world. Awakening, 
Dr. Gentry hastened back to Chicago and sum- 
moned his followers. 

In his of the world as it used to be 
Daniel discovered that the deep waterway from 
the lakes to the Gulf indeed had been once an 
established fact, and he sat immediately about 
to discover how the change had come about. 
Naturally he turned first to the book which he 
had written in those far-distant times when he 
had witnessed to the truth before the King of 
Babylon, and there he found the secret revealed. 

Earth Thrown Off Balance. 

According to the prophet the earth was thrown 
off its balance at the time of the crucifixion, and 
in the nineteen centuries which have elapsed it 
has been wandering on its misguided way, ac- 
cumulating snow and ice, formerly unknown, and 
incidentally disrupting the internal navigation 
system of North America. As a conclusive proof 
of his statement, Dr. Gentry points to the fact 
that the magnetic pole is several hundred miles, 
from the North Pole, and also that investigation 
has proved that the polar regions formerly were 
within the tropical zone. 

This state of things is all going to be altered 
very shortly, he says, but the manner in which 
the change will occur promises small comfort to 
Americans. The new prophet essentially is a 
man of wrath and his prophecies teem with de- 
nunciations and calamities. 

When the change comes, he says. Lake Erie 
will disappear and Lake Michigan will arise 
and .sweep Chicago out of existence. At the same 

time all the cities of the Atlantic Coasf will be 
inundated, he says. In order to avoid any un- 
fairness in his distribution of calamities, Daniel 
II has provided earthquakes for the destruction 
of all the great cities of the interior, and with 
disregard for figures declares that "incalculable 
billions of people" will be destroyed. 

Unlike Dowie, Dr. Gentry has no intention of 
building a new Zion. Those who believe in him, 
he claims, will be caught up out of the general 
devastation and conveyed to Jerusalem. He ap- 
parently is not concerned about what wall hap- 
pen in the rest of the world apart from North 
America and Palestine. — St. Louis Republic. 


Blood of St. Gennaro, Revered in Rome, Liquefied 
Every Year by Churchmen. 

Rome. — An intei-esting experiment was con- 
ducted at the People's Palace here recently, 
when Sig. Giacci gave a visible, and comprehen- 
sive demonstration of the yearly "miracle" of 
the liquefying of the blood of St. Gennaro, which 
is kept in a phial in the church of St. Gennaro 
at Naples. Sig. Giacci explained and showed 
that this change was effected by the use of a 
chemical combination, known to the ancients for 
the preservation of blood, and that blood treated 
with it liquefies at a certain temperature. Sig. 
Giacci performed his experiments with calf's 
blood, adding thereto substances the nature of 
which he did not reveal. He will make a scien- 
tific communication in the matter. — Chicago 


It Was What the People Wanted and Paid $500 
a Night For. 

Apropos of the death of Sam Jones, the 
evangelist, a Boston minister tells the following 
story of one of Jones's meetings in the People's 

"I sat on the platform next to a Methodist 
Bishop," he says in the Boston Transcript. 
"That night Jones wanted to preach the Gospel. 

"He took a text, told the story of the context,- 
called attention to a shade of meaning brought 
out in the Revised Version and talked twenty 
minutes in a scholarly, dignified way. The 
Bishop was bored. 

"Then Jones stepped out beside the pulpit 
and with his little, cackling laugh, said: 'Huh! 
Old Brother Goody-goody ! ' 

"The Bishop pricked up his ears, and so did 
the congregation. 

"Jones raised his voice two notes, and said 
merrily, 'Old Sister Goody-goody!' 

"The Bishop sat up and smiled. So did the 

" 'All the little goody-goodies!' 

"The Bishop turned to me and grinned. He 
had got what he had come for. So had the rest 
of them. From then to the end it was ragtime, 



nonsense and slang for the syncopated notes, and 
here and there a measure or two of Gospel. 

"At the end I got out without meeting Jones 
again, but I was not missed. The Bishop had 
him by the hand congratulating him, and the 
audience was surging around the platform as in 
the days when men displayed with pride 'the 
hand that shook the hand of Sullivan.' 

"Jones had elements of genuine humor. Per- 
sonally he was a man of considerable culture. 
He talked in a smooth. Southern voice, and in 
conversation impressed you as a gentleman. 

"And he could preach a sermon as reverent 
and conventional and dull as any of us. There 
was method in his madness. He believed that 
the people wanted slang and nonsense, and he 
gave them what they wanted, and some things 
between which they did not want, or thought 
they did not want. 

"He was an independent preacher; he could 
afford to be so, for he got $500 for an evening 
of slang and could afford to tell the local clergy 
who had to get on with cranky people all the 

year that they would not be in hell ten minutes 
till the devil would have them saddled and 
bridled and would ride them over the place." — 
New York Sun. 


"Mother" Parker Missionary Among Hawaiians 
for Sixty-five Years. 

Honolulu. — A remarkable case of. longevity 
was celebrated here recently when "Mother" 
Parker, one of the first missionaries to the islands, 
became 101 years of age. Her mind is still very 
active and bright considering her extreme age, 
and her health is in some respects better than it 
was some years ago. 

She was born in Branford, Conn., December 
10, 1805, and came to these islands in 1833 with 
her husband. Both were missionaries. She has 
lived in Hawaii seventy-three years and been a 
missionary sixty-five years among the native 
Hawaiians. — New York Herald. 






Article 1. — The Republic assures liberty of con- 
science. It guarantees freedom of worship, sub- 
ject only to the restrictions hereinafter imposed 
in the interest of public order. 

Article 2. — The Republic does not recognize or 
support by salaries or subsidies any religion. 
Consequently, from the first of January next fol- 
lowing the promulgation of the present law there 
will be stricken from the budgets of the state, of 
departments, and of communes all appropriations 
relating to religious worship. There may never- 
theless be included in such budget appropriations 
for chaplains, designed to assure freedom of wor- 
ship in public establishments, such as lycees, col- 
leges, schools, hospitals, asylums, and prisons. 

The public religious establishments are sup- 
pressed except as provided in Article 3. 

Assignment of Property — Pensions. 
Article 3. — The establishments of which the 
suppression is declared by Article 2 will con- 

tinue provisionally to exercise their functions 
conformably to the regulations now in force until 
the assignment of their property to associations 
for which provision is made by Chapter IV, and 
at the latest until the expiration of the period 
hereinafter named. 

Upon the promulgation of the present law the 
agents of the Department of the Public Domain 
shall draw up an inventory describing and ap- 
praising : 

1. The property, real and personal, of the 
said establishments. 

2. The property of the state, of the depart- 
ments, and of the communes, the use of which 
has been enjoyed by the same establishments. 

This double inventory shall be drawn up in the 
presence of the legal representatives of the ec- 
clesiastical establishments, or those duly cited by 
notification in administrative form. 

The agents charged with the inventory shall 
have the right to demand the production of deeds 
and documents necessary for their work. 

Article 4. — Within a year from the promulga- 
tion of the present law the property, real and 
pereonal, of the menses (endowments'), vestry- 



men, presbyteral councils, consistories, and other 
establishments of public worship, subject to all 
charges and obligations with which they are in- 
cumbered and to all special interests with which 
they are affected, shall be transferred by the 
legal representatives of these establishments to 
the associations which, conforming to the regula- 
tions of the general organization of the religious 
worship of which they propose to assure the ex- 
ercise, shall be legally foi-med according to the 
provisions of Article 19 for the observance of 
that religion in the districts wherein the said 
establishments are situated. 

Article 5. — Property of state origin designated 
in the preceding article which is not incumbered 
with the conditions of a pious foundation created 
subsequent to the law of the eighteenth germinal 
year X, shall revert to the state. 

The assignment of property shall not be made 
by the ecclesiastical establishments until one 
month after the promulgation of the public 
administrative regulation provided for in Article 
43. The annulment of assignments made in vio- 
lation of this provision may be demanded before 
the Civil Court by any party in interest or by the 
public prosecuting officer. 

In ease of the alienation by the religious asso- 
ciation of personal or real property constituting 
part of the patrimony of the establishment dis- 
solved, the amount produced by the sale shall 
be invested in registered securities or according 
to the provisions of Paragraph 2 of Article 22. 

The purchaser of the property thus alienated 
shall be personally responsible for the observ- 
ance of this regulation in the investment. 

Property reclaimed by the state, by depart- 
ments, or by communes shall not be alienated, 
converted, or changed until the reclamation has 
been adjudicated by competent tribunals. 

Article 6. — The associations to which shall 
be assigned the property of the suppressed eccle- 
siastical establishments shall be responsible for 
the debts of those establishments, as also for 
loan contracted by them subject to the provisions 
of the third paragraph of the present article; 
until they have discharged these liabilities they 
shall not enjoy the right of the revenues pro- 
duced by the property, which are to be turned 
over to the state by virtue of Article 5. 

The gross revenue of the said property re- 
mains pledged to the payment of the balance of 
the regular and lawful debts of the suppressed 
public establishment, when no association for 
worship shall be formed qualified to take over 
the patrimony of the establishment. 

The interest charge for loans contracted for 
expenses relating to religious buildings shall be 
borne by the associations in proportion to the 
time during which they have enjoyed the use of 
these buildings under the provision of Chapter 3. 
In case the state, the departments, or the com- 
munes shall re-enter into possession of those of 
these edifices of which they are proprietors they 
shall be responsible for debts regularly con- 
tracted an^ attaching to said edifices. 

Article 7. — Property, real and personal, af- 
fected with a charitable use or any other interest 
foreign to religious worship shall be assigned by 
the legal representatives of the ecclesiastical es- 
tablishments to public services or establishments 
of public utility, the object of which is of a like 
nature to that of the said foundations. The as- 
signment must be approved by the prefect of the 
department where the ecclesiastical establish- 
ment is situated. In case of non-approval it 
shall be ratified by decree of the Council of 

Any action for re-entry or reclamation must 
be taken within six months, beginning with the 
day on which the prefect's decree or the decree 
approving the assignment shall be inserted in the 
Journal Officiel. Such action can be instituted 
only in respect to donations or legacies, and only 
by the donors or their heirs in direct line. 

Article 8. — Should an ecclesiastical establish- 
ment fail within the period fixed by Article 4 to 
proceed to the above prescribed assignment, it 
shall be made by decree. 

At the expiration of the said period the prop- 
erty to be assigned shall be, until its assignment, 
placed in sequestration. 

In case property assigned by virtue of Article 
4 and of paragraph 1 of the present article shall 
be either at once or subsequently claimed by sev- 
eral associations formed for the exercise of the 
same religion, the assignment which shall have 
been made by the representatives of the estab- 
lishment or by decree may be contested before 
the Council of State sitting as a court, which 
shall give its decision having in view all the cir- 
cumstances of fact. 

The application shall be made before the 
Council of State within a year from the date of 
the decree, or of the notification to the prefecture 
by the legal representatives of the public estab- 
lishments of the religion in question of the as- 
signment affected by them. Such notification 
must be made within one month. 

The assignment may be subsequently contested 
in case of a division in the association possessing 
the property, of the creation of a new associa- 
tion in consequence of any alteration in the terri- 
tory of the ecclesiastical district, and in a case 
where the assignee association is no longer in a 
position to fulfill its object. 

Article 9.— In default of the formation of any 
association to take over the property of a public 
religious establishment the property shall be 
assigned by decree to the communal establish- 
ments for poor relief or public charity situated 
within the territorial limits of the ecclesiastical 
district concerned. 

In case of the dissolution of an association, 
property which shall have devolved upon it in 
pursuance of Articles 4 and 8 shall be assigned 
by decree rendered by the Council of State either 
to similar associations in the same district or, in 
default thereof, in the nearest neighboring dis- 
tricts, or to establishments indicated in the first 
paragraph of the present article. 



All actions for re-entry or reclamation must 
be begun within six months from the day when 
the decree shall have been inserted in the Journal 
Offleiel. Such action may be instituted only in 
respect of gifts and legacies and only by the 
donors or their heirs in direct line. 

Article 10. — Assignments provided for by the 
preceding articles shall be exempt from all treas- 
ury fees. 

Article 11. — Ministers of religion who at the 
time of the promulgation of the present law 
shall have completed their sixtieth year, and who 
for at least thirty years shall have exercised 
ecclesiastical functions remunerated by the 
state, shall receive an annual pension for life 
equal to three-quarters of their salaries. 

Those who shall be above the age of forty-five 
years, and who during twenty years at least shall 
have exercised ecclesiastical functions remuner- 
ated by the state, shall receive an annual pension 
for life equal to half of their salaries. 

Pensions granted by the two preceding para- 
graphs shall not exceed 1500 francs. 

In case of the decease of the beneficiaries these 
pensions shall accrue to the extent of one-half of 
their amount to the profit of the widow and of 
the minor orphans left by the deceased, and up 
to one-quarter of the amount to the profit of the 
widow without minor children. Upon the or- 
phans attaining their majority their pension shall 
cease and determine. 

Ministers of religion now receiving a salary 
from the state, to whom the conditions above 
described shall not apply, shall receive during a 
period of four years following the suppression of 
the appropriation for public worship an allow- 
ance equal to the full sum of their salary for the 
first year, to two-thirds thereof for the second, 
to one-half for the third, and to one-third for 
the fourth. 

However, in communes of less than one thou- 
sand inhabitants, and for ministers of religion 
who shall continue there to exercise their func- 
tions, the duration of each of the four periods 
above indicated shall be doubled. 

The departments and communes may, under 
the same conditions as the state, grant to minis- 
ters of religion now receiving salaries from them 
pensions or allowances established upon the same 
basis, and for an equal period of time. 

These provisions shall not affect rights to pen- 
sions acquired under previous legislation, or to 
assistance accorded either to former- ministers of 
the different religions or to their families. 

The pensions for which provision is made in 
the first two paragraphs of this article shall not 
be in addition to any other pension or any other 
stipend allowed under whatsoever title by the 
state, the departments, or the communes. 

The law of the 27th of June, 1885, relative to 
the personnel of suppressed faculties of Catholic 
theology, is applicable to professors, lecturers, 
readers, and students of the faculties of Protest- 
ant theology. 

The pensions and the allowances above pro- 
vided for shall not be transferable and are ex- 
empt from attachment under the same condi- 
tions as civil pensions. They shall cease and 
determine in case of condemnation to penal servi- 
tude or degrading punishment, or in case of con- 
demnation for one of the offenses indicated in 
Articles 34 and 35 of the present law. 

Loss of French citizenship shall act, during 
the period of such loss, as a bar to the obtaining 
or to the enjoyment of a pension or allowance. 

Applications for pensions will be barred if not 
made within one year from the promulgation of 
this law. 


Edifices for Public Worship. 

Article 12.- — Buildings which have been put at 
the disposal of the nation and which, by virtue 
of the law of the eiarhteenth germinal year X, 
serve for purposes of public worship or for the 
residences of ministers of religion (cathedrals, 
churches, chapels, temples, synagogues, houses of 
archbishops and of bishops, presbyteries, semi- 
naries), with the outbuildings pertaining to them, 
and the furniture and objects therein contained 
at the time the said edifices were reconveyed for 
religious use, are and remain property of the 
state, of the departments, and of the communes. 

In respect to these edifices, as well as to those 
of later date than the law of the eighteenth ger- 
minal year X, of which the state, the depart- 
ments, and the communes are the proprietors, as 
well as in respect to faculties of Protestant the- 
ology, the proceeding shall conform to the pro- 
visions of the following articles : 

Article 13. — Buildings used for purposes of 
public worship, with their furniture and equip- 
ments, shall be put free of charge at the disposal 
of public religious establishments, and thereaf- 
ter of the associations summoned to succeed 
them, to which the property of these establish- 
ments shall be assigned according to the provi- 
sions of Chapter II. 

The cessation of this right of use and, if occa- 
sion arises, its transfer shall be pronounced by 
decree without right of appeal to the Council of 
State in its judicial capacity: 

1. If the beneficiary association is dissolved. 

2. If, save for reasons of compelling neces- 
sity, religious worship shall cease to be cele- 
brated during six consecutive months. 

3. If the preservation of the building or that 
of the movable objects listed under the law of 
1887 and of Article 16 of the present law, is im- 
periled by inadequate care and maintenance, and 
after an order of the Municipal Council, or, in 
default of that, of the prefect, has been duly 

4. If the association ceases to fulfill its object 
or if the buildings are diverted from their pre- 
scribed use. 



5. If it fails of compliance with either the 
provisions of Article 6 or of the last paragraph 
of the present article, or with the enactments 
relating to historic monuments. 

The secularization of these buildings may in 
the aforesaid cases be proclaimed by decree of 
the Council of State; in all other cases seculari- 
zation may be proclaimed only by law. 

Buildings formerly dedicated to religious use, 
in which ceremonies of public worship have not 
been observed for a year anterior to the present 
law, as well as those which have not been re- 
claimed by an association for religious worship 
within two years after its promulgation, may be 
secularized by decree. 

This provision shall apply to those buildings 
of which the secularization shall have been ap- 
plied for prior to the 1st of June, 1905. 

Public religious establishments, and afterward 
the beneficiary associations, shall be held respon- 
sible for repairs of all kinds as well as for the 
cost of insurance and other charges pertaining to 
the buildings and to the furniture and equip- 

Article 14. — Houses of archbishops, and bish- 
ops, presbyteries, and their appurtenances, the 
Catholic theological seminaries, and faculties of 
Protestant theology, shall be left to the gratui- 
tous use of the. public religious establishments, 
and thereafter of the associations for which pro- 
vision is made in Article 13, as here provided : 
The houses of archbishops and of bishops during 
a period of two years; the presbyteries in the 
communes where the minister of religion shall 
reside, the Catholic theological seminaries, and 
faculties of Protestant theology, during a period 
of five years dating from the promulgation of the 
present law. 

The establishments and associations are sub- 
ject in all that concerns these edifices to the pro- 
visions of the last paragraph of Article 13. They 
shall not, however, be held responsible for struc- 
tural repairs. 

The enjoyment of this right of occupation by 
the establishment and associations shall be ter- 
minated under the conditions and according to 
the forms prescribed in Article 13. The provis- 
ions of paragraphs 3 and 5 of the same article 
are applicable to the buildings designated by 
paragraph 1 of the present article. 

The diversion to a public use of portions of 
the presbyteries not necessary for the associa- 
tions for religious worship occupying them may, 
within the period provided for in the first para- 
graph, be proclaimed by a decree of the Council 
of State. 

At the expiration of the periods of gratuitous 
occupation the right of disposal of the buildings 
shall revert to the state, to the departments, and 
to the commune. 

The cost of domiciles now defrayed by com- 
munes having no presbyteries, under provisions 
of Article 136 of the law of the 5th of April, 
1884, shall continue to be borne by them during 
a period of five years; upon the dissolution of 
the association this charge shall cease irrevoc- 

Article 15. — In the Departments of Savoie, of 
Haute-Savoie, and of the Alpes-Maritimes the 
right to occupy edifices which date from a time 
prior to the law of the eighteenth germinal year 
X, serving for religious worship and the lodging 
of ministers, shall be assigned by the communes 
within which they are situated to the associations 
for religious worship under' the conditions indi- 
cated in Article 12, and in accordance with the 
present law ; apart from these obligations the 
communes may freely dispose of the right of 
ownership in these buildings. 

In these departments the cemeteries shall re- 
main the property of the communes. 

Article 16. — A complementary list of the 
buildings serving for public religious worship 
(cathedrals, churches, chapels, temples, syna- 
gogues, houses of archbishops and bishops, pres- 
byteries, seminaries) shall be prepared, in which 
shall be included all of these edifices as embody, 
in whole or in part, an artistic or historic value. 

Articles of furniture or buildings designated in 
Article 13 which have not yet been entered upon 
a list drawn up as prescribed by the law of the 
30th of March, 1887, are by the effect of the 
present law added to said list. The Minister of 
Public Instruction and the Pine Arts shall pre- 
pare within a period of three years a definitive 
cla.ssifled list of these objects, the preservation of 
which presents from the point of view of history 
or of art a sufficient interest. At the expiration 
of this period the other objects shall be stricken 
from the list. 

All other classes of buildings and furniture as- 
signed in virtue of the present law to the asso- 
ciations may be listed under the same conditions 
as if they belonged to the public establishments. 

Other provisions of the law of the 30th of 
March, 1887, shall remain in force. 

The ecclesiastical archives and libraries in the 
houses of archbishops and bishops. Catholic theo- 
logical seminaries, parishes, chapels, and their 
dependencies shall be inventoried, and those 
which are recognized to be the property of the 
state shall be restored to it. 

Article 17. — Buildings classified according to 
the provisions of the law of the 30th of March, 
1887, or of the present law, are inalienable and 

In the case where the sale or exchange of a 
listed object shall be authorized by the Minister 
of Public Instruction and the Fine Arts, a right 
of pre-emption is accorded : (1) to the associa- 
tions for worship; (2) to the communes; (3) to 
the departments; (4) to museums and societies 
of art and archaeology; (5) to the state. The 
price shall be fixed by three experts designated 
by the vendor, the purchaser, and the president 
of the civil tribunal. 

If the right of pre-emption is not exercised by 
any of the purchasers indicated above the sale 
shall be public, but the purchaser of a listed 
object is forbidden to transport it out of France. 

No work of repair, restoration, or maintenance 
required for monuments or listed movable objects 
may be commenced without the authorization of 
the Minister of Fine Arts, nor executed save 




















under the supervision of his administration; pro- 
prietors, occupants, or possessors who shall order 
work done in violation of this provision shall be 
subject to a fine of from 16 to 1500 francs. 

Every violation of the above provisions, as well 
as of the provisions of Article 16 of the present 
law, and of Articles 4, 10, 11, 12, and 13 of the 
law of the 30th of March, 1887, shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of from 100 to 10,000 francs, and 
by imprisonment of from six days to three 
months, or by either of these penalties sepa- 

The buildings and the listed movable objects 
shall be freely open to fhe visits and inspection 
of the public without charge or fee. 


Associations for Beligious Worship. 

Article 18. — The associations formed to pro- 
vide for the cost and maintenance of public re- 
ligious worship must be constituted in accord- 
ance with Article 5 and the following articles of 
the first chapter of the law of July 1, 1901. They 
shall, furthermore, be subject to the provisions of 
the present law. 

Article 19. — These associations shall have- re- 
ligious worship for their exclusive object, and 
shall be composed at least : 

In communes of less than 1000 inhabitants, of 
7 persons. 

In communes of 1000 to 2000 inhabitants, of 15 

In communes of which the number of inhab- 
itants is above 20,000, of 25 adult persons domi- 
ciled or residing in the parish. 

Any of their members may at any time retire 
upon payment of assessments due and of those of 
the current year, notwithstanding any clause to 
the contrary. 

Notwithstanding any clause of the statutes to 
the contrary, acts of financial and legal admin- 
istration of the property by the directors or ad- 
ministrators shall be at least once a year pre- 
sented for audit and examination to the general 
assembly of the members of the association, and 
submitted to its approval. 

The associations may receive, in addition to 
the assessments provided by Article 6 of the law 
of the 1st of July, 1901, the proceeds of collec- 
tions and offerings for the expense of worship, 
and may receive payments: For religious cere- 
monies and services, even by endowment; for the 
rental of pews and seats; for the furnishing of 
objects destined for funeral services in religious 
buildings, and for the decoration of such build- 

They may pay o»'er the surplus of their receipts 
to other associations constituted for the same 
purpose, and such transfers shall be exempt from 
fees and dues. 

They shall not, under any form whatsoever, 
receive subsidies from the state, from the depart- 
ments, or from the communes. Sums allowed for 
the repairs of registered monuments are not con- 
sidered as subsidies. 
Article 20. — These associations may under the 

forms prescribed in Article 7 of the decree of 
August 16, 1901, form unions having a central 
administration or direction; these unions shall 
be subject to the regulations prescribed by Arti- 
cle 18 and by the last five paragraphs of Article 
19 of th^ present law. 

Article 21. — The associations and their unions 
shall keep an account of their receipts and ex- 
penditures; they shall each year draw up a finan- 
cial statement for the past year and prepare an 
inventory of their property, real and personal. 

The inspection and auditing of the financial 
accounts of the associations and unions shall 
devolve upon the Department of Internal Reve- 
nue and the Inspectorate General of Finance. 

Article 22. — Associations and unions may em- 
ploy their available resources for the establish- 
ment of a reserve fund sufficient to insure the 
cost and maintenance of worship, which fund 
shall in no case be diverted to other purposes; 
the amount of this reserve in the case of unions 
and associations having more than 5000 francs of 
revenue shall not exceed three times, and for 
other associations six times, the average amount 
annually expended by each of them during the 
five preceding years for the expense of public 

Independent of this reserve, which must be 
invested in registered securities, they may estab- 
lish a special reserve, the funds of which must 
be deposited in money or in registered securities 
in a government bank of deposit to be employed 
exclusively, interest thereon included, for the 
provision, the construction, the decoration, or the 
repairs of buildings or furnishings for the use of 
the association or the union. 

Article 23. — The directors or administrators of 
an association or of a union who shall have vio- 
lated Articles 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of from 16 francs to 200 francs, 
and for a second offense by a fine double these 

The courts may, in case of a violation of the 
first paragraph of Article 22, condemn the asso- 
ciation or the union to pay over any ascertained 
excess of the communal establishments of poor 
relief or charity. 

They may, furthermore, in all cases coming 
under the provisions of the first paragraph of the 
present article, decree the dissolution of the asso- 
ciation or the union. 

Article 24. — Buildings set apart for public 
worship which belong to the state, to the depart- 
ments, or to the communes, shall continue to be 
exempt from the realty tax and from the door 
and window tax. 

Edifices serving as residences of ministers of 
religion, seminaries, and the faculties of Protest- 
ant theological institutions belonging to the 
state, to the departments, or to the communes, 
and property belonging to the associations and 
unions are subject to the same imposts as those of 
private individuals. 

The associations and unions are not in any 
case subject to the special corporation tax, nor 
to those imposed on clubs by Article 33 of the 
law of August 8, 1890, nor to the income tax of 



four per cent imposed by the laws of December 
28, 1880, and December 29, 1884. 

Public Worship Regulations. 

Article 25. — Meetings for public worship held 
in places belonging to an association for religious 
worship or put at its disposal are public. They 
are relieved from the formalities prescribed in 
Article 8 of the law of June 30, 1881, but remain 
subject to the supervision of the authorities in 
the interest of public order. They may take 
place only after a declaration made according to 
the forms prescribed by Article 2 of the same 
law indicating the place in which they are to be 

A single declaration suffices for all the regular, 
stated, or special meetings which shall be held 
during the year. 

Article 26. — It is forbidden to hold political 
meetings in places regularly used for public wor- 

Article 27. — Ceremonies, processions, and other 
outdoor observances of religion shall continue to 
be regulated in confonnity to Articles 95 and 97 
of the municipal law of the 5th of April, 1884. 

The ringing of church bells shall be regulated 
by municipal decree, and in case of disagreement 
between the mayor and the president or director 
of the association for religious worship, by decree 
of the prefect. 

The public administrative regulation prescribed 
by Article 43 of the present law shall determine 
the conditions and the cases in which the ringing 
of bells upon civil occasions may take place. 

Article 28. — It is forbidden in future to erect 
or affi.x any religious sign or emblem upon public 
monuments, or in any public place whatever, with 
the exception of the edifices set apart for relig- 
ious worship, burial grounds in the cemeteries, 
monuments of the dead, museums, and exposi- 

Article 29. — Violations of the preceding arti- 
cles are punished by simple police penalties. 
Subject to these penalties, also, in cases covered 
by Articles 25, 26, and 27, are those who have 
organized the meeting or demonstration, those 
who have participated in it as ministers of re- 
ligion, and, in the case of Articles 25 and 26, 
those who have furnished the place of meeting. 

Article 30. — In conformity with the provisions 
of Article 2 of the law of the 28th of March, 
1882, religious teaching may be given to children 
between the ages of six and thirteen years regis- 
tered in the public schools only outside of school 
hours. ' «| 

The provisions of Article 14 of the law above 
cited shall be applied to ministers of religion who 
infringe this prohibition. 

Article 31.— A fine of from 16 francs to 200 
francs and imprisonment for from six days to 
two months, or either of these penalties sepa- 
rately, shall be inflicted upon those who by as- 
sault, violence, or threats against an individual, 
either in causing him to fear the loss of his em- 
ployment, or of exposing himself to injury in his 
person, his family, or his fortune, shall have de- 

termined such person to exercise or to abstain 
from exercising rights of religious worship, to 
join or to cease to be a member of any associa- 
tion for religious worship, to contribute or to re- 
frain from contributing for the maintenance of a 

Article 32. — The same penalties shall be in- 
flicted upon those who shall have prevented, de- 
layed, or interrupted religious worship by disor- 
derly conduct in the place used for the services. 

Article 33. — The provisions of the two preced- 
ing articles shall apply only to disorders, vio- 
lence, or assaults not of a nature to call for 
severer penalties under the provisions of the 
Penal Code. 

Article 34. — Every minister of religion who in 
the place where religious services are held, bj 
spoken discourse, by readings, by writings dis- 
tributed, or by placards posted up, shall have in- 
sulted or defamed any citizen charged with a 
public duty shall be punished by a fine of from 
500 francs to 3000 francs and by imprisonment 
for from a month to one year, or by either of 
these penalties separately. 

The fact of the defamation, but only when n 
relates to official functions, may be establisheu 
before the correctional tribunal under the forms 
prescribed by Article 52 of the law of the 29th 
of July, 1881. The provisions of Article 65 of 
the same law apply to offenses under the present 
and the following article. 

Article 35. — If a speech, discourse, or a writ- 
ing posted up or distributed publicly in places 
where religious services are held shall contain a 
direct provocation to resist the execution of the 
laws or the lawful acts of public authority, or 
if it shall tend to raise up or arm a part of the 
people against the others, the minister of religion 
who shall be found guilty shall be punished by 
an imprisonment of from three months to two 
years, without prejudice to the penalties incurred 
for complicity in case the provocation shall have 
been followed by sedition, revolt, or civil war. 

Article 36. — In case of condemnation by the 
minor police courts or by the correctional courts 
under the provisions of Articles 25, 26, 34, and 
35, the association established for religious wor- 
ship in the building where the offense has been 
committed shall be held civilly responsible. 

General Regulations. 

Article 37.— Article 463 of the Penal Code and 
the law of March 26, 1891, are applicable to all 
cases in which the present law imposes penalties. 

Article 38. — The religious congregations re- 
main subject to the laws of the 1st of July, 1901 ; 
the 4th of December, 1902, and the 7th of July, 

Article 39. — Young men who as theological 
students have secured the exemption provided by 
Article 23 of the law of July 15, 1889, shall con- 
tinue to benefit thereby conformably to Article 
99 of the law of the 21st of March, 1905, upon 
condition that at the age of twenty-six years 
they shall have obtained employment as a minis- 



ter of religion and be paid by an association for 
religious worship, subject to conditions which 
shall be imposed by a public administrative regu- 

Article 40. — During eight years, beginning with 

the promulgation of the present law, ministers 

of religion shall be ineligible to membership in 

the municipal council of the communes where 

■ they exercise their religious functions. 

Article 41. — The sums made available each 
year by the suppression of the budget of religious 
worship shall be divided among the communes in 
proportion to the quota of the tax on unim- 
proved lands, which shall have been assessed 
upon them during the year preceding the promul- 
gation of the present law. 

Article 42. — Provisions of law, relative to the 
existing public holidays, shall remain in force. 

Article 43. — A public administrative regula- 
tion, to be drawn up within three months after 
the promulgation of the present law, will pre- 
scribe the measures proper to assure its enforce- 
ment. The conditions in which the present law 
shall be applicable to Algeria and the colonies 
will be determined by public administrative regu- 

Article 44. — Are and remain abrogated all en- 
actments relative to the public organization of 

religions previously recognized by the state, as 
well as all enactments contrary to the present 
law, and notably: 

1. The law of the eighteenth germinal year X, 
providing that the convention ratified the 26th 
messidor, year 9, between the Pope and the 
French Government, all the organic articles of 
the said convention, and of the Protestant de- 
nominations, should be executed as laws of the 

2. The decree of the 26th of March, 1852, and 
the law of the 1st of August, 1879, concerning 
the Protestant demominations, 

3. The decrees of the 17th of March, 1808; 
the law of the 8th of February, 1831. and the 
ordinance of May 25, 1844, concerning the Jew- 
ish religion. 

4. The decrees of the 26th of December, 1812, 
and of the 19th of March, 1859. 

5. The Articles 201 to 208, 260 to 264, and 294 
of the Penal Code. 

6. The Articles 100 and 101, paragraphs 11 
and 12 of Article 136, and Article 167 of the law 
of the 5th of April, 1884. 

7. The decree of December 30, 1809, and 
Article 78 of the law of January 26, 1892. — New 
York Times. 




iW£^^i y 

-Adapted from New York American. 





THAT the horrible Hindu practice of 
suttee — the voluntary burning to death 
of a widow on the funeral pyre of her dead 
husband — has not yet been entirely stamped 
out by the British Government in India, was 
shown in this newspaper last May. 

Correspondence from Lucknow gave a graphic 
account of the agonizing death in this manner of 
the fanatical young widow of Chaudrhi Missir, a 
rich merchant of Bombay, wliile a multitude of 
adherents to the ancient religion applauded with 
shouts of: 

"Sati! A good wife! Blessed is Chaudrhi 
Missir ! " - 

Now comes in the latest mail from Calcutta 
the news, illustrated by photographs, that the 
English officials are equally powerles^s to wholly 
end the sacrifice of human lives to that even 

more revolting Hindu religious practice of which 
the great Carof Juggernaut is the sjfmbol. 

The cumbersome car, having sixteen wheels, 
weighing a score of tons and carrying a revolting 
image of Vishnu, the ' ' Lord of the World, ' ' still 
rolls over the roads between city and temple on 
thirteen festal days in each year, and in spite 
of all the vigilance of British officials its Wheels 
crush out the lives of human devotees. 

At the latest of these Juggernaut Festivals, 
held in Serampore, no fewer than thirty fanatics 
deliberately cast themselves beneath the wheels, 
which left a bloody trail, even as in the old days 
before British rule. 

Thirty Crushed by Juggernaut. 

It was a strange accident — regarded in the 
light of a miracle — which so excited Hindu de- 
votees that the authorities present were unable 
to prevent their self-sacrifice to Juggernaut. 

The British magistrate ,was present to see that 
the law was obeyed, demanding the instant stop- 
ping of the car when any fanatic threw himself 



in its path. It was raining: and the road was 
slippery. Just as the pistol shot was fired per- 
mitting the car to start, the magistrate slipped 
and fell in front of the car, which passed entirely 
over him before it could be stopped. 

To the amazement of the "natives," the mag- 
istrate picked himself up unhurt ! He had had 
the presence of mind to roll between the wheels, 
and the body of the car was high enough from 
the ground to do him no injury. 

For a moment there was dead silence in the 
multitude, then a great shout went up: 

"The Lord of the World disdains the infidel. 
Only the faithful will he accept ! ' ' 

Contrary to the magistrate's orders the car 
was started again. A fanatic, crazed with joy 
over Juggernaut's disdain of the hated English 
officer, threw himself under a front wheel of 
the heavy car, shrieking: 

' ' Lord of the World, roll over me ! " 

There was a crunching of flesh and bones, and 
the devotee was a nameless thing of blood and 
dust in the car's wake. 

Before the authorities could check the car's 
progress thirty of the multitude had met, eagerly, 
a like fate. 

Worshiped for a Thousand Years. 

At Serampore, only a few miles up the Hooghly 
from Calcutta, there is a gigantic temple dedi- 
cated to the great god Juggernaut. Here the god 
— a mere abortive log of wood, without even a 
semblance of arms or legs — sits in state with his 
brother Balbhadra and his sister Subhadra — 
likewise crude lumps of timber of enormous an- 
tiquity, for the Lord of the World has been 
worshiped here for a thousand years, and his 
priests are numbered by tens of thousands all 
over Hindustan, from the stupendous range of 
the Himalays down almost to the coral strands 
of Ceylon. 

We have all read in our school books of the 
bloody wake of the Juggernaut Car — how the 
ponderous wheels left a trail of writhing and 
mangled corpses for many miles, and how India 's 
millions, men, women and children, counted it 
the highest honor to have their wretched lives 
ground out of them by the ' ' God in the Car. ' ' 

The Juggernaut Festival, however, was one of 
the first things upon which an austere British 
Government put its ban, and ever since the great 
Indian mutiny of 1857 the Serampore people, as 
well as other cities sacred to the god, have been 
required to give due notice of a Car Festival, in 
order that the British police magistrates and 
other officials may be present to prevent the ap- 
palling sacrifice of human life which formerly 
marked these processions. 

There is not in all the world a spectacle more 
opulent and gorgeous than that of the Jugger- 
naut procession in Serampore. Picture to your- 
self a vast horde of Hindus of all castes, from 
princely maharajahs on state elephants, draped 
with cloth of gold, down to the humblest half- 
starving peasant, who will offer up his all before 
the sinister shrine of the god and come away in 

beggary, so that he probably perishes by the 

The air is riven with throbbing drums and 
screaming pipes, and the eyes blinded with rain- 
bow colors, while nostrils and eyes are clogged 
with pungent dust raised by millions of feet — 
feet of pilgrims and elephants, state camels and 
prancing Arab horses, bullocks and water buf- 

Details of the Ceremony. 

A movement in the Great Wheel of Vishnu, in 
the temple top, tells that the high priest is about 
to bring forth the trinity of gods. Amid deafen- 
ing acclamations you see the three misshapen 
logs grotesquely streaked with white to repre- 
sent features, brought forth on thrones of gold. 
Before them go high dignitaries with vast fans 
of peacock feathers. The cortege moves toward 
a high dais, and here the idols are invested* with 
a panoply of scarlet and gold. They are cere- 
moniously washed in water from the Holy 
Ganges, and offerings are literally showered — 
not at their feet, for they have none, but by the 
side of their pendent arms of solid gold, which 
are hooked on at this stage of the proceedings by 
the high priest himself. 

After the bathing ceremony and the general 
adoration of the vast multitude, great Juggernaut, 
with Balbhadra and Subhadra are somewhat un- 
ceremoniously hauled up into the towering cars. 
Some of these are of enormous antiquity and re- 
semble nothing so much as immense temples on 
wheels. One of them is nearly sixty feet high, 
and rests upon sixteen enormous wheels, each 
of them nearly eight feet high, and apparently 
hewn from a mighty tree many ages ago. For 
this gorgeous, barbaric ceremony has gone on 
without a break for seven centuries. 

Tier above tier the great cars rise. There are 
bands of savage music on the lower balconies. 
Suddenly there is excitement among the throngs, 
and some of the Thousand Priests of Juggernaut 
come forth with bamboo cables and hand these 
over to the Hereditary Haulers of the Cars, who 
are a sect apart, and live on the fat of the land 
during the fortnight fair, or mela. 

The cables are quickly hitched to the tri- 
umphal cars, and nearly 4000 men attach them- 
selves. For, as you might suppose, it is the 
privilege of a lifetime to assist in putting the 
god in motion as he journeys forth from the 
Temple to his country house, three or four miles 
away in the tiger-infested jungle. 

But suddenly, just as the foremost car rocks 
into motion, stern, white-clad figures step for- 
ward and address a few words to the priests in 
fluent Hindustani. These are the police magis- 
trates entrusted with the preservation of order 
during the festival. But what can a handful of 
white officials do among perhaps a million crazed 
fanatics, who are convinced that now they have 
washed away in the sacred tanks their past sins, 
that they are in the presence of the Master of 
Creation, the Lord of the World himself, mighty 
Juggernaut, who has the power of life and death 
absolutely -over the world's population? — New 
York American. 












Between Sex and Duty. 





'■ "■•'{ ; 

' k\\ . '■ 

AS THE sphere of occupation for women erable ehan|?es are being wrofu'ght; th'e sum 
expands — which it does with no mean of whose influence is too broad to be cal- 
pace in these contemporary times — the con- eulated for some tinjC: yet to come, 
flict between the traditional restrictions and 

the modern ambitions constantly widens. ^^ RAYLAN'S SEX KNOWN 

Old limitations of dress and prejudice are Russian Embassy, Convinced That Consulate 
found irksome by increasing numbers of Clerk Was a Woman, Case lIs>. Closed, 

worthy women. Old ideals of conduct, even, It is noteworthy that while the changes 
are being invaded. Social cukoms a^d or- above mentioned are ,'beiil^' wf ough|;'^Jri the 
ganizations are being disrupted, and innum- feminine world, such^,^ striking instaince as 



the following of the obscuration of sex for 
the purpose of accomplishing results impos- 
sible to the sex under normal conditions 
should have occupied public attention. Said 
the New York Herald: 

Washington, D. C. — Positive proof that 
Nicolai De Raylan, the "man-woman," formerly 
connected with the Russian Consulate in Chi- 
cago, who died at Phoenix, Ariz., recently, was 
a woman, has been placed in the hands of the 
Russian Embassy here in a packet of letters re- 
ceived from the authorities of Phoenix by Baron 
Schlippenbach, Russian Consul at Chicago. 
These letters reveal a pathetic death-bed scene, 
in which De Raylan begged for her "wife" to 
attend her after death. Baron Schlippenbach 
said, after reading the letters, that he personally 
was satisfied that the De Raylan, of Chicago, 
and the De Raylan who is buried in Plioenix 'were 
one and the same person. 

According to medical testimony received to- 
day, De Raylan carried the deception of her 
dual personality to the brink of the grave. 
Even the examinations of the physicians to as- 
certain the extent of the disease which ravaged 
her lungs failed to reveal her sex. The bones of 
the upper body, which are usually flat in the case 
of a man and round in women, were found upon 
closer examination after death not to have been 
pronounced either way. 

That De Raylan had long feared a death-bed 
discovery, and had provided against it, was shown 
conclusively by the last words spoken to her at- 
tendants. She told of a promise made with her 
"wife" that they should remain separated until 
death drew near; that in the event of death ap- 
proaching they had promised that if De Raylan 
died first the "wife" was "to wash and dress" 
the body for burial ; that if the ' ' wife ' ' died 
first she had agreed to perform the same office. 
As death drew near De Raylan begged that the 
"wife" be brought to Phoenix. 

In an accompanying letter from the Coroner 
of Phoenix it was stated that De Raylan left an 
estate in Arizona valued at about $1500, in- 
cluding a bank deposit of almost that figure, but 
that after all claims are paid little will remain. 
Baron Schlippenbach said : 

"The De Raylan case is closed. She deceived 
me, just as she did many other people. I confess 
that at the outset her beardless face and woman- 
ly manner caused me some suspicion, but this 
wore away as I saw her perform her daily duty in 
the Consulate. She was admitted to American 
citizenship and appointed a notary public, and 
in other ways fortified herself with evidence that 
she was a man. Her duty in the Consulate was 
faithfully performed. 

"As to the charge that De Raylan was an 
embezzler of funds of her countrymen, I can 
not believe it. I will say, however, that she 
for drawing up legal documents that later came 
was i)erfectly frank about the charges she made 

before the Consul. They were high, and she ad- 
mitted that, but it was strictly a private matter 
between her and those for whom she did busi- 
ness. If they did not want to pay her price they 
could have gone elsewhere. 

"I will add, however, that such documents as 
she drew up were in conformity with the require- 
ments, neat and explicit, and were never sent 
back from Russia for correction, as occurred 
in the case of some documents drawn up by oth- 
ers. I do not think there is anything more to 
add to the case. There is nothing secret about 
it or anything new. I think everything has come 
to light that will help explain it." 


'He' Made Her Jealous to Protect 'His' Secret 
and Led Strange Domestic Life. 

New York, December 30. — A remarkable story 
of the domestic life of Nicholas de Raylan, who 
had three 'wives' and when dead was found to 
be a woman, is told by the New York World, 
which quotes Mrs. Lucy Kwitschoflf, of Paterson, 
N. J. For nearly a year she- lived in the De 
Raylan household and had ample opportunity to 
observe the strange relations existing between 
the beautiful Russian girl, who claimed as her 
husband the secretary of the Czar's consulate in 

Mrs. Kwitschoff was formerly Lucy Ball, and 
is the daughter of Mrs. Robert Collinge, who lives 
in a cottage on the Little Tails Road, near Pater- 
son. Her father, who died recently, was a silk 
manufacturer. Eight years ago she married 
Kwitschoff, who is of a wealthy Russian family. 
In 1902 she obtained a divorce and now supports 
her two children by working as a seamstress. 

It was in the early part of 1902, after being 
compelled to leave her husband, that Mi's. Kwit- 
schoff entered the De Raylan home to do fancy 
sewing. At that time the De Raylans were living 
at 592 California Avenue, Chicago, in prosperous 
circumstances. Besides being secretary of the 
Russian consulate, De Raylan enjoyed the close 
confidence of the consul, Baron Schlippenbach. 

Wife Completely Deceived. 

"When I read several days ago," said Mrs. 
Kwitschoff, yesterday, "of the death at Phenix, 
Ariz., of Nicholas de Raylan, the strange circum- 
stance of my close relationship with the De Ray- 
lans during my year's stay in their home came 
over me with a vividness that for a time un- 
nerved me. Be he man or woman, there never 
was a person whom I respected and admired more 
than Nicholas de Raylan. Now that the discos- 
ure has been made, it seems queer to me that I 
did not myself fathom the mystery of his sex. 
But if this individual could completely fool the 
women he had married as to his true position in 
society, it was not at all strange that I myself 
was deceived. 

"I am convinced that Mrs. de Raylan never 



knew that her husband was a woman. I enjoyed 
her closest confidence for a long time, and when 
I look back over the events of the year I was 
with them the most astounding thing to me is 
the wife's almost insane jealousy of De Raylan. 
It was her belief that his neglect of her was due 
to his infatuation for other women. She loved 
him with a passion that only a Russian woman 
can display, and at times she was half crazed to 
think that the affection De Raylan should have 
lavished on her was showered upon unworthy 

De Raylan Secured Divorce. 

"The Mrs. De Raylan I know was the one from 
whom the supposed husband obtained a divorce 
in 1903. The papers have said that she got the 
decree. This is not true. De Raylan brought the 
suit and won it on the ground of cruelty, and I 
was a witness of the specific act that proved the 
culminating point in their married life. The year 
following the divorce De R.aylan married Annie 
Davidson, a New York chorus girl, I believe. She 
is the one who claimed the body upon his death 
from tuberculosis. Of her I know nothing. 

"The woman who thought that she was the 
wife of the dapper little secretary was one of 
the most beautiful I have ever met. She was a 
.veritable Juno, magnificently proportioned and 
with a wealth of golden hair. As a rule women 
do not rave over their kind, but of this girl I 
must say she was a splendid creature — one that 
any man would be proud to call his wife. When 
I became a member of the household I was as 
much impressed with the dainty femininity of 
the husband as I was with the grand womanly 
qualities of the wife. 

"Nicholas De Raylan was pretty — that is the 
only word that adequately describes him. He 
did not weigh over one hundred pounds, he had 
fair skin and black, curly hair. His feet and 
hands were small, small even for a woman. In 
fact, he was the personification of all that was 
exquisite — that is all, excepting his habits. In 
that regard he was fully a man. He had all the 
manly attributes. He drank, he smoked, he 
swore, and — sad to relate — he stayed out late o' 
nights. This latter habit was the one that got 
him in the greatest trouble with his wife. 

Never in Public Together. 

"I had not been with the De Raylans long be- 
fore I noticed that there were some queer things 
in their domestic economy. The couple appeared 
very loving, but on the husband's part it was 
all on the surface. It was not long before Mrs. 
de Raylan began to pour her troubles into my 
ears. I sympathized with her, of course, but 
deep down in my heart I had a feeling for the 
husband — a feeling that there was a mystery 
about him that caused him to be unhappy. And 
then, in the last months of my stay there I began 
to feel sorry for him because of the abuse that 
his jealous wife heaped upon him. 

"One thing that I noticed was that De Raylan 
never took his wife out with him. They never 

appeared in public together, and Mrs. De Raylan 
told me that during their married life they had 
never been the companions that husband and 
wife usually are. With tears in her eyes, she 
one day took me to her husband's room and, 
throwing herself on the bed, cried out between 
her sobs that in reality she had never been a 
wife to the man she loved above all others in the 

Strange Ante-Nuptial Pact. 

"When her grief had subsided, Mrs. de Ray- 
lan confided to me that before the marriage cere- 
mony her husband told her that he was a sufferer 
from consumption. He compelled her to agree 
that she would never incur danger of contracting 
the disease by becoming any more than his wife 
in name only. Mrs. de Raylan said that even 
the knowledge that the man she loved was 
doomed to an early death did not deter her from 
marrying him. Although De Raylan really did 
die of tuberculosis finally, it is quite certain that 
he did not have the disease at the time he mar- 
ried. Yet it was by constantly impressing upon 
his wife the danger of her being infected through 
contact with him that he kept her from discover- 
ing his secret. 

"The room that De Raylan occupied was like 
a lady's boudoir. He had a dresser upon which 
were all the accessories dear to the feminine 
heart. His underclothing was of dainty material, 
generally in blue and pale pink colors. In dress 
he was immaculate. All his clothing was made 
by fashionable tailors. He had a nippy little 
walk and a soft, gentle voice that was poetry in 
itself. As I picture him in my mind's eye I can 
not help thinking what a pretty little woman he 
would have made if he had dressed the part. 
, When I was in the family he was twenty-four 
years old; Mrs. de Raylan thirty-four. 

Vices Aided in Deception. 

"It would seem that the wife would surely, 
have discovered the masquerade, yet there was' 
one thing which I am sure tended largely to 
keep Mrs. de Raylan ignorant of the true staff 
of affairs. That was De Raylan 's mode of living. 
I myself was sorely puzzled by the evidence 
constantly brought to my eyes that the husband 
was something of a fake. In fact, his habits 
were deplorable. He went the whole gamut of 
'wine, women and song' with a vengeance. Mrs. 
de Raylan complained bitterly to me that her 
husband was in the habit of meeting other 
women. 'He will not live with me as his wife,' 
she said to me once, 'but he goes out every 
night and meets women that are as the ground 
beneath my feet. ' 

"Mrs. de Raylan was the very acme of the 
jealous wife. For hours she used to tell me of 
her suspicions of her husband's conduct, and she 
was always laying traps to catch him in a com- 
promising position. On several occasions she 



compelled me to ring up De Raylan at the con- 
sulate and pretend that I was a girl seeking 
to make an engagement with him, and I would 
disguise my voice, give myself a fancy name, 
and try to get De Rylan to commit himself. 
All the time the wife would be listening with 
me at the receiver. His replies were always of 
an innocent nature and showed evident aston- 
ishment. In thinking the matter over I have 
come to the conclusion that much of Dfc Raylan 's 
apparent wickedness with other women was for 
the purpose of keeping up the deception with his 

"But that De Raylan stayed out late at night, 
that he would come home intoxicated, and that he 
would swear like a pirate upon occasions there is 
no doubt. It was very seldom that he spent an 
evening with his wife. His usual time for get- 
ting in was around 1 or 2 o'clock in the morning. 
Often he would reel up the stairs intoxicated. 
Then he would come in for a typical wifely lec- 
ture. However, the next day the couple would 
be as loving as eVer. He always kissed his wife 
good-by, although I noticed that he never was 
nearly as affectionate toward her as she was 
toward him. 

Served in Spanish War. 

"Some nights after De Raylan had gone, his 
wife would put on her best clothes and go out 
herself. She would often say to me that as her 
husband would not take her with him she had 
to go out once in a while to have a good time 
herself. She took delight in leaving the house 
upon thfc rare occasions when she knew that lier 
husband intended to stay at home. Then he 
would come to me and ask me if I knew where 
she had gone. He always appeared very anxious 
about her. 

"While De Raylan was very friendly with 
Baron Schlippenbalh and a certain Russian 
prince, who was in Chicago at the time, he never 
had any male friends other tlian them at the 
house. Where he spent his evenings was a mys- 
tery to his wife. He was a member of the Chi- 
cago Hussars, a showy cavalry company, and 
rode a horse like a Cossack. His favorite was 
a large black mare, and he made a splendid figure 
whenever he got in the saddle. I know that De 
Raylan served in the Spanish War as I have seen 
documents and medals that proved it. I was 
always suspicious that he was connected with 
the Russian secret service, and I think it prob- 
able that his work in that direction was one of 
the reasons for the concealment of the fact that 
he was a woman. I also have reasons to believe 
that certain prominent Russians in Chicago knew 
the secret. 

She Beat Her "Husband." 

"Mrs. de Raylan would never tell me her past 
history or how she came to marry her husband. 
Her only explanation of that to me was that 
she loved him so. Only once did I ever hear 
lier refer to his effeminate habits. One morning 
after he had been out unusually late the night ■ 

before she sneered about his custom of taking 
baths in perfumed water. He was a very light 
eater. For breakfast he always wanted little 
cakes and cocoa. 

"During the last few months of my stay at 
the house Mrs. de Raylan began to grow abusive 
toward her husband. She seemed to resent more 
and more his neglect of her. She was not the 
kind of a woman that could stand that kind of 
thing very long. The climax came one morning 
when in going into his room after his departure 
she found something that seemed proof to her 
that her husband was unfaithful. That night 
when De Raylan came home there was a terri- 
ble scene. The wife lost control of her temper 
and laid violent hands upon her husband. She 
beat him cruelly and he never even attempted to 
defend himself. When it was all over I cried 
for sympathy for him. 

"His wife's attack upon him was the direct 
cause of De Raylan leaving her. I remained at 
the house only a few days after the scene I 
have described. I visited Mrs. de Raylan several 
times after that and frequently saw De Raylan 
upon the streets. After leaving Chicago a year 
ago I lost track of them until I read of his, or 
rather her, death." 


Accused of Being a Man in Disguise He Takes 
Poison and Dies. 

Another instance of sex disguise, not so 
logically explicable as the above, was told 
as follows in the Philadelphia North Amer- 

Berlin. — A remarkable story comes from Bres- 
lau. A teacher of that city a short time ago 
went to Paris to perfect himself in the French 
language. While there he made the acquaint- 
ance of a woman named Dina Alma de Paradea. 
The woman said she was from Brazil, and the 
daughter of the French Consul there. She wore 
magnificent jewels, and was altogether charm- 

The Breslau teacher fell in love with her, they 
were engaged and the happy teacher returned to 
Breslau to make preparations for their marriage. 
Dina Alma arrived at Breslau shortly afterward 
and took up her abode in a fashionable pension- 
nat there. She went about with her fiance mak- 
ing purchases for their future home. In some 
unexplained way, however, the people of the pen- 
sionnat began to have misgivings about Dina 
Alma. Like Charley's Aunt, who was also from 
Brazil, she was not what she seemed, and the 
suspicion that she was a man in woman's clothes 
was strengthened. She was accused of false 
pretences. Dina Alma tliereupon took poison and 
in a few minutes was dead. Her hair, bust and 
hips were all false. 

The police took charge of the case, and dis- 
covered that Dina Alma was the son of a phy- 



A Study in Cause and Effect. 

— Chicago Tribune 



sician who used to practice in Berlin, and was 
35 years old. He had been knocking about 
Europe for years, and was believed to be touched 
with insanity. The magnificent diamonds were 
all false. 



Fled to Escape Marriage and Fight in Lodging 
House Reveals Sex. 
Over in the Old Country, where conven- 
tionalities of sex are far more imposing than 
in America, there has been a third sex dis- 
guise case, described as follows in the St. 
Louis Globe-Democrat: 

Madrid. — Truly an amazing story is that of 
Senorita Esperanza Vasquez, a wealthy mer- 
chant's daughter, who, after being missed for 
three months, was found masquerading as a male 
tramp, and is now a nun in a convent. She is 
only 19, and her father is a leading citizen of 
Santander. The senorita was carefully brought 
up and educated. She is a tall, good-looking and 
finely formed girl, who was known as a regular 
daredevil and the heroine of many merry es- 
capades. With men and women alike she was 
intensely popular. 

One night three months ago the Vasquez man- 
sion was ablaze with light, as a grand ball was 
being given to celebrate the betrothal of the 
Senorita Esperanza and the Senor Pablo y Cerda 
of Bilboa. The next morning the senorita was 
missing. Day after day passed and there was 
no word of her; no clew by which her where- 
abouts coujd be discovered. She had simply van- 
ished. It was known in the family that she did 
not take kindly to her lover or the thought of 
marriage. Rivers and ponds in the neighbor- 
hood were dragged; a general police alarm was. 
sent out, and finally a reward was offered for 
news of her. 

For several weeks the girl's disappearance was 
the sensation of the district. Then her discovery 
caused an even greater sensation. Disguised as 
a man, she was found in a tramps' 'refuge,' a 
type of lodging house run by the municipality of 
Paula Christina, in a district of Madrid. Clad in 
rough men's clothes, the girl had been a lodger 
for three days. On the night before her discov- 
ery a dispute arose between her and a burly 
giant, the bully and terror of the place. The 
bully struck her, knocking her senseless. 

When the police rushed in a doctor was sent 
for, and thus it was found that the tall, comely 
lad was in reality a girl. Then it came out that 
she was the much-sought Esperanza Garcia 

The girl was reconciled to her family and her 
lover pleaded for an immediate marriage, but, 
instead, the senorita has just taken the veil in 
the Hermanas de Caridad Convent in Madrid, 
and swears she will spend her life as a Sister of 
Mercy, tending the poor and nursing the sick. 

Constitution Silent on Subject, So Governor 
Makes Miss Stubbs State Statistician. 
Closely akin to sex masquerading, because 
of the assumption it involves of functions 
hitherto regarded as exclusively male, is the 
following incident from Indiana, described 
in the New York "World : 

Indianapolis. — For the first time in the history 
of Indiana a woman is holding an elective State 
office. This pioneer among her sex is Mary A. 
Stubbs, 25 years old, who is named by Governor 
Hanly to succeed her father, the late Joseph H. 
Stubbs, as chief of the State Bureau of Statistics. 

The appointment seems to meet with general 
approval, though it was unexpected, and was 
not made until the Governor and the Attorney- 
General had canvassed the question of a woman 's 
constitutional eligibility to the oflBce. While the 
Indiana constitution says every county officer 
must be a voter, there is no such provision with 
reference to State officers. There appearing to be 
no legal reason to bar Miss Stubbs' appoint- 
ment, she was chosen over Edgar Goodnow, the 
second deputy statistician, who had been an active 
candidate for the place.' 

There were other considerations which weighed 
in Miss Stubbs' favor with the Governor. She 
got out, as deputy, the last report during her 
father's illness. She was qualified to take charge 
of the work. Moreover, her father, who was re- 
cently re-elected, paid his part of the expenses of 
the last campaign, and died practically in the 
midst of his office life. All these things were 
remembered in the appointing of Miss Stubbs. 

Now the interesting question comes up — can 
Miss Stubbs be elected to the office when her pres- 
ent term expires ? Her first work as chief of the 
office was to arrange to hai'e the annual report 
out in good time for the Legislature. 


No Prejudice Against or Preference for Them in 
the Department. 
A little further away from the masquerad- 
ing above alluded to, but still within the 
sphere once regarded as masculine only, is 
the situation of woman as set forth in the 
following from the New York Sun : _ 

Washington, D. C. — So many conflicting re- 
ports have been circulated as to the status of 
women in the postal service that Fourth Assist- 
ant Postmaster-General Degraw has prepared a 
statement defining the attitude of the Depart- 
ment toward the appointment of women. The 
Department wishes the announcement to go forth 
that there is no truth in the report that women 
will be favored to the exclusion of men. Nor is 
there any basis in fact for the statement that 
women will not be appointed at all when men can 
be secured. The fourth assistant brands as a 



canard the story that no married woman "will be 
appointed at all. He refused to discuss the 
rumor that seems to have gone everywhere that 
preference would be shown to women who were 
separated from their husbands. 

The records show that at the end of the fiscal 
year, June 30 last, 309 women, or 25.85 per cent 
of the total number of clerks in the Department 
in Washington, were women. The salaries they 
received ranged from $240 to $1800 a year. The 
average clerical salary of the women is $440.40, 
against $1256.28 for men, and the average subor- 
dinate salary, $402.71, compared with $686.23 for 
male employees. 


Ardent English Suffragist Says Electoral Move- 
ment Is Hopeless Here. 

While woman graduates into the business 
■world to the degree above indicated, it is of 
striking interest to note the following in re- 
gard to her political matriculation. The item 
is from the Chicago Inter-Ocean : 

New York. — After a week's investigation of 
the suffrage movement in this country. Lady 
Cook, one of the ardent supporters of the suf- 
fragists of London, who prefers prison to live 
without a vote, says American women do not 
wish the ballot. 

"It is apparent," said Lady Cook, "that 
American women are satisfied to rest content 
with privileges granted their sex through per- 
sistent warfare carried on by Susan B. Anthony, 
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, my sister, Victoria 
Woodhull Martin, and myself. 

"English women are away ahead of them in 
demanding the greatest right that has yet to 
be granted them. Suffrage is assured in Eng- 
land, and within less than another year women 
there will hold the right of the ballot. 

"The movement has grown so magnificently 
in England I thought I would come over and 
use my influence and money in rousing interest 
to the same heights of success in this country. 
But I am discouraged and disappointed. So far 
as I can see, the suffrage movement in America 
is sleeping or taking an indefinite rest. 

"If women of this country desired suffrage, 
they could have it quicker than it takes to talk 
about it. American women possess the power 
to obtain anything they wish. Just now they 
are apparently content with enjoying privileges 
which have come to them in the past twenty-five 
years. They seem to be satisfied that they have 
all rights of their brothers, save the ballot, which 
were denied them under penalty of law and social 
ostracism a quarter of a century ago. 

''Women appear to be almost dizzy with the 
independence of pleasure they now enjoy be- 
cause of. the great prosperity now sweeping over 
the nations of the world. They seem to be bent 

on enjoyment, and serious thinking and work 
done by women of the pioneer reforms are much 
less noticeable to-day. I have investigated the 
movement in this country, and am told it has no 
leader, no spirit, and that there is no incentive 
to work. 

"Just see what the women are doing in Eng- 
land," said Lady Cook, bringing her hand down 
enthusiastically on a gold embroidfered sofa pil- 
low. "You will notice I wear no jewels — not a 
single diamond. The best women in England, 
of rank and title, as well as the great army of 
working women, are working unanimously for 
suffrage, and I tell you they are going to get it. 

"You see, behind this movement are so many 
other interests, principally the betterment of the 
working classes. Annie Kenny, leader of the 
labor cohorts, is one of the greatest women I 
have ever known. She is willing to be arrested 
many times over rather than give up the work. 
She holds a following of 90,000 girls and women, 
and her influence is tremendous. 

"English women are tired of being fooled. 
Men told them last year that if they could con- 
trol the labor vote they would grant them suf- 
frage. When the women this fall put the mat- 
ter up to certain members of Parliament who 
had professed a sincerity of interest, men would 
not listen to them, but if approached on the sub- 
ject would say, suavely, 'Won't you come out 
on the terrace and have a cup of tea?' Women 
are tired of tea and weary of promises. They 
want men to do the right thing by them now. 
You understand there are more than 400 men 
who favor suffrage, and I think the battle is 
nearly won. 

"The suffragist movement at present repre- 
sents in the neighborhood of 500,000 active sup- 


"Painted, Powdered, Padded, Dyed, Frizzled 
Creatures," She Declares. 

Doubtless one of the reasons for woman's 
endeavor to get away from her traditional 
life and its attributes may be inferred from 
the truth which many women feel lies in the 
following indictment by Marie Corelli, as 
reported in the New York World : 

London. — Marie Corelli, though her profound 
contempt for man in every respect remains un- 
diminished, does not believe in woman suffrage. 
She claims that she can now direct fifty men's 
votes at election in any way she chooses, but 
she says that that power would be destroyed if 
she had her own. 

"If," she says, "woman has as the natural 
heritage of her sex the mystic power to per- 
suade, enthral and subjugate man, she has no 
need to come down from her throne to mingle in 
any of his political frays." 



She scoVes woman remorselessly for, allowing 
herself to be given away in fashion papers. 
"There," she says, "man sees woman as the 
fool rampant. She is depicted as semibald, 
holding her wig in one hand, ready to put it on. 
She is shown in a half-nude state, very thin 
and scraggy, but again unblushingly holding , 
artificially moulded plump portions of her body 
which nature failed to supply, in readiness to 
fasten over the hollow places. She is exhibited 
plainly and pitilessly as a swindle. 

"Do women imagine that men never look at 
such papers? Never perceive the bold, promi- 
nent challenge of these degraded advertisements, 
which instruct them as to what a painted, pow- 
dered, padded, dyed, frizzed, shameless creature 
a woman may be, and often is? 

"A casual study of our modern ladies' pic- 
torials will convince the most optimistic male 
supporter of women's rights that a majority of 
the fair sex are not as yet any way fitted for the 
franchise. ' ' 


Like Those of Bible Times, They Press Husbands 
to Gratify Expensive Tastes. 
Another aspect of the same situation as 
Marie Corelli denounced is reflected in the 
following from the same paper: 

Cincinnati, Ohio. — Several preachers at a re- 
cent meeting of the Cincinnati Presbytery criti- 
cized women for selfish, lazy, luxurious habits and 
inclinations; church members for jealousy and 
backbiting, and the general public for indifference 
to religious preaching. 

Professor Selby F. Vance, of Lane Seminary, 
this city, the oldest theological institution of the 
Presbyterian Church in the West, said : 

"Women to-day are like those women of Bible 
times, who crushed the life and soul of their men 
to get more jewels and rich raiment to decorate 
their persons. There is not a particle of differ- 
ence in that respect. They lead luxurious, sel- 
fish lives and press their husbands to extremes 
to secure the money to gratify their expensive, 
idle, worse than useless tastes. I blame not only 
the women but the men and the world generally 
for these conditions, and I hold you ministers 
personally responsible according to the light you 
have. ' ' 


Legislative League Would Divorce State and 
Municipal Issues. 

Notwithstanding the discouraging view of 
the women's suffrage movement in America 
as reported by the Englishwoman in an item 
printed above, incidents such as the follow- 
ing, given in the Philadelphia North Amer- 
ican, serve to show that American women are 

far from losing interest in practical political 
participation : 

Philadelphia. — Not content with electioneer- 
ing and fighting shoulder to shoulder with the 
men in the campaign for good government, the 
women of Philadelphia are preparing to sup- 
port the effort to obtain the passage of a law 
to secure the separation of State and municipal 

Convinced that the simultaneous elections 
helped to defeat the City party's candidate for 
District Attorney in November, they are work- 
ing vigorously to obtain legislation changing 
the dates of either of the elections. 

The Legislative League, an organization de- 
voted to the study of laws and their bearing upon 
woman's interests, is at the bottom of this move- 
ment. Having been informed of the true state 
of affairs, and realizing the peril that lies in 
organization victories such as that of Novem- 
ber, the members of the league inaugurated an 
educational campaign to become better acquainted 
with the laws on the subject and secure profes- 
sional opinions upon them. 


Illinois Official Appoints Wife, Who Will Take 
Up Duties Shortly. 
Another proof of the same fact is afforded 
in the following from the Chicago Record- 
Herald : 

Nashville, 111. — -August H. Cohlmeyer, Sheriff 
of Washington County, has appointed his wife as 
his chief deputy. The appointment means that 
Mrs. Cohlmeyer will be required to perform the 
duties usually incumbent upon a male deputy, 
and she is preparing to act in her official capacity. 
This is the first time in the history of Washing- 
ton County that a woman has been appointed 
to this position, and it probably has no precedent 
in Illinois. 


Science Says the Feminine Brain, Body, and 
Intellect Are Steadily Growing Bigger. 

If woman is to increase her political par- 
ticipation, it may be important to determine 
the truth of such a contention as is set forth 
in the following from the New York Amer- 

When a man — a physician and an acknowledged 
authority on physiology — admits that his own 
sex, both physically and mentally, must soon 
yield the palm to women, the matter assumes an 
importance worthy of the most serious consider- 
ation. Indeed, the mind can scarcely conceive 
the consequences of this assertion upon the des- 
tiny of mothers and, therefore, of the whole hu- 
man race — if it be an established truth. 

That man — who is quoted below from a lecture 
recently deliyered in London — is the distinguished 



physiologist, Alfred Taylor Schofield, M. D., 
member of the British-Association, author of sev- 
eral books on physiology, hygiene, etc., and an 
officer in many societies for the promotion of 
education and health in the United Kingdom. 

"Women are just beginning theii* race. Men 
have pretty well finished theirs. 

"We have all noticed how, in the last genera- 
tion or two, woman has outstripped man in phys- 
ical development. Among the educated classes 
where the essentials for health are understood 
and practised the average grown daughter of to- 
day is taller, stronger, and more active than was 
her mother at her age, and a genuine Amazon 
compared with her great-grandmother. 

"In the last generation the average man has 
shown no improvement, either in body or brain — 
he seems to have reached his limit at a time 
when the average woman is just beginning to 
realize the superior potentialities of her sex. 

"Already the woman's brain is slightly greater 
in proportion. Certainly it is not less. Fifty 
years hence it will be admitted that woman's 
brain has developed faster than man's. 

"Nevertheless there are essential differences 
between the minds of men and the minds of 
women. Anything in the nature of rivalry be- 
tween them is fallacious and absurd. Women's 
minds are much better for some kinds of work, 
and men's for other kinds. 

"But the brain work of women is being con- 
stantly better done, with prospects of being done 
still better, while that of men shows little or no 


New York's Unique Institution Where Young 
Women Learn to Make Things. 

The education of women for occupations 
less strictly sexlike is constantly broadening. 
Witness the following, as described in the St. 
Louis Republic: 

New York.— The Manhattan Trade School for 
Girls is now open, and visitors are given an op- 
portunity of inspecting the new school building, 
as well as of seeing the results of the pupils' 

The School, which is unique, in that it is the 
only one of its kind in the country, is conducted 
for the purpose of helping girls to help them- 

Every bit of the instruction is practical. Girls 
go there to learn a trade, and they learn it with- 
out annexing any ideas that discontent them with 
the prospect of working with their hands and 
cause yearnings for impossible careers. 

There are four departments in the School, and 
these four include the actual trades at which 
women are employed. They are dressmaking, 
millinery, machine work, and pasting, and by 

the time a girl has graduated in her department 
she is ready to take a position as an experienced 
worker, commanding good wages, instead of hav- 
ing to begin at the bottom and work her way up 
slowly and patiently. 

Up on the top floor, in an enormous room, 
there are one hundred and twenty electric-power 
sewing machines. Here the girls are taught hem- 
stitching, chain stitching, and embroidering. The 
operators of the button-holing machines spin off 
buttonholes at the rate of goodness knows how 
many a minute. 

Down in the pasting-room — and, by the way, 
one doesn't realize what an important trade that 
of pasting is until such an exhibition is seen — • 
there are small girls busy with gluepots and 
brushes and material, turning down corners and 
making neat edges with wonderful skill. 

On the walls are sample cards, laces, and rib- 
bons and silks; beautifully put together, blotting 
pads, memorandum books of leather and leather- 
ette, book covers and the daintiest boxes covered 
with silks and other fabric in the most delicate 
colors, each one not only perfectly made, but 
without any appearance of having been handled. 


Chicago Housekeepers Alone Might Save $200,- 
000,000 a Year. 

Chicago housekeepers waste nearly $200,000,- 
000 every year. The exact figures, taken from 
commercial reports and the percentage of waste 
calculated by domestic-science experts, show that 
$193,140,000 is lost annually by careless buying, 
unscientific cooking, and other domestic extrava- 

The School of Domestic Science sums up the 
causes under several heads. Among these the 
half-dozen following are selected by the Chicago 
Tribune as the most prominent : 

1. Buying provisions by order and telephone 
instead of seeing them. 

2. Buying prepared foods. 

3. Buying fruits and vegetables out of season. 

4. Taking goods as offered by dealers instead 
of insisting on quantities, brands, and cuts 

5. Loss on weight, wrappings, and attractive 
glasses, cans, et cetera, in which food is put up. 

6. Lack of expert knowledge of cuts of meat 
and of how to cook least expensive things to 
bring out food values and good taste. — New York 


Protective Statutes in Various States Said to be 
on the Decline. 

"During the past eleven years in three states 
the laws have gone back in regard to women," 
said Mrs. Florence Kelly, vice-president of the 
National Women's Suffrage Association, in a re- 
cent address in Pittsburg. "Before that time 



Illinois had a law restricting women to eight 
hours' work a day, but. in 1895 the Supreme 
Court decided the law was not constitutional, and 
now they work any number of hours. In Chi- 
cago, since that decision, girls were kept working 
in a laundry for twenty hours a day, and during 
the last hour of that time five of the girls fainted 
and one of them died. This was in August when 
the weather was very warm. 

"In 1903 New Jersey repealed a law that had 
been in force for eleven years, and which for- 
bade women or minors to work in factories after 
6 o'clock or after noon on Saturdays. Now if 
a women is over sixteen she may work any num- 
ber of hours. 

"Within the past two weeks in New York the 
Supreme Court has held unconstitutional the law 
prohibiting women and minors from working 
after 9 p. m. in factories. This law had been in 
force for twenty years. Now any girl over six- 
teen can be compelled to work all night, and it 
frequently happens that they work until 2 o 'clock 
in the morning during the rush of getting out 
the big New York magazines. There the police- 
men are promoted for the number of arrests they 
make, regardless of convictions, and there girls 
are exposed to the indignity often of being ar- 
rested as suspicious characters while they wait 
for the cars on the street. 

' ' During these same years that the protection 
of the working woman has gone backward, the 
voting miners in Colorado, Utah, Montana, Idaho, 
and Missouri have obtained an eight-hour-day 
law for themselves put into the constitutions of 
their states; and last year the state of New York 
altered its constitution- to provide that any con- 
tractor working for the city or for the state is 
bound by the eight-hour law. 

"Could anyone wish," said Mrs. Kelly, "for 
a more glaring object lesson than these facts of 
the value of the ballot for the wage earner, 
whether a- man or a woman?" — Pittsburg Dis- 


Stockholders Fear Cost of Living Stops Best Re- 
sults; Offer Lease. 

Occasionally an effort to differentiate be- 
tween sexes in the ordinary affairs of life 
is started with much eclat. But usually it 
reaches the end illustrated in the following 
from the Chicago Tribune : 

New York. — Stockholders of the Martha Wash- 
ington Hotel in East Twenty-ninth Street voted 
recently to lease the hotel, subject to the ap- 
proval of the Board of Directors. It was a 
merry meeting, according to one of the stock- 
holders. "It should go down in history as a 
battle of tongues," he said. 

There were few men present. Mere man was 
at a discount, and the execution of polite and 

cutting phrases was frightful. The dictionary 
was cut to pieces and retired in short order. 

As far as might be gathered by an intruder, 
the war was civil and was waged by two fac- 
tions, one of. which declared the management was 
'stingy' and another that declared there was a 
deplorable lack of public spirit on the part of the 
regular boarders, who objected to the prices and 
bought their teas outside. 

The discussion of the cost of living in the 
Martha Washington disclosed the fact that 
prices had gone up all along the line since the 
hotel first was opened in 1903. The price of the 
cheapest room, it was said, had gone up several 
dollars a week, and half portions cost almost as 
much as whole ones used to, and, to make it all 
worse, the guests had deserted the American- 
plan dining room in such numbers that the room 
was closed some time ago. 

The faction that decried the guests who dined 
outside pointed out that the hotel always is full 
and that a 'better class' of guests is coming in 
all the time. This brought out the suggestion 
that the Martha Washington had outlived its 
usefulness, since it had become too expensive for 
the women of moderate means for whom it was 
designed, and it was proposed to .sell the prop- 
erty and put up elsewhere on a less costly site 
a similar hotel. This latter proposition was left 
for the consideration of the Board of Directors. 

During the discussion Doctor Huntington, of 
Grace Church, declared it must be confessed that 
the original plan of the hotel — a place for pro- 
fessional women of moderate means and for 
transients unattended by their men folks — had 
failed, since in order to run the hotel without a 
loss it had been necessary to raise the prices be- 
yond the means of the class it sought to provide 


Bohemian Weekly in Chicago Handled Editorially 
and Mechanically. 

A Bohemian newspaper 'manned' entirely by 
women is one of the triumphs of enterprise that 
Chicago boasts. Women prepare the copy, set 
the type, read the proof, arrange the makeup, 
solicit the advertising, and manage the circula- 
tion without even the assistance of a masculine 
printer's devil. 

Whatever their appearance, however, their 
method of conducting their business is far from 
'feminine' in the usual acceptation of the word. 
Miss Milly R. Hlina, 336 West Eighteenth Street, 
and Mrs. Rose A. Kabat, 385 West Sixteenth 
Street, are the publishers. Mrs. Bessie Pavlik is 
the managing editor. 

Each has her definitely defined duties and the 
last named of these remarkable women makes 
extensive and carefully planned tours about the 
country in her capacity of circulation manager. 

The only men that it numbers on its books are 




-Chicago Tribune. 



subscribers. Of these there are a goodly num- 
ber — and this, too, notwithstanding the paper is 
published for, as well as by, women. The men, 
furthermore, do not apologize for buying the 
paper by saying they get it for their wives, but 
openly take it in their own names by the year. 
Every Saturday evening the inch and poor, the 
high and low between Thirteenth and Twenty- 
second Streets, Ashland Boulevard, and Halsted 
Street are in possession of this woman's maga- 
zine. On its mailing lists are distinguished Bohe- 
mians all over the country. 

The paper is not exactly such as one would 
expect soft arms, gentle voices, and feminine 
brains to frame. It contains no beauty lessons 
nor household hints. There are no discourses on 
love nor favorite recipes. Its aim, on the other 
hand, is to further woman's suffrage, to uplift 
tlie mental attitude of the working woman. Most 
of its subject matter is devoted to these sub.iects ; 
these and the dignity and the desirability of 
work for women, the blessedness of cheerfulness, 
the obligation for educating children, the moral 
value of honesty and bravery, and the duty of 
making home pleasant and agreeable. 

It hasn't particularly up-to-date offices for a 
paper advocating such exceedingly advanced 
views, nor particularly dainty ones from such 
delicate types of femininity. They are contained 
in a single room composing, printing, editorial, 
and business departments, and the printets' ink 
is much in evidence. The type is set by hand 
and the presses are run by the same means. 

It is believed thar this is the only newspaper 
in America on which all the work is done by 
women. Such a newspaper was published in 
Paris, however, for a year. It was called La 
Fronde and was a feminist sheet which, under 
the leadership of Marcelle Tinayse, the famous 
French woman novelist, was a leader in the fight 
for advanced views for women, but it languished 
and perished after the novelty had worn off. — 
Chicago Tribune. 



Mrs. Francis Has Offered it to the Highest 

Richmond, Va. — Mrs. M. L. Francis, who has 
offered to sell her brain and body at death to 
universities and colleges in this city, Philadel- 
phia, Chicago, and New York, if she can realize 
siifHcient money to provide for the rest of her 
life, said that she had been driven to make the 
proposition by poverty. 

Mrs. Francis first made her offer to hospitals 
in Richmond, but all declined to purchase. She 
says she is willing to sign papers bequeathing 
her brain or her body or both to that university 
or college that will pay at once the highest cash 

Mrs. Francis, who is more than forty years 
old, is the fourth wife of her husband, who was 
incapacitated for work several years ago by an 
accident and is now practically helpless. The 

woman is broken in health and entirely depend- 
ent upon the small pay she receives as a clerk 
in a department store. She says she had heard 
that students of medicine had only the bodies of 
criminals and paupers to work upon, and it oc- 
curred to her the big universities might pay con- 
siderable for the brain of an intelligent person. 

Mrs. Francis says she recently read of one of 
the universities offering $10,000 for the head of 
a certain person, and she would sell hers for that 
sum. She is refined and cultured and has evi- 
dently known affluence. 

"Yes, I want to sell my brain," said Mrs. 
Francis, "and I don't see why the colleges don't 
want to buy it. I need money and I need it 
badly. I have been working for some tim